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On July 26, 2010, a 59-year-old male volunteer fire chief (victim 1) and a 67-year-old male volunteer fire fighter (victim 2) died from injuries sustained after they were ejected when their engine was involved in a crash and rolled over.
Failure of the motorist to yield the right-of-way to an approaching emergency vehicle with audible and visual signals in use.
Failure to ensure that all approaching vehicles had yielded the right-of-way before advancing through an intersection.
Ensure that written standard operating procedures (SOPs) regarding seat belt use are established and enforced.
Ensure that fire fighters use extreme caution while responding through intersections by coming to a full stop before entering a negative right-of-way intersection (red light, flashing red light, or stop sign) and by accounting for all lanes of traffic before proceeding through the intersection.
Consider rollover protection for the crew areas of fire apparatus when upgrading or purchasing new apparatus.
Consider the use of intersection control devices on emergency vehicles and selected traffic lights.
Continue to improve fire apparatus safety standards and designs for increased crashworthiness of compartments for fire fighter survivability in rollover crashes. Continue to evaluate apparatus seating and seat belt design to ensure that riding positions and seat belts are comfortable and effective for fire fighters wearing personal protective equipment. On July 26, 2010, a 59-year-old male volunteer fire chief (victim 1) and a 67-year-old male volunteer fire fighter (victim 2) died from injuries sustained after they were ejected when their engine was involved in a crash and rolled over while responding to an emergency. The state of Virginia criminal and traffic law, chapter 8, article 2, section 46.2-8291, describes the right-of-way requirements for approach of fire fighting vehicles.
The victimsA’ department is a volunteer department with 2 stations and 26 members, serving a population of approximately 12A–14,000 residents within an area of about 20 square miles, and responds to approximately 350 emergency incidents per year. All fire department apparatus are maintained by the department and are checked twice per month for safe operating conditions.
The fire department has written policies and procedures, which are available to all department members within their stations.
The victimsA’ fire department requires members to attain a minimum level of training, consisting of Fire Fighter I, within 1 year of membership. The table lists the training and experience of the primary fire fighters involved in the incident. Note: Both victimsA’ training records met the criteria for National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1001 Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications2, which requires completion of Fire Fighter I and Fire Fighter II courses. The engine involved in this incident was a 1988, 1,250-gpm custom engine with a 1,000-gallon water tank (see Photo 1 and Photo 2).
There were no recorded or reported complaints from members of the department regarding braking, steering, or performance with the engine. The timeline for this incident is limited to the initial response of the apparatus to a mutual aid structure fire on July 26, 2010. 1630 Hours Engine involved in a rollover crash with 2 civilian vehicles at an intersection. The fire truck was traveling downgrade toward a traffic light-controlled intersection on a four-lane state highway with a posted speed limit of 35 mph. At the time of the crash (approximately 1630 hours), the weather was clear with an approximate temperature of 90°F. On July 26, 2010, a 59-year-old male volunteer fire chief (victim 1) and a 67-year-old male volunteer fire fighter (victim 2) died from injuries sustained in a fire engine rollover crash, responding to a mutual aid residential structure fire.
A county fire marshal was responding with lights and siren to the same mutual aid structure fire, traveling east on the same road just ahead of the victimsA’ engine.
The engine had traveled approximately 1.8 miles when it encountered the red light at the intersection. Occupational injuries and fatalities are often the result of one or more contributing factors or key events in a larger sequence of events that ultimately result in the injury or fatality. According to the medical examiner, the cause of death for each victim was blunt force trauma.
Recommendation #1: Fire departments should ensure that written standard operating procedures (SOPs) regarding seat belt use are established and enforced. Discussion: The fire department involved in this incident had a verbal policy that required all fire fighters to use their seat belts but did not have a written standard operating procedure (SOP) requiring the use of seat belts.
Fire departments should develop, train upon, and strictly enforce (at all levels of the organization, from the apparatus driver and fire fighters riding in the apparatus, to the officer on the apparatus and chief officer levels) SOPs on the use of seat belts.
