The copy of earlier insurance policy effectively owns the car until the designated proprietor or driver of the vehicle. There is an app for Apple and the.

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Anyone interested in the history of the legendary Trabant should head to Zwickau and the August Horch Museum to explore the history of the iconic car that was mass-produced in communist East Germany. Another treat for car enthusiasts can be found in Thuringia in Eisenach where the Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach was the third company after Daimler and Benz to produce cars in Germany.
For modern day car manufacturing, try Altenburg where Gumpert produces the Apollo, a limited edition state-of-the-art sports car. As one of the venues for the German Touring Car Championship (DTM), the Motorsport Arena in Oschersleben near Magdeburg in Saxony-Anhalt is a prime destination for racing car enthusiasts. The Schleizer Dreieck, Germany’s oldest natural circuit, was opened near Schleiz in Thuringia in 1923 and is one of the few racetracks running anticlockwise. The Sachsenring near Chemnitz in Saxony is one of Europe’s largest and most modern racing circuits and not to be missed by serious racing sport aficionados.
No matter if railway enthusiast or not, anyone with a penchant for travelling in style will love the Harzer Schmalspurbahnen. Since the majority of the trains feature steam locomotives, passengers can enjoy being hauled up the Harz mountains vintage style, with some good old huffing and puffing.
Reported comments and users are reviewed by Autoblog staff 24 hours a day, seven days a week to determine whether they violate Community Guideline. In cars with manual transmission you have to change gears by pressing down the clutch with your foot and moving a lever. The dashboard has many instruments that show you how fast you are moving, the amount of petrol that is left in the tank, the oil temperature and some other information.
The body of the car is the outer shell that surrounds the mechanical parts and the passengers inside. Minivan = a taller car that is shaped like a van; it has up to three rows and can carry 8 or 9 people. Today all cars have safety features that protect passengers from accidents that may happen on the road. In the late 1770s Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, a French engineer, built a car that ran on steam. After car production had slowed down during the two world wars car makers began adding new features to post - war models. This changed in the 1970s when Arab oil-producing countries started to raise prices for oil because western countries supported Israel. As oil is becoming more and more expensive, alternative power sources are being explored.
The concept of a fuel cell had effectively been demonstrated in the early nineteenth century by Humphry Davy.
In 1932, Cambridge engineering professor Francis Bacon modified Mond's and Langer's equipment to develop the first AFC but it was not until 1959 that Bacon demonstrated a practical 5 kW fuel cell system. In the late 1950s and early 1960s NASA, in collaboration with industrial partners, began developing fuel cell generators for manned space missions. International Fuel Cells (IFC, later UTC Power) developed a 1.5 kW AFC for use in the Apollo space missions. While research was continuing on fuel cells in the West, in the Soviet Union fuel cells were being developed for military applications. The 1970s saw the emergence of increasing environmental awareness amongst governments, businessesand individuals. Earlier, General Motors had experimented with its hydrogen fuel cell powered Electrovan fitted with a Union Carbide fuel cell. Prompted by concerns over energy shortages and higher oil prices, many national governments and large companies initiated research projects to develop more efficient forms of energy generation in the 1970s. Substantial technical and commercial development continued in the 1980s, notably in the area of PAFC.
Also in the 1980s, research, development and demonstration (RD&D) work continued into the use of fuel cells for transport applications. Attention turned to PEMFC and SOFC technology in the 1990s, particularly for small stationary applications. Government policies to promote clean transport also helped drive the development of PEMFC for automotive applications. Significant advances in DMFC technology occurred around the same time, as PEMFC technology was adapted for direct methanol portable devices. The last decade was characterised by increasing concerns on the part of governments, business and consumers over energy security, energy efficiency, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Government and private funding for fuel cell research has increased markedly in the last decade. Fuel cells began to become commercial in a variety of applications in 2007, when they started to be sold to end-users with written warranties and service capability, and met the codes and standards of the markets in which they were sold. A large-scale residential CHP programme in Japan helped stimulate commercial stationary PEMFC shipments.
In transport applications, the greatest commercial activity occurred in the materials handling segment, where there is a strong business case for their use in place of the incumbent technology, lead acid batteries. In the past decade, PEMFC and DMFC have dominated the total market share in the portable, stationary and transport sectors. Over the last five years, as shown in the data tables in this Review, growth in shipments of fuel cells has accelerated rapidly as various applications have become commercial.
The supply chain has also been steadily growing alongside the increase in the number of fuel cell system manufacturers.
