The copy of earlier insurance policy effectively owns the car until the designated proprietor or driver of the vehicle. There is an app for Apple and the.

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VIN Information: All information pertaining to the vehicle is kept in a database using the vehicle’s VIN number.
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Before you drive off, make sure you have all the necessary paperwork completed to buy the car. Negotiating with Checklists can be the easiest and most effective method because you can use your findings with the lists as leverage.
These 2 questions can save you a lot of money by the time it comes to negotiate the final price. This revolutionary system can help you reduce the selling price of a car without any prior negotiating skills! The Dealership Phone Log is designed to gather crucial information about the car as well as the dealership and their habits. This will help you to decide which vehicles to look at and can be used later during price negotiations if needed. The name given to fault codes or trouble codes that are read by counting flashes of the Check Engine light or ABS warning light. A large heavy wheel on the end of the crankshaft that helps the engine maintain momentum when the clutch is engaged.
An expansion plug located in the side of an engine block that is supposed to protect the block against freeze damage. A registered trademark of the DuPont Corporation for their family of CFC refrigerants, which includes R-12.
A means of driving a vehicle by applying engine power to the front wheels instead of the rear wheels.
A method of fuel delivery whereby fuel is sprayed into the intake manifold or intake ports through a nozzle. Refers to fuel mixture adjustments made by the ECM or PCM in response to engine operating conditions.
A fuse is a protective link in a wiring circuit that is designed to burn out in case of an overload. A type of shock absorber that is pressurized with nitrogen gas to reduce internal foaming and cavitation. When condensation builds up inside a fuel tank during the winter, water sometimes gets into the fuel line where it freezes in the low spots.
A type of fuel injection system that sprays fuel directly into each of the engine's cylinders under extremely high pressure (up to 2200 PSI or higher). A gas that contributes to a gradual warming of the Earth's climate (Global Warming) as a result of increased heat retention.
A phenomenon in which voltage is generated by the action of a magnetic field acting on a thin conducting material, commonly used to control the primary circuit of an electronic ignition system. The name given to either of the two driveshafts that run from the transaxle to the wheels in a front-wheel drive vehicle.
A system that maintains intake air at a more or less constant temperature by blending outside or underhood air with heated air picked up from a shroud over the exhaust manifold. A channel in an intake manifold through which exhaust gas flows in order to heat the manifold, thus aiding in fuel vaporization. A control valve between the exhaust manifold and exhaust pipe on one side of a V8 or V6 engine that restricts the flow of exhaust causing it to flow back through the heat riser channel under the intake manifold. A temperature-sensitive carburetor valve that opens when the inlet air temperature exceeds a certain level.
A wheel that is centered or located on the hub by a machined center hole, as opposed to "lug centered" wheels that are located by the position of the lug nuts alone. The large hex nut on the outer end of a front-wheel drive halfshaft that holds the shaft within the wheel hub. An electrically-operated valve which allows air to bypass the throttle plate in a fuel injected engine to regulate engine idle speed.
A plastic device pressed over a carburetor's idle mixture screw which limits the amount of adjustment available during service.
An electromagnetic device mounted on carburetor linkage that maintains the proper throttle opening for specified idle speed while the ignition is on, but allows the throttle to close farther when the ignition is switched off. A pivot point in a parallelogram steering system that follows the motions of the pitman arm.
The component in the ignition system that turns low voltage into high voltage to fire the spark plugs.
An anti-theft module that disables the ignition if an attempt is made to start the engine without a computer-coded key or fob. The component in a diesel or gasoline fuel injection system that squirts fuel into the engine. A heat exchanger that is added to a turbocharged engine to cool the air after it leaves the turbo. When you drive over a bump and the suspension is momentarily compressed, that is called jounce. A pin that serves as the pivot or hinge for the steering knuckle, used primarily on trucks with I-beam axles and older vehicles that do not have ball joints. The angle formed by a line that runs through the king pin in the steering knuckle on a truck with an I-Beam axle.
Also called axial runout, it is the amount of sideways motion or wobble in a wheel or tire as it rotates. A "Liquid Crystal Display" is a type of electronic display that forms opaque or dull-colored letters or numbers on various backgrounds.
Also called "followers" or "tappets," they are the components that ride on the cam lobes and help "lift" the valves open.