The state of Virginia criminal and traffic laws, chapter 10, section 46.2-1094, requires occupants of the front seat of a motor vehicle to wear the appropriate safety belt system at all times while the vehicle is in motion on any public highway. Recommendation #2: Fire departments should ensure that fire fighters use extreme caution while responding through intersections by coming to a full stop before entering a negative right-of-way intersection (red light, flashing red light, or stop sign) and by accounting for all lanes of traffic before proceeding through the intersection.
Discussion: While the goal of any fire department responding to an emergency is to get there quickly, if the apparatus does not arrive, the initial goal of responding is negated. The International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) has developed a guide for writing policies and procedures for emergency vehicle safety.10 One of the areas noted in the guide is a policy for emergency response through intersections and how departments can improve emergency vehicle safety.
A“If necessary, due to traffic conditions or visual obstructions, the emergency vehicle driver shall cross the intersection in stages, treating each lane as a separate intersection. During this incident, the fire engine was approaching an intersection with a red light in their direction. Discussion: To maximize fire fighter safety as well as the safety of the traveling public, fire apparatus must be equipped with the latest safety features and operating capabilities. Fire departments should consider upgrading older fire apparatus in accordance with NFPA 1912 Standard for Fire Apparatus Refurbishing11 and retire or replace older apparatus in accordance with current standards such as NFPA 1901 Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus.12 Fire departments should also consider retiring apparatus sooner if the apparatus becomes obsolete or unreliable due to age or use.
In this incident, the fire truck was a 1988, two-door, open jump-seat custom chassis that met all the minimum requirements for fire truck safety standards and design in effect on the date of manufacture.
Recommendation #4: Fire departments should consider rollover protection for the crew areas of fire apparatus when upgrading or purchasing new apparatus.
In this incident, the driver and the passenger were not wearing seat belts and were ejected.
Motorists should be aware that multiple emergency units may be passing through an intersection and not assume that just because one emergency unit has come through the intersection, another one will not be following the first. Recommendation #6: Municipalities and authorities having jurisdiction should consider the use of intersection control devices on emergency vehicles and selected traffic lights.
Discussion: Electronic traffic control devices can allow approaching emergency vehicles to change the intersection lights from a red signal to green in their direction of travel, providing an intersection right-of-way that increases safety when crossing intersections.
In this incident, the driver of the sport utility vehicle had a green light and reportedly did not see or hear the approaching fire engine. Since this incident, the community has raised $233,000.00 to date in a memorial fundraiser to equip all emergency vehicles and traffic signals with the devices needed to allow emergency vehicles to change traffic signals from some 800 feet away when approaching intersections.



Recommendation #7: Fire apparatus manufacturers, researchers, and standard setting bodies should continue to improve fire truck safety standards and designs for increased crashworthiness of compartments for fire fighter survivability in rollover crashes.
Discussion: The minimum requirements for crashworthiness in rollover incidents should be improved to increase the survivability of fire fighters involved in rollover crashes. In this incident, the fire truck was a 1988, two-door, open jump-seat custom chassis that met all of the minimum requirements for fire truck safety standards and design in effect on the date of manufacture. Recommendation #8: Fire apparatus manufacturers, researchers, and standard setting bodies should continue to evaluate apparatus seating and seat belt design to ensure that riding positions and seat belts are comfortable and effective for fire fighters wearing personal protective equipment. Fire apparatus manufacturers, researchers, and standard setting bodies should also continue to evaluate apparatus seating and seat belt design to ensure that riding positions and seat belts for those positions are sized to accommodate fire fighters clothed in personal protective gear and the seat belts are easy to wear and effective. This incident was investigated by Stephen Miles, Safety and Occupational Health Specialist, and Matt E.
Mention of any company or product does not constitute endorsement by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), an institute within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is the federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ONLINE SPECIAL YES- We can help with Finance YES - We can trade in your vehicle YES - We want your business.