The global economic recession of the late 2000s undoubtedly had negative effects for certain fuel cell companies.
The fuel cell industry has faced and continues to face challenges as it comes through a period of recession and completes the transition from R&D to commercialisation.
As a nation Germany has been at the forefront of car production ever since Carl Benz registered his patent DRP 37435 on 29 January 1886, the official birthday of the motor car. For an excellent introduction to the subject we suggest you visit the Saxon Industrial Museum in Chemnitz with its wide range of exhibits.
Opened in 1997 as Germany’s third permanent racing track, it attracts more than 600,000 visitors every year. Connecting the cities of Wernigerode, Nordhausen and Quedlinburg in the Harz mountains, these narrowgauge railways are Europe’s longest historical rail network on over 80 miles. However, those trains are not simply for tourists to enjoy but also offer a year round service connecting local communities.
Here, the Brocken Railway branch of the Harz narrow-gauge railways works its way up in a spectacular climb. Accounts are penalized for Community Guidelines violations and serious or repeated violations can lead to account termination.
I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed browsing your blog posts. Older cars used to have carburetors that mix fuel with air and send the gas to the engine. It includes the transmission, drive shaft, differential, the axles and the drive wheels that move the car.
When a car travels at a normal speed on a flat road it does not need so much torque to keep it moving, but when you want to start a car from a hill the engine must produce more power. It has several joints which make the axle and wheels moveable as the car drives on uneven and bumpy roads.



It lets the wheels turn at different speeds because in curves the outer wheels must travel a greater distance than the inner ones. It is also called a parking brake because you use it to stop a vehicle from rolling down a hill.
It flows through the moving parts so that the metal does not rub against other metallic pieces.
Most bodies are made of steel, although some parts are made of strong plastic or fiberglass. They are normally in the steering wheel and if a car crashes they come out, inflate and protect the passengers from slamming into the front window. Many American companies also started producing them but they were very expensive to make and cost a lot of money.
Nikolaus Otto built the first internal combustion engine, Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz also began building petrol-driven engines.
Experts say that future cars will be made of plastics and carbon fibers that will be stronger and lighter than steel. Biodiesel, hydrogen fuel cells, electric cars and hybrids are energy sources that carmakers may use in the future. This was followed by pioneering work on what were to become fuel cells by the scientist Christian Friedrich Schonbein in 1838.
At around the same time, Harry Karl Ihrig fitted a modified 15 kW Bacon cell to an Allis-Chalmers agricultural tractor. The first PEMFC unit was one result of this, with Willard Thomas Grubb at General Electric (GE) credited with the invention. The fuel cell provided electrical power as well as drinking water for the astronauts for the duration of their mission.
Although much of this early work is still secret, it did result in fuel cells being used to provide onboard power to a submarine and later to the Soviet manned space programme. Prompted by concerns over air pollution, clean air legislation was passed in the United States and Europe.
Although the project was limited to demonstrations, it marked one of the earliest road-going fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). One result of this was important advances in PAFC technology, in particular in stability and performance.
A bright future for the technology was widely predicted around this time for stationary applications and buses. The US Navy commissioned studies into the use of fuel cells in submarines where highly efficient, zero-emission, near-silent running offered considerable operational advantages. These were seen as offering a more imminent commercial possibility, due to the lower cost per unit and greater number of potential markets - for example backup power for telecoms sites and residential micro-CHP. In 1990, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) introduced the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. Early applications included portable soldier-borne power and power for devices such as laptops and mobile phones. Attention has turned once again to fuel cells as one of several potential technologies capable of delivering energy efficiency and CO2 savings while reducing dependence on fossil fuels.
There has been a renewed focus on fundamental research to achieve breakthroughs in cost reduction and operational performance to make fuel cells competitive with conventional technology. As such, a number of market segments became demand driven, rather than being characterised by oversupply and overcapacity.
These units began to be installed in homes from 2009, and more than 13,000 such units have been installed to date. Funding for demonstration fleets of fuel cell materials handling vehicles saw increasing numbers deployed in warehouses across the USA, although the overall numbers remained small compared with those for stationary and portable fuel cells. Their uptake by consumers has been facilitated by the development of codes, standards and government policies to lower the barriers to adoption; such as allowing methanol fuel cartridges on board aircraft and feed-in tariffs for fuel cell CHP installations. Portable fuel cells saw the most rapid rate of growth over the period since 2009 as increasing numbers of fuel cell educational kits were sold to consumers. There has been an expansion of the component supply chain and related services, from the manufacturers of MEA to fuel and infrastructure providers.