In Clutch Cycling Orifice Tube (CCOT) systems, the line connecting the evaporator to the orifice tube. A type of electronic EGR system that uses a small motor to move the EGR valve's pintle in small steps, which provides precise control of gas flow. An evaporative emissions system component mounted above the fuel tank that prevents liquid gasoline from entering the vent lines. A type of nut that is used to prevent another nut or threaded component from loosening and backing off.
A special kind of oversized shock absorber that is used as part of the vehicle's suspension.
The "Check Engine" on the instrument panel light that comes on when the onboard diagnostic system detects a fault.
The amount of vacuum created in the intake manifold by the pumping action of the engine's pistons.
Refers to a manifold absolute pressure sensor, a variable resistor used to monitor the difference in pressure between the intake manifold at outside atmosphere. When you step on the brake pedal, it pushes a piston inside the master cylinder which produces hydraulic pressure inside the brake system. Mounting a tire on a rim so the low spot of the rim lines up with the high spot on the tire. A type of strut suspension where the coil spring is mounted between the lower control arm and chassis instead of around the strut. Acronym for "Motorist Assurance Program," an organization that has developed voluntary uniform inspection guidelines and a code of ethics for the auto repair industry.
Abbreviation for Multi-port Fuel Injection, a type of fuel injection system that has one injector for each engine cylinder.
The lifeblood of the engine, it not only lubricates the engine but also cools the crankshaft bearings and pistons. Onboard Diagnostics II, A second generation emissions diagnostic system required on all 1996 and newer vehicles (though some 1994 and 1995 model year vehicles were equipped with early versions of the system).
A condition where the steering wheel is not centered or is crooked when traveling straight ahead. The position of the backside of the wheel center section with respect to the centerline of the rim.
Software in the engine control module or powertrain control module that runs self-diagnostic checks on the control module, sensors and other related systems. Part of some vehicle's evaporative emissions (EVAP) control system, a vapor recovery system traps and stores fuel vapors when the vehicle is refueled. A mode of operation in a computerized engine management system that occurs after a cold start. This refers to a type of engine design that positions the camshaft in the cylinder head over the valves. When the temperature of the coolant exceeds the normal operating temperature range of the engine, it is said to be overheating. A condition where a tire contains more air pressure than the recommended amount for the tire size and load.
A type of shock absorber thati??s equipped with a helper spring to keep the suspension from sagging when a vehicle is heavily loaded. A handling trait wherein a vehicle tends to overrespond to changes that are made in the direction of the steering wheel. A two-way catalytic converter or the chamber in a three-way converter that oxidized unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) to reduce pollution. A gaseous element given the chemical symbol O, and occurring as O2, which makes up approximately 20% of the earth's atmosphere. A component in the engine's computer control system that monitors the amount of oxygen in the exhaust. Destruction of ozone in the ozone layer attributed to the presence of chlorine from manmade CFCs and other forces. A region in the stratosphere 12 to 35 miles up where the air is very cold and thin, and ozone is found in high concentrations. A type of steering linkage that uses a pitman arm, idler arm and center link to steer the front wheels. An emission control device in the exhaust system of a diesel engine that captures particulates before they can enter the atmosphere. The Positive Crankcase Ventilation valve is an emissions control device that routes unburned crankcase blowby gases back into the intake manifold where they can be reburned.
The arm connected to the steering box sector shaft that moves side to side to steer the wheels.
A means of controlling crankcase blowby emissions and removing moisture condensation from the crankcase to prolong oil life. Engine vacuum that is available above the throttle plates of a throttle body or carburetor.
A valve which passes or blocks the passage of vacuum to a vacuum-operated component, such as a distributor advance mechanism or EGR valve. Most vehicles use a vacuum booster to increase the pedal force applied to the master cylinder.
A thrust load applied to a bearing such as a wheel bearings to minimize axial or sideways play.
When an owner of the vehicle has repairs to the vehicle, this goes into the database or when the vehicle has been involved. But how to connect an aftermarket camera without it being a difficult and tiresome process? In the Bundle&Save section you will find kits for various car brands and models that will make your traveling more pleasant and even help you save on your purchases!