The engine, with its lights and siren activated, was responding to a mutual aid residential structure fire.
The department sends the apparatus to a truck maintenance facility for annual safety inspections and oil changes. Policies and procedures on emergency vehicle operations, incident command structure, and SCBA and turnout gear use were in place. Driver operators must have a minimum of 1 year of experience, complete Fire Fighter I and Emergency Vehicle Operators Course (EVOC), and pass a road test supervised by the chief of the department. The fire department purchased this pumper as a used vehicle from another department approximately 10 years prior to the incident.
The driver (victim 1) and the passenger (victim 2) responded to the station to pick up the engine and had driven approximately 1.8 miles when the crash occurred.
The fire marshal stopped at the red light and then successfully traveled through the intersection in the direction of the response (see Photo 3). The engine entered the intersection and was struck on its left rear side by an SUV that was entering from the north (left) side of the intersection. He stated during interviews that he was one of the first emergency responders on the crash scene and, after arriving, he provided emergency medical care to victim 1 who still had a pulse but was unresponsive and suffering from a head wound and general trauma. Intersection where crash occurred (same direction of travel as incident apparatus, eastbound). Both victims, one being the chief of the department, were not wearing seat belts at the time of the crash. The SOPs should apply to all persons driving or riding in all emergency vehicles, and they should state that all persons should be seated and secured in an approved riding position before the vehicle is in motion. To increase the use of seat belts by fire fighters, the National Fire Service Seat Belt Pledge Campaign was created.7 The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, United States Fire Administration, International Association of Fire Chiefs, National Volunteer Fire Council, NFPA, and National Fallen Fire Fighters Foundation all support the campaign as a method of raising awareness of the importance of mandatory use of seat belts by all fire fighters. The section does give exceptions for law enforcement officers in certain circumstances, rural mail carriers, waste collection vehicles, and utility meter reader vehicles. The emergency vehicle shall not enter the intersection until all approaching traffic has yielded the right-of-way and it is safe to proceed.
The driver shall stop the vehicle, as necessary, to ensure that each lane may be crossed safely.
One emergency vehicle had just passed through the red light in the same direction, and the light was reported to still be red for the fire engine. In the last 15 to 20 years, much progress has been made in upgrading the safety features and capabilities of fire apparatus. Many features are available that can add to the safety of fire fighters involved in crashes. Many departments respond with multiple emergency vehicles out of a single fire house, and civilian traffic must use caution and proceed only when the emergency vehicles have cleared the intersection and all lanes of traffic are accounted for and it is safe to proceed. One emergency vehicle had just passed through the red light in the same direction, 5A–10 seconds prior, and the light was reported to still be red for the fire engine. The electronic preemptive devices have a transmitting device on the emergency vehicle and a receiver mounted on or near the traffic signal.
The sport utility vehicle was second in line to cross the intersection and entered the intersection on a green light and after the first emergency vehicle had successfully passed through the intersection. Minimum cab roof strength should be reviewed and evaluated with other protection systems to prevent cab intrusion into the passenger compartments. The nature of the custom fire apparatus cab makes it much stronger in rollover than typical conventional commercial cabs. There are both mechanical and electronic devices available that will measure the lateral acceleration of a vehicle. Many custom fire apparatus manufacturers offer side air bags or curtains that inflate during a roll event and that are usually combined with seat belt pretensioning devices and suspension seat pull-down devices.
This technology electronically senses the lateral acceleration of the vehicle and takes action by depowering the engine and applying the brakes if the vehicle approaches a roll threshold.
ESC uses a steering wheel position sensor, a vehicle yaw sensor, a lateral accelerometer, and individual wheel brake controls in conjunction with the antilock brake system (ABS). While the design and features of the vehicle are important to safe driving, the most important aspect of crash prevention is the skill and experience of the operator. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is currently funding a study on A“Collection of Anthropometric Information on Fire Fighters for Fire Apparatus Design and Standards UpdateA” to collect measurements on fire fighters and to utilize this data to analyze different body shapes in the design of fire and rescue equipment and cab design in the apparatus.