Limited credit availability and restrictions in government funding, as well as lack of profitability for organisations that were still mainly RD&D focused, caused a number of firms to go out of business.
During 2011 Germany is celebrating the 125th anniversary of the automobile with the Cultural Heart of Germany as one of the prime destinations for motoring enthusiasts.
Since 1972, under a preservation order, the historical significance of the trains of the Harzer Schmalspurbahnen is widely recognized as an outstanding example of railway engineering. Another favourite is the picturesque Nordhausen to the UNESCO world heritage town Quedlinburg route, a delightful town full of half-timbered houses. Automobiles pollute the air that we breathe and parking space in cities is scarce because everyone wants to use their cars to get to city centers. Most cars have power steering; a hydraulic system makes it easier for the driver to turn the wheels. The body includes the passenger compartment, hood, trunk and the fenders which cover the wheels. Highways and other roads could be built so that cars can be programmed to drive along them by autopilot while passengers sit in the back and relax. William Grove, a chemist, physicist and lawyer, is generally credited with inventing the fuel cell in 1839. Allis-Chalmers, in partnership with the US Air Force, subsequently developed a number of fuel cell powered vehicles including a forklift truck, a golf cart and a submersible vessel. Another GE researcher, Leonard Niedrach, refined Grubb's PEMFC by using platinum as a catalyst on the membranes.
IFC subsequently developed a 12 kW AFC, used to provide onboard power on all space shuttle flights. This ultimately mandated the reduction of harmful vehicle exhaust gases and was eventually adopted in many countries around the world. From the mid-1960s, Shell was involved with developing DMFC, where the use of liquid fuel was considered to be a great advantage for vehicle applications. There were significant field demonstrations of large stationary PAFC units for prime, off-grid power in the 1970s, including a 1 MW unit developed by IFC.
Ambitious conceptual designs were published for municipal utility power plant applications of up to 100 MW output. In 1983 the Canadian company Ballard began research into fuel cells, and was to become a major player in the manufacture of stacks and systems for stationary and transport applications in later years. In Germany, Japan and the UK, there began to be significant government funding devoted to developing PEMFC and SOFC technology for residential micro-CHP applications. This was the first vehicle emissions standard in the world predicated not on improvements to the internal combustion engine (ICE) but on the use of alternative powertrains. MCFC technology, first developed in the 1950s, made substantial commercial advances in the 1990s, in particular for large stationary applications in which it was sold by companies such as FuelCell Energy and MTU.
A good deal of government funding worldwide has also been targeted at fuel cell demonstration and deployment projects.
In particular, thousands of PEMFC and DMFC auxiliary power units (APU) were commercialised in leisure applications, such as boats and campervans, with similarly large numbers of micro fuel cell units being sold in the portable sector in toys and educational kits.
Demonstration programmes for backup power systems in the USA gave further impetus to the stationary sector.


Fuel cell buses have been commercially available for several years and their usefulness has been well demonstrated. This genuine commercial market generated much-needed revenue for several key players and has allowed those companies to invest in research into larger stationary and transport applications. However, it gave other companies the impetus to become more commercially orientated and to pursue opportunities for revenue generation that could support further R&D in their core competencies. Although many fuel cell companies are still far from being profitable, the opportunities for growth in the future are very promising. At first only a few people had cars but after a while more and more people bought them because they improved the way people lived. After you have driven a certain number of kilometers you must change the oil and the oil filter.
Doors must have special locks that are crash resistant and bumpers must be able to absorb some force if the car crashes.
By 1908 Ford’s Model T became the most popular car in the world and by 1927 the Ford Motor Company had produced over 15 million of them. Grove conducted a series of experiments with what he termed a gas voltaic battery, which ultimately proved that electric current could be produced from an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen over a platinum catalyst. The Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell was further developed in cooperation with NASA, and was used in the Gemini space programme of the mid-1960s. The 1970s was also the era of the OPEC oil embargoes, which led governments, businesses and consumers to embrace the concept of energy efficiency.
Concerns over oil availability in the 1970s led to the development of a number of one-off demonstration fuel cell vehicles, including models powered by hydrogen or ammonia, as well as of hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engines.
Funding from the US military and electrical utilities enabled developments in MCFC technology, such as the internal reforming of natural gas to hydrogen. Predictions of tens of thousands of units in operation by the end of the century were made, but only hundreds were to actually appear by that date. Carmakers such as the then-DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, and Toyota, all of which had substantial sales in the US, responded to this by investing in PEMFC research.