By asking open-ended questions, it limits the seller from simply answering with just Yes or No. This is when you look at your phone log to see what the seller’s answers were for the open-ended questions. It goes through the figures in great detail and is to filled out before you enter the finance office.
Also, a signal to a computer that reports on the position of a component, such as an EGR valve. Though not available on some systems, flash codes provide essential diagnostic information for troubleshooting problems. Or, refers to reverse flushing the cooling system to remove accumulated scale deposits and old coolant. All vehicles can benefit from a four-wheel alignment, not just those with front-wheel drive or independent rear suspensions.



Various schemes are used for 4WD including part-time, full-time and variable four-wheel drive. Turning the rear wheels in the opposite direction to the front at slow speeds can allow faster maneuvering and a much tighter turning radius. Water expands when it turns to ice, and if the coolant does not have enough antifreeze protection it can freeze and crack the engine block.
Fuel trim numbers above the zero (neutral) point indicate a lean fuel mixture while negative numbers indicate a rich mixture.
The fuse has a tiny wire inside it that is designed to melt if the current exceeds a certain value.
Considered to be a premium grade shock, gas shocks are often used as original equipment on sports sedans and even mini-vans. Gaskets are used between the various parts of the engine to keep oil, coolant, air and fuel in their respective places. It is a non-renewable resource upon which we are overdependent and for which we will pay dearly if and when supplies run short. Certain gases (primarily carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuel, but also CFCs) increase the retention of heat from the sun in the atmosphere. Halfshafts may be of solid or tubular construction, and of equal or unequal length side-to-side. A typical version uses a vacuum motor to power a door in the air cleaner snorkel, and a thermostatic bleed valve to control the signal to the vacuum motor. These are typically bolt-on springs with a progressive action that do not come into play until the vehicle is loaded or the suspension deflects past a certain point. Invented by James Watt, the term was originally used to describe how much effort a horse exerted when lugging coal out of a coal mine. Most vehicle manufacturers recommend replacing this nut if it is removed for CV joint service. They are called idiot lights because they are for idiots who do not know how to read or understand gauges. It can usually be adjusted by turning a screw on the carburetor throttle linkage, or by turning an air bypass screw on a fuel injection throttle body. When 12-volts passes through the coil's primary windings, it creates a strong magnetic field. The module receives a signal from a magnetic pickup or Hall effect sensor in the distributor. The ignition system has two parts: the primary side (the distributor and electronic control module), and the secondary side (the ignition coil, distributor cap, rotor, spark plug wires and spark plugs).
This angle is measured indirectly and is used primarily to diagnose bent suspension parts such as spindles and struts. A pair of jumper cables are required to connect the terminals of both batteries together (positive to positive, negative to negative).
The latent heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to change a liquid into a vapor. It is usually measured by holding a dial indicator against the face of the rim or tire sidewall. LCD displays are popular for digital dashboards, but they are not as readable in direct sunlight as LED displays. Lean misfire causes one or more cylinders to pass unburned fuel into the exhaust system causing a big increase in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. You will find LEDs used in the center high mounted stop light on many vehicles, and used as indicator lights in some instrumentation. In systems using TXVs (expansion valves), the line connecting the receiver-dryer to the TXV valve inlet.
This information is used by the engine computer to monitor engine load (vacuum drops when the engine is under load or at wide open throttle). Located ahead of the throttle body, the MAP sensor uses a heated wire or filament to measure airflow. The brake fluid reservoir is located on top of the master cylinder, and you will find both mounted on the firewall in the engine compartment on the driver's side of the vehicle. As an engine runs, combustion blowby into the crankcase contaminates the oil with moisture, soot and unburned fuel. A vehiclei??s fuel economy is determined by a number of factors including the size of the engine, the type of carburetion used, the weight of the vehicle, the type of transmission used (manual or automatic), the final drive ratio, the size and type of tires used, tire inflation pressures, aerodynamic streamlining of the body, the driving habits of the driver, the kind of road surface and terrain upon which the vehicle is driven, the speed at which its driven, and environmental factors such as temperature, wind and humidity. This is the government agency that is responsible for making and policing safety rules for all vehicles. The "N" stands for Nitrogen, the "O" for Oxygen, and the "X" is scientific notation for all the various combinations of the two. The OBD II system monitors vehicle emissions, and illuminates the Check Engine or Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) if it detects a problem that causes emissions to exceed the federal limits by 50% or more. The condition contributes to toe wear because anytime the wheels are steered off dead center, they toe out slightly which increases side slippage and scrubbing. It gets past the piston rings and valve guide seals and is burned in the combustion chamber. Most automatic transmissions are equipped with an oil cooler thati??s located inside the radiator. A certain amount of oil pressure is needed to circulate oil throughout the engine and to maintain adequate lubrication.
