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The suspension or chassis is not something to neglect because it supports your vehicle and affects steering, handling, braking, tire wear and ride. So here are some of the things you should inspect or check on your vehicle's steering and suspension when doing brake work, changing tires, exhaust repairs or an oil change.
Toe wear can produce a feathered wear pattern across both front tires and sometimes shoulder wear on the inner or outer edge of both tires.
If toe wear is accompanied by steering looseness or steering wander, there is a very good chance the tie rod ends are worn. Camber wear causes uneven wear on one side of a tire may show up when control arm bushings have collapsed, ball joints are loose, a spindle or strut is bent, or a strut tower is out of its normal position (due to factory misassembly, collision damage, body sag or severe corrosion). As a rule, tie rod ends should show no visible vertical or horizontal play during the dry park check.
The inner tie rod sockets on rack & pinion steering gears are enclosed in bellows, making them difficult to inspect. With reciprocating ball steering systems, pay close attention to the amount of play in the idler arm.
Steering effort on both manual and power systems should be checked with the weight of the vehicle on the wheels. If the fluid is badly discolored (dark brown with a burnt smell), the fluid has been overheated and is oxidized.
Some hissing noise is normal with most power steering systems, but excessive noise may indicate a bad check valve.
Check the wheel bearings for play before proceeding on to the ball joints, because play here can mimic loose suspension parts and contribute to steering wander and instability. Start by raising the wheels off the ground and spinning each wheel by hand to check for roughness or noise in the bearings. To check wheel bearing play, grasp the wheel at the top and bottom, then try to rock it back and forth by pushing in with one hand while simultaneously pulling outward with the other hand.
Serviceable wheel bearings on older vehicles should be removed, cleaned, inspected, repacked with fresh grease (new grease seals, too!) every 30,000 miles for preventive maintenance.
If a sealed bearing and hub assembly is loose, feels rough when spun by hand or is making noise, it needs to be replaced.
If the ball joints have built-in wear indicators, joint play should be checked with the weight of the vehicle on the wheels. On rear-wheel drive applications with SLA suspensions where the spring is on the lower control arm, modified strut suspensions which also have the spring on the lower control arm, and front-wheel drive wishbone strut suspensions where the spring is on the strut, but the strut is connected to the lower control arm, the lower ball joints carry the weight and must be unloaded to measure play.
With MacPherson struts, the strut supports the load, so the lower ball joints are unloaded. To check rear ball joints on a FWD car with an independent rear suspension, raising the wheels and supporting the suspension arms will unload the joints.
Note: All ball joints should be checked prior to lubricating the chassis (if joints are greaseable) because grease may temporarily take up slack in the joint. The amount of horizontal (radial) and vertical (axial) play that is allowed in a ball joint will vary depending on the joint type, location and vehicle application.
Front control arms, as well as rear trailing arms and lateral links, should all be visually inspected for damage or cracks. If ride height is below specification, the springs are sagging and replacement is recommended. WARNING: DO NOT USE OIL, GREASE, ANTI-SEIZE OR LUBRICANTS OF ANY KIND WHEN TIGHTENING LUG NUTS!