SOFC technology also underwent substantial developments in terms of power density and durability for stationary applications. The European Union, Canada, Japan, South Korea, and the United States are all engaged in high-profile demonstration projects, primarily of stationary and transport fuel cells and their associated fuelling infrastructure. Demand from the military also saw hundreds of DMFC and PEMFC portable power units put into service for infantry soldiers, where they provided power to communications and surveillance equipment and reduced the burden on the dismounted solider of carrying heavy battery packs.
This was also driven by practical concerns over the need for reliable backup power for telecoms networks during emergencies and rescue operations. However their cost, at around five times that of a diesel bus, plus the cost of hydrogen infrastructure means that they are only used where a city deems the environmental benefit to be worth the extra investment. The portable sector has also been boosted by shipments of APU products for the leisure market, in particular camping and boating.
This is particularly true in North America, one of the leading regions for fuel cell manufacturing. Since the recession, governments around the world have come to see fuel cells as a promising area of future economic growth and job creation and have invested further resources in their development, something fuel cell companies have not been slow to capitalise on. The success of certain application segments in recent years means that there has been a move to consolidate particular technologies into a standard reference design for a particular type of fuel cell. The term fuel cell was first used in 1889 by Charles Langer and Ludwig Mond, who researched fuel cells using coal gas as a fuel.
Clean air and energy efficiency were to become two of the principal drivers for fuel cell adoption in subsequent decades, in addition to the more recent concerns about climate change and energy security.
Several German, Japanese and US vehicle manufacturers and their partners began to experiment with FCEV in the 1970s, increasing the power density of PEMFC stacks and developing hydrogen fuel storage systems. The use of an established natural gas infrastructure was a key advantage in developing fuel cells for large stationary prime power applications. Several experimental large stationary PAFC plants were built, but saw little commercial traction in the 1980s.
Companies other than automakers, such as Ballard, continued PEMFC research for automotive and stationary clean power.
Boosted by general optimism in high-technology industries, many fuel cell companies listed on stock exchanges in the late 1990s, only for prices to fall victim to the crash in technology stocks shortly after. The genuine benefits that fuel cell technology offers over conventional technologies has played a part in promoting adoption.
The inadequacy of diesel generators was illustrated during the Gulf of Mexico Hurricane Katrina disaster, when many ran out of fuel, disrupting the telecoms network and hampering relief efforts. Fuel cell cars are currently only available for lease; these vehicles are being made available by manufacturers to gain experience ahead of a commercial launch planned from 2015. Shipments in the portable sector were also augmented by the launch of Toshiba's Dynario fuel cell battery charger in 2009. As many Western countries seek to rebalance their economies towards high-value manufacturing and environmental technologies, fuel cells seem poised to enter a period of sustained growth. This has led to fuel cells increasingly being developed as scalable energy solutions capable of serving several different market segments, be they APU or to power devices such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Further attempts to convert coal directly into electricity were made in the early twentieth century but the technology generally remained obscure. By the end of the century, all the world's major carmakers had active FCEV demonstration fleets as a result of these early efforts. With subsequent advancements in membrane durability and system performance, PAFC were rolled out in greater numbers almost two decades later for large-scale combined heat and power applications. For example, the value proposition that fuel cell materials handling vehicles offer in terms of extended run-time, greater efficiency and simplified refuelling infrastructure compared with their battery counterparts makes them attractive to warehouse operators.
The need for reliable on-grid or off-grid stationary power in developing countries also gave a boost to fuel cells. More and more workers drove to their jobs and people started to move to suburbs outside the town centers. The focus by then had shifted back to pure hydrogen fuel, which generates zero harmful tailpipe emissions.
The programmes initiated in the 1990s still continue, albeit with some changes to the strategic focus of some key players.
In the late 2000s, hydrogen and natural gas fuelled PEMFC units began to be sold in parts of India and east Africa to provide primary or backup power to mobile phone masts. Stationary fuel cell adoption has increased rapidly as the roll-out of the Japanese Ene-Farm project took place and fuel cells for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) were adopted in North America. Buses were, and still are, seen as a promising early market application of fuel cells due to their combination of high efficiency, zero-emissions and ease of refuelling, and due to the vehicles running on set routes and being regularly refuelled with hydrogen at their bases.
The rapidity of mobile phone adoption in these regions means that the conventional grid infrastructure cannot keep pace with new power demands, or is too unreliable for an effective mobile network.



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