A small hole (the orifice) allows only a certain amount of refrigerant to pass through the device. Overinflation reduced rolling resistance but also increases ride harshness and the risk of tire damage. The rear end on a vehicle that oversteers will tend to spin around when the vehicle is turned sharply (see Understeer).
Necessary for combustion, and measured by an exhaust analyzer to identify lean fuel mixtures. The layer is thinning because ozone is being destroyed at a faster rate than it is being regenerated by natural forces. The ozone layer is continually replenished by solar radiation and screens out about 95 to 99% of the suni??s ultraviolet radiation. Used primarily on trucks and older rear-wheel cars, the system is so named because the center link always moves parallel to the axle.
When you pull on the parking brake handle or step on the parking brake pedal, it pulls a pair of cables that extend to the rear brakes.
These types of emissions are associated primarily with diesel engines, and can be caused by a misadjusted or mistimed injection pump. The PCV system is one of the oldest emission control devices, and also one of the most beneficial.
Used to advance ignition timing on older carbureted engines when the throttle is opened above its idle position.
The operation of the valve may be controlled by engine temperature or an electric solenoid. Some use a hydraulic power unit that does they same thing with hydraulic pressure rather than vacuum. Causes include engine overheating, spark plugs that are the wrong heat range (too hot), sharp edges on the combustion chamber, low octane gasoline, a lean fuel mixture, or carbon buildup in the combustion chamber.
The amount of preload is critical with an adjustable wheel bearing because too little can contribute to steering wander while too much may cause premature bearing failure.
Lubricating, adjusting and replacing all wear items before they can cause problems contributes to trouble-free driving and longer vehicle life.
Usually used when referring to tire inflation pressures, cooling system pressure or turbocharger boost pressure. AutoCheck provides car facts on what, why, where, when and how about new and used cars of most makes and model. This is also a great way to thank those designers who put in their time and effort to design these amazing templates for you and me.
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Each checklist has a corresponding web page that features picture examples as well as a description of how to use the system.
On carbureted engines without computer idle speed control, a set of cam lobes on the choke linkage provides a fast idle speed (850 to 1200 rpm) during engine warm-up. Flammable refrigerants are considered dangerous because of their risks to service personnel as well as the occupants of a vehicle should there be a refrigerant leak into the passenger compartment or during a collision. To read any codes that may be stored in the control modulei??s memory, the computer system must first be put into a special diagnostic mode by grounding a terminal on the vehiclei??s diagnostic connector.
The rear wheels have just as much influence over directional stability as those at the front, and that is why many vehicles need to have all four wheels aligned. The primary advantage of four-wheel drive is increased traction, which is especially useful for off-road excursions or severe weather driving, but is of little practical value for normal driving. Turning the rear wheels in the same direction as those at the front at high speed allows sudden lane changes with much greater stability. The freeze plugs (there are several) are supposed to pop out under such conditions to relieve the pressure on the block. Depending on how it is refined and what is added to it, the fuel's quality can vary greatly (See Octane and Gasohol). The principle is used in Hall effect crankshaft position sensors and ignition pickups to produce a very clean on-off signal.
To keep the filament from melting, however, the gas mixture inside the bulb is altered slightly by adding a small amount of halogen gas (bromine, chlorine, fluorine, iodine or astatine) and sometimes krypton.
Also called Thermostatic Air Cleaner (TAC).A malfunction that prevents the door from closing can cause hesitation and stumbling when the engine is cold. A heat riser valve stuck open will slow engine warm-up and may cause hesitation and stalling when the engine is cold. Then when the current is shut off (by the ignition module or the opening of the contact points in older ignition systems), the magnetic field causes a surge of high voltage (as much as 40,000 volts) in the coil's secondary windings. The module uses this signal to open and close the ground circuit to the ignition coil to fire the spark plugs. The vehicle is put through a "driving trace" as it accelerates, decelerates and cruises at various speeds. The safest technique is first connect the positive terminals on both batteries to one another, and then to connect the negative terminal on the good battery to a ground (such as the engine block or frame) on the vehicle with dead battery. A wheel with too much lateral runout will wobble back and forth as it rotates creating a shimmy that feels like dynamic imbalance problem.