CAUTION: Torque specifications for lug nuts are always for CLEANand DRY studs and lug nuts. Wheel studs should be cleaned with a wire brush to remove rust and dirt BEFORE the wheels are mounted. At Tekserve, Michael explained to me that the Mac Pro is designed around a workstation graphics model with dual GPUs, PCIe-based flash storage, 6 high-performance Thunderbolt 2 ports, new-generation Xeon processors, ultrafast memory, and it supports 4K video. I had the opportunity to take a deeper look behind this small, powerful and yes very quiet computer and found out that the new-generation Intel Xeon E5 Processor is available with 4, 6, 8, or 12 cores of processing power.
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How many times have you seen a vehicle broken down on the side of the road with a collapsed suspension because a ball joint failed, or the front wheels are splayed in opposite directions because a tie rod end separated?
Toe wear is usually caused by worn tie rod ends, but may also result from worn or loose inner tie rod sockets on rack & pinion steering gears. Another overlooked cause of camber wear can be a front-wheel drive engine cradle that has shifted out of position to one side. With the full weight of the vehicle on the wheels, have a helper rock the steering wheel while you look for play or looseness in the steering linkage and steering column. While rocking the steering back and forth, watch for strut movement in the strut tower opening. If the bellows are rubber, you can check for looseness by squeezing the bellows and pinching each socket while pushing outward on the wheel or while a helper rocks the steering wheel. Loose, deteriorated or broken mounts may allow the rack housing to move as the wheels are turned. Unusually high effort combined with poor steering return may indicate a weak pump or a worn spool valve in the steering rack.
This can doom the pump and steering gear to premature failure (if they have not suffered damage already). They should also be removed, cleaned and inspected if the vehicle has been in hub-deep water, or if the bearings feel loose or out of adjustment. Ball joints without built-in wear indicators are generally checked by raising the suspension to take the weight off of the joints.
This is done by raising the vehicle and supporting the lower control arms to take the weight off the lower ball joints, then pulling on or prying against the wheel (not the ball joint!) to measure vertical and horizontal play in both the lower and upper ball joints. To check these joints, the vehicle has to be raised and the upper control arms blocked or supported to unload the upper joints. Always refer to the vehicle manufacturer specifications, and use a dial indicator to measure the amount of play unless the joint is obviously shot. This can be done by gently prying against the control arm to see if the bushings allow much movement.
The mountings should be securely attached to the chassis, and the bushings should be in good condition (no cracks, splits, crushing, etc.).


If the vehicle sways excessively, rocks, feels bouncy or otherwise lacks proper ride control, you should recommend new dampers. One is to keep the lug nuts from loosening up and the wheel coming loose, another is to prevent distortion of the brake rotor behind the wheel, and a third is to prevent broken studs. Guyot Bernardo Arocho Jr from┬áBJ’s Technology News Blog recently paid us a visit to check out the new Mac Pro in person, interview our own Michael Truskowski, and review the new workstation from Apple. The Mac Pro is engineered with a single and larger fan that pulls air upward through the bottom intake. Fortunately, these kinds of catastrophic failures don't happen that often, but when they do they can have tragic consequences. If toe wear is accompanied by a steering pull or off-center steering, rear wheel toe alignment or axle alignment may be out of specification. A weak or broken spring can also allow camber changes in the suspension that produce camber wear on a tire. On some vehicles, this can be done by reaching up and rocking the steering column coupling from underneath while the vehicle is sitting on a drive-on ramp style lift.
Other causes of increased steering effort can include binding in the steering rack, improper rack yoke adjustment, and binding in tie rod ends, ball joints or upper strut bearing assemblies. If the bearings are rumbling or clicking, removal for cleaning and further inspection will be necessary unless the bearings are the sealed variety, in which case replacement would be required if they are making noise, loose or rough.
Also, make sure the ball joint is securely attached to the control arm by looking for any signs of movement between the housing and arm.
Then push on or pry against the wheel to measure vertical and horizontal play in the lower ball joints. It is hard to see small but significant differences in ride height side-to-side, and virtually impossible to tell if a vehicle is within the factory-specified ride height dimensions without using some type of measuring device.
For some applications, upgrading to variable-rate springs can provide extra load carrying capacity as well as improved handling when pulling a trailer. As air passes vertically through the center of the device, it absorbs heat and carries it out the top of the device. We just linked the file or embed from Youtube then display them here to make visitor easy to find it.
We took this picture from the net that we consider would be one of the most representative photos for human heart tattoo design. We had taken this picture on the net that we believe would be one of the most representative pictures for country christmas decorating ideas home. We got this picture from the net we feel would be probably the most representative pictures for cute hairstyles for growing out short hair. The dry park method of checking for looseness is generally the best procedure to use because the weight of the vehicle on the wheels creates resistance that makes it easier to see play.
You can't do this check with hard plastic bellows, so lock the steering wheel with a holder and watch for any in or out movement in the tie rod while pulling and pushing on the wheels.
If the ends of the sway bar are attached directly to the control arms, check to see that the mounting is secure.
If the steering wants to turn to one side when the engine is running, it indicates a problem in the control valve.



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