Bowyer, General Engineer, with the NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program, Surveillance and Field Investigations Branch, Division of Safety Research, located in Morgantown, WV. A technical review was also provided by the National Fire Protection Association, Public Fire Protection Division.
In addition, citations to Web sites external to NIOSH do not constitute NIOSH endorsement of the sponsoring organizations or their programs or products.
In 1998, Congress appropriated funds to NIOSH to conduct a fire fighter initiative that resulted in the NIOSH A“Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention ProgramA” which examines line-of-duty-deaths or on duty deaths of fire fighters to assist fire departments, fire fighters, the fire service and others to prevent similar fire fighter deaths in the future. We are LOCATED in Newcastle in the suburb of NEW LAMBTON 100 meters from West Leagues Club at 223 Lambton Rd New Lambton.
The crash occurred when the engine entered an intersection with a red light and was struck by a sport utility vehicle. Fire Administration notified the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of this incident.


Note: The fire marshal told NIOSH investigators that he was 5A–10 seconds in front of the victimsA’ engine, and he estimated that the engine would have caught the same red light as his vehicle. The engine struck the curb on the south (right) side and then rolled over; both victims were ejected.
The medical examiner noted that the fatal injuries for both victims were injuries from ejection and, although it is uncertain if either of the men if restrained by seat belts would have survived, they would have had a greater chance of survival. Although there is no evidence in this incident that the nature of the emergency call (house fire with an explosion, heavy smoke and fire) had an effect on the decision to not use the seat belts, dispatch data or radio traffic can lead to an increase in adrenalin, which can cause responders to skip important safety steps such as using seat belts and A“driving with due regard.A” Training on SOPs should reinforce the need for drivers and fire fighters to recognize when an increased adrenalin response (caused by radio traffic or dispatch information) may cause them to inadvertently omit an important safety step, such as the use of seat belts. The emergency vehicle driver shall ensure that all approaching vehicles in all lanes have yielded the right-of-way before advancing. The sport utility vehicle that struck the fire engine was second in line of the cross street and had a green light to enter the intersection. Significant improvements in fire apparatus safety have been the standard since 1991, and fire departments should consider the value (or risk) to fire fighters of keeping pre-1991 fire apparatus in first-line service. Many of the new rollover protection components are integrated systems designed to increase protection for the fire fighters riding inside the apparatus. The driverA’s seat and passenger seat lacked a mechanism to automatically retract the seats down, and the cab roof was not strong enough to prevent the intrusion into the driver and passengerA’s compartment.
The state of Virginia criminal and traffic law, chapter 8, article 2, section 46.2-829, describes the right-of-way requirements for approach of fire fighting vehicles. The civilian SUV that struck the fire truck was second in line of the crossing traffic, and the vehicle in front of the SUV had made it across the intersection. The driver possibly did not anticipate another emergency vehicle coming through the intersection.
Rollover fatalities and injuries in the fire service may be reduced by increasing the crashworthiness of fire apparatus.
There is much anecdotal evidence to indicate that the crashworthiness of a typical custom fire apparatus cab is significantly greater than a typical commercial cab, and most custom chassis manufacturers can provide test data on cab integrity.
Although these devices will not prevent rollover, they can be used effectively as a driver training tool to indicate when the vehicle is approaching the roll threshold and as a reminder to the driver that excessive lateral acceleration can lead to a rollover event. This option can reduce injury during a rollover as long as the occupants are seated and belted. The effectiveness of this product is limited to events on relatively flat pavement, since it cannot do much to help the situation once a vehicle is off the road and leaning into a ditch.
The system tracks the direction that the driver intends to steer and uses brake application at individual wheels to help straighten out the vehicle.