Hydraulic lifters are hollow and fill up with oil to take up slack in the upper valve train. When the engine is under load, the computer may alter spark timing and the fuel mixture to improve performance and emissions. Multi-port fuel injection is considered to be the "hot" setup because it provides better cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution for more power.
Taking all these into consideration, it is no wonder the EPA says "the mileage you get may vary from the official EPA estimates." See Fuel Saving Tips from the Car Care Council and Advice On Gas-Saving Gadgets.
NOX is formed inside an engine when combustion temperatures exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. The OBD II system also stores diagnostic trouble codes to help technicians diagnose the cause of the emissions problem. The underlying cause of off-center steering is often rear axle or toe misalignment, but it can also be caused by failing to center the steering prior to adjusting toe. If the center is closer to the outside face or front of the wheel, it has "positive" offset. A small amount escapes through the PCV system and a few drops usually managed to seep through a gasket or seal. Since the radiator usually runs close to 200 degrees, the amount of "cooling" this kind of setup provides is questionable. Low oil pressure or loss of pressure is dangerous because it can lead to expensive engine damage. The creates a pressure drop that allows the refrigerant to evaporate inside the evaporator.
On engines that use a rubber belt to drive the overhead cam, the belt usually needs to be replaced somewhere around 60,000 to 90,000 miles (see the owners manual for specific recommendations).
Idling for long periods of time in traffic during hot weather can cause overheating because the waterpump doesni??t turn fast enough to circulate sufficient coolant through the system (put the transmission in neutral and rev up the engine to help cool it off). Located in the exhaust manifold, the O2 sensor resembles a small spark plug on the outside.
The cables work a lever mechanism that binds the rear shoes against the drums, or on rear disc brake-equipped vehicles locks the pads (or a pair of mini-shoes) against the rotor. Besides totally eliminating crankcase emissions as a source of air pollution, the constant recirculation of air through the crankcase helps remove moisture which otherwise would cause sludge to form. Fuel is sprayed directly into the intake port for better cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution and more power. Power brakes require no special maintenance, but if the booster goes bad pedal effort will be noticeably higher. The pressurized fluid is then routed into a cylinder that helps push the wheels one way or the other when the steering wheel is turned.


Regular fluid checks, and fluid and filter changes are the most important items on any preventive maintenance checklist.
And, should you buy a car that has given its previous owner or owners many hardships then you could be heading towards disaster. We are producing our own cables that can be used to connect an aftermarket camera in almost any car. Many problems such as a steering pull to one side, uneven tire wear on the rear tires or poor tracking can be caused by misaligned rear wheels. Because of the added friction in the drivetrain, a four-wheel drive vehicle typically gets significantly lower fuel mileage than a front- or rear-wheel drive vehicle.
Turning the rear wheels in the same direction as the front when parking makes parallel parking much easier.
Raising the rear of a truck increases the frame angle (positive) while lowering the rear decreases it (negative). Freeze plugs can often be a source of troublesome leaks as a result of internal cooling system corrosion. Most fuses are located in the fuse box under the dash, although "in-line" fuses may be hidden elsewhere. Metal gaskets are used between the cylinder head and engine block, and metal or asbestos gaskets are used to seal intake and exhaust manifolds. Tetraethyl lead used to be used as a fuel additive to boost low-grade gasoline to a higher octane rating, but MBTE or ethanol is used now. A valve stuck in the closed position will greatly restrict the exhaust system and cause a noticeable lack of power and drop in fuel economy.
An idiot light won't give you any indication that a problem is developing until it happens. On most late model vehicles, the idle mixture screws have caps that allow only limited adjustment, or they are sealed to prevent tampering. The idle speed is programmed into the computer, and the computer regulates idle speed by opening and closing the idle air control valve. The high voltage passes to the distributor, then on to the spark plugs where it jumps the plug gap and fires the plugs.
The ignition module itself may be located inside the distributor (GM and some imports), on the distributor housing (some Ford applications) or in the engine compartment. Each cylinder has its own ignition coil, or coils are shared between paired cylinders that are opposite one another in the firing order.
The emissions are collected at the tailpipe and analyzed by a computer to computer the total amount of pollutants in grams per mile (gpm) that are being emitted. The final jumper connection usually sparks so keeping the spark away from the discharged battery avoids any danger of blowing up the battery.
Low oil pressure, loss of pressure from the lifters or plugged oil holes in the lifters can result in a "clattering" sound that is referred to as "noisy lifters." Hydraulic lifters do not require periodic adjustment but solid lifters do to maintain the correct amount of valve lash. Some struts have replaceable internal components that can be repaired by dropping in a new cartridge. Additives in the motor oil (nearly a third of a can of oil is additives) fight the contaminants and give the oil special lubricating properties.
If accompanied by a lead or pull to one side, the underlying cause may be cross camber, cross caster, uneven tire pressure or mismatched tire sizes side to side. An aftermarket oil cooler that can be installed outside the radiator can provide much better cooling, and is recommended for towing or high performance applications. A low oil level in the oil pan, oil leaks, dirty oil, diluted oil (with gasoline), too low a viscosity oil, a plugged oil pickup screen or oil filter, a worn oil pump or worn main bearings can all contribute to low oil pressure. A defective thermostat can stick shut and prevent the coolant from circulating to the radiator (replace the thermostat).
But inside it has a special zirconium element that produces a varying voltage once it gets hot. Ozone is broken down by natural chemical reactions, including reacting with chlorine which is present in R12 refrigerant. The most common problem associated with the parking brake is corrosion in the cable sleeves, which can prevent the rear brakes from releasing once the brake has been applied. A vehicle history report will give you facts on the vehicle that may determine your desire to purchase the vehicle. It is almost impossible to see the number on the dash from inside the vehicle, so looking down through the windshield from outside the car will make the job a bit easier. Our website will search for products that fit your car and then display them, classified by different categories. By carefully counting the flashes and pauses, a numeric code is deciphered that tells you which diagnostic chart to refer to in the service manual. On some vehicles, the ignition timing marks are on the flywheel and are observed by peering through a hole in the bellhousing.
To help cut the drag, most 4WD drivetrains have a transfer case that allows the driver to select either two- or four-wheel drive depending on driving conditions. Engine horsepower ratings are determined on special equipment (See Dynamometer), and are usually expressed as so much "brake" horsepower (the amount of horsepower the engine actually delivers after internal friction and parasitic loses are taken into account). If an engine is misfiring because of a fouled spark plug or a leaky valve, or if it has worn rings or valve guides and uses oil, quite a bit of unburned HC can pass through into the exhaust. The relative richness or leanness of the idle mixture has a big effect on tailpipe emissions at idle. Coil problems include shorts or opens in the internal wiring, and cracks around the high voltage terminal. See Distributor Ignition Systems,Distributorless Ignition Systems, Coil-Over-Plug Ignition Systems and Multi-Coil Ignition Systems. The test measures carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX). In most diesel engines, the injectors are mechanical and deliver fuel under very high pressure directly into the cylinders.
Once the jumper cables have been connected, the engine should be run at fast idle to help charge the dead battery for a couple of minutes. The unit can be rebuilt or replaced (Note: aluminum master cylinders should never be honed because doing so removes the protective anodizing from the inside of the cylinder).
The further the muffler is located from the engine, the more prone it is to rapid rust-through because the water vapor has more time to cool and condense. NOX emissions are minimized by the EGR valve, and by the catalytic converter in 1981 and newer model cars. By comparison, leaded premium fuels of a decade ago often started at 95 and went to over 100. Any engine that consumes less than a quart of oil every 3000 miles is in excellent mechanical condition. Except for air-cooled engines (older Volkswagens for example) and race cars, most engines do not use an oil cooler for the engine. Complete loss of oil pressure usually results from a broken oil pump drive shaft (if the pump is driven off the camshaft).
A leak that allows the coolant level to drop can result in overheating (fix the leak, then refill the cooling system). A slipping drive-belt on the power steering pump can produce a loud squeal, especially when turning sharply.