The operatorA’s attitude, training, experience, qualifications, and the application of those qualities are the most important elements in crash prevention. The agency does not enforce compliance with State or Federal occupational safety and health standards and does not determine fault or assign blame.
Toyota Landcruiser GXL FACTORY TURBO DIESEL 100 series, 5 Speed Manual 8 SEATER with airconditioning, power steering, power windows, ABS brakes, Dual AIrbags, Bull Bar, Tow Bar, Snorkel, Side Steps, alloy wheels with excellent tyres, window tint, fog lamps, rego untill August 2014, FULL LOG BOOK SERVICE HISTORY with stacks of service reciepts and it is ABSOLUTELY IMMACULATE. On August 10A–13, 2010, a general engineer and a safety and occupational health specialist from the NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program traveled to Virginia to investigate this incident.
The engine had an automatic transmission, diesel engine, air-actuated drum brakes with no auxiliary braking devices, and two axles with six wheels (two in the front and four in the rear). The fire marshal did not see the SUV strike the engine, and he was not aware of the crash until he heard a dispatch for a motor vehicle accident involving a fire truck that was dispatched at 1633 hours. The engine rested on its top facing northwest and impacted a car in the opposing lane (see Photo 4). During interviews, fire fighters reported that the chief (victim 1) was known for using his seat belt and encouraging other fire fighters to use theirs.
Strengthened cabs, combined with roll protection systems that sense the moment a vehicle is in a side roll, provide passenger protection through air bag systems and automatic seat belt pretensioners that retract the seat downward to increase the clearance between the fire fighterA’s head and the ceiling of the apparatus and therefore improve survivability.
The right-of-way article states, A“Upon the approach of any emergency vehicle A… giving audible signal by siren, exhaust whistle, or air horn A… and displaying a flashing, blinking, or alternating emergency light or lights A…, the driver of every other vehicle shall A… drive to the nearest edge of the roadway, clear of any intersection of highways, and stop and remain there A… until the emergency vehicle has passed. Some electronic preemptive systems have a flashing flood light mounted in the intersections that can warn vehicles an emergency vehicle is approaching the intersection from a different direction, either toward the vehicle or from the side.
If the traffic signal had a preemptive device, it could have turned the opposing signal lights red and cleared the intersection for the fire engine. The NIOSH investigators interviewed the acting fire chief, town manager, and assistant town manager. Note: If two or more emergency vehicles are approaching the same intersection from different directions, the signal will only preempt the first signal received and wonA’t preempt the additional signal(s) until the first signal is through the intersection or turned off. Under its program, NIOSH investigators interview persons with knowledge of the incident who agree to be interviewed and review available records to develop a description of the conditions and circumstances leading to the death(s).
The NIOSH investigators also met with a representative of the Virginia Department of Fire Programs and spoke with the Virginia State Police. Coming to a complete stop where there are any intersection hazards and proceeding only when the driver can do so safely can reduce crashes and risk of injury or death.
The ECE standard was established in 1958, while the SAE standards did not add performance criteria until 2003.
The NIOSH investigators visited the incident scene and conducted interviews with officers and fire fighters of the involved department, the county coroner, and the director of the surrounding county department of fire and emergency medical services.
The water tank was inspected at the townA’s storage facility and appeared intact, although the configuration of the tank baffles could not be verified at the time of the inspection.
ONLY CONDITIONS TO THIS FANTASTIC WARRANTY IS THAT THE VEHICLE MUST BE SERVICED EVERY 10000 klms, BY ANY LICENSED MECHANIC IN AUSTRALIA. The NIOSH investigators examined and photographed the fire engine involved in this incident at the townA’s secure storage facility. The NIOSH report's summary of the conditions and circumstances surrounding the fatality is intended to provide context to the agency's recommendations and is not intended to be definitive for purposes of determining any claim or benefit. The NIOSH investigators reviewed the fire departmentA’s standard operating guidelines, the victimsA’ training records, and dispatch audio tapes.
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