There can be all sorts of problems that used vehicles have encountered and checking the vehicle history of the car prior to its purchase will alert you to any problems. Along with your VIN, make sure to write down the year, make, model and trim level of your vehicle, just in case it is required.
The teeth along the edge of the flywheel are for the starter to engage when the engine is cranked. In trucks, you will often find locking hubs on the front wheels that can be locked in the "on" or free-wheeling position as needed. Thus a manufacturer can save a bundle in tooling and development when he wants to bring a new front-wheel drive model to the showroom floor. The locations of both in-line fuses and fuse links can be looked up in a wiring diagram for the vehicle. Another is to dump an alcohol-based additive in the fuel tank at every fill to absorb moisture.
Never smoke when working on the fuel system (or when filling the fuel tank) and never use it as a cleaning solvent. Unburned HC is a major source of air pollution and is the primary source of smog in most urban areas. Thati??s why the oil must be changed periodically to replenish the additives (See Oil Consumption). The enginei??s cooling system is usually adequate to keep oil temperatures within safe limits. The oxygen sensor is vulnerable to contamination and may be damaged by lead, silicone or phosphorus. The valve and filter should be replaced somewhere around 30,000 to 50,000 miles (see the vehicle owners manual for service intervals). Nicked, broken or missing teeth can cause starting problems, so a damaged flywheel should be replaced. Some performance cars have full-time variable four-wheel drive and use a computer-controlled transfer case to route power between the wheels. Tightening the cover bolts will sometimes stop a leak but usually the gasket must be replaced. See Bad Gasoline Can Cause Performance Problems, Bad Gas Update 2006, Fuel Octane Ratings & Recommendations and Alternative Fuels. Various means are used to reduce the amount of HC an engine produces, the primary one of which is the catalytic converter. But once oil consumption exceeds a quart every 1000 miles, it signals the engine is approaching retirement. A contaminated O2 sensor or one that has become sluggish with age can cause an increase in fuel consumption and emissions. With a vehicle history report, the VIN number is used which will allows you to obtain vital information on the vehicle such as: How many owners the vehicle has had, has it ever been salvaged,  is it a lemon vehicle whether or not it has been in wrecks, whether there is any reported flood damage to the vehicle, any recalls and all maintenance repairs that have been performed on the vehicle as well as the odometer reading of the vehicle. On vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission, the flywheel is lightweight stamped steel and resembles a spoked wheel.
Some people will argue that front-wheel drive handles better than rear-wheel drive while others will argue exactly the opposite. Some late model engines use various chemical sealers (such as RTV silicone) in place of conventional gaskets.
The converter reduces HC emissions by "reburning" and converting it into harmless water vapor.
The oil filter traps dirt (but not moisture) so it too should be replaced at every oil change. Oil pushes against a spring-loaded diaphragm, which in turn is connected to a resistor or set of contacts that trigger a warning light if pressure drops below about 4 or 5 psi.
If an engine overheats, turning on the heater can sometimes help increase cooling capacity enough to cool it down. On some older vehicles, replacement may be recommended at 50,000 miles for preventive maintenance.
In power rack & pinion steering units, internal leaks can be a major problem (which require replacing the entire unit with a new or rebuilt assembly). Porsche and Mercedes seem to be unimpressed by FWD, and most race cars are rear-wheel drive.
Never substitute one of a higher capacity because the circuit may not be able to handle it. Leaks can be repaired by either applying fresh sealer or substituting a conventional gasket.
Use the recommended viscosity and type of oil listed in the owner's manual (See Viscosity). The only required maintenance for this system is to check the level of the power steering fluid periodically.
On the negative side, some front-wheel drive cars have a tendency to "torque steer" (See Torque Steer), and transaxle problems can be very costly to repair because it often involves pulling the engine.
The most frequent leak points are valve cover gaskets, crankshaft end seals and oil pan gaskets.
Any oil of the proper viscosity that conforms to the highest America Petroleum Institute rating should be safe to use. Tightening the valve cover or pan bolts can sometimes stop a leak but usually the only cure is to replace the gasket See Causes of High Oil Consumption.
Add coolant to the coolant reservoir, or wait until the engine has cooled to open and cap to add coolant directly to the radiator.




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