Basketball exercises to improve vertical jump exercises

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After analyzing horizontal spacing, it’s time to move to another dimension and talk about vertical spacing ?? which has its own, quite different set of difficulties.
Fortunately, when you move an object that is placed between the staves, Lily will adjust how the staves themselves are placed.
Sometimes moving a few dynamics was enough to get the staves positioned nicely, but sometimes the distance was still wrong and I had to override it manually. Such manual staff positioning was necessary in 62 cases (approximately 17% of all systems). I think that it would be interesting if LilyPond determined the distance between staves based on the actual size of the white area between them (currently it just measures the distance between fixed reference points, and makes sure that there is no overlap. Posted on November 22, 2013 by Janek Warchol in category LilyPond development, Oskar Fried songs, what LilyPond should do better. This award is the first for the recently launched LMV-801S, which combines API 685 sealless magnetic-drive technology with Sundyne API 610 OH3 and OH5 vertical direct drive pump hydraulics and wet end technology.
Once installed in the new chemical plant, the Sundyne LMV-801S pumps will provide highly reliable leak-free performance, improve overall plant safety, improve productivity, and lower life-cycle operating costs.
The contractor's preference for environmentally safe, efficient and reliable sealless magnetic drive pumps differentiated the LMV-801S from standard vertical pump designs. Sundyne is the world leader in delivering low-flow high-head integrally geared centrifugal pumps and compressors; as well as safe and efficient sealless magnetic drive pumps. Today, Accudyne is powered by more than 2,800 employees at 16 manufacturing facilities, supporting a broad range of industries in more than 150 countries. This study sought to investigate the effect of a three-week plyometric training programme on jump performance and agility in Jamaican national netball players. The coupons are easily removable while the main magnet stays on the fridge after coupons are used. Subjects were evaluated using the Vertical Jump Test, the Broad Jump Test and the Illinois Agility Test prior to the start of the programme and at week 3. The majority of that production – 80% — came from fossil fuels, according to the agency.
Las sujetos fueron evaluadas usando la prueba de salto vertical, la prueba de salto largo y la prueba de agilidad de Illinois, antes del comienzo del programa y a la semana 3. It is a non-contact sport and is described as "a game reliant on rapid acceleration to 'break free' from an opponent, sudden and rapid changes in direction in combination with leaps to receive a pass, intercept a ball or rebound after attempting a goal" (1). Since 1963, Jamaica has fielded a senior team at the World Championship held every four years.
At the junior level, the team participated in the World Junior Championship in 1996, 2000 and 2005. Training programmes that can improve the power and agility of the players of the national netball teams are therefore of great importance in order to maintain international status. Maximal-effort Plyometric training was first introduced in Russia by Yuri Verkhoshansky in 1969, to help in the development of "explosive speed strength" in sprinters. It was also referred to as "shock training" since it involved techniques of high intensity (3).
Initial programmes involved drop jumps of over three metres which probably exceeded human safety limits. The response phase is the summation of the amortization and eccentric phase and is represented as a facilitated contraction (2). These include increased speed of the myotactic stretch reflex and desensitization of the golgi tendon organ which raises the level of inhibition, thereby allowing for increased force production when greater forces are applied to the musculoskeletal system. A third mechanism is enhanced neuromuscular coordination leading to greater net force production (2). Sample size calculations were based on an effect size of 1.5 for the Illinois Agility Test (6). Subjects were required to be competing at National and Premier League levels and must have given written consent to participate in the study.
Anyone with a history of knee surgery, current musculoskeletal injuries leading to pain at the knees, back or ankles or medical conditions for which plyometric training would be contra-indicated were excluded from the study. The coaches of the respective teams were invited to a meeting and the study procedures and training programme explained to them.

The players who volunteered for this research met with the researcher and the procedure was explained to them, following which they were required to sign informed consent forms. All volunteers under the age of 18 years were given assent forms to be signed by their parents or guardians. Baseline evaluations were done by independent evaluators at the Leila Robinson Netball courts located at the National Stadium Complex in Kingston, Jamaica.
The baseline measurements of reach height with the dominant hand over-head and weight of each volunteer were taken after which they did a ten minute warm-up jogging session followed by a trial run of the required tests. A 30-minute break was taken after the trial run, following which the pretest evaluation began.
All subjects were required to do the Vertical Jump Test, Standing Broad Jump Test and the Illinois Agility Test. Following the baseline evaluation, subjects were required to participate in a plyometric training programme twice per week for three-weeks under the supervision of a trainer. The plyometric training was treated as a novel programme and commenced with low-level, progressing to medium and high-level exercises. Activities involving hops, jumps and sprints with directional changes were included (Table 1).
The test was done with the participant standing adjacent to the wall in a crouched position with knees flexed to 90˚. The subject was then instructed to jump as high as possible and touch a board which was mounted on a wall, with the inked finger. Three jumps were done with a one-minute interval between each jump and the value of the highest jump was recorded in centimetres.
The Vertical Jump Test is on the list of fitness evaluations recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (10) and has been used by other researchers investigating power (6, 8, 11, 12).
The measurements were taken from the marked line to the heel that was closer to the marked line.
The subjects did three jumps with a one-minute interval between each jump and the value of the best jump recorded.
It involved marking an area which was 10 metres long by 5 metres wide with four cones spaced 3.3 metres apart. On the word go, they were required to get up and run as fast as possible to complete the course. The outcomes of interests were the change in vertical jump scores, broad jump scores and Illinois Agility Test scores all of which were measured as continuous variables.
Following this a One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test was done on the initial and change scores for the rest of the subjects to check for a normal distribution. All variables were found to be normally distributed and a paired t-test was done to determine if the mean change in scores was significant.
A total of twenty-six subjects completed the initial evaluation and began the training programme.
Prior to the week-3 test, one volunteer withdrew due to bilateral knee pain, one had an injury from participating in club competition, one defaulted without reason and five were absent for the week three test.
Scatter plots of the data showed subjects 5, 10 and 25 to be outliers and they were excluded from all analyses. Eleven subjects had an increase in jump height, three subjects had a small decrease and one subject showed no change at all. Twelve subjects had an increase in jump distance whilst three subjects had a small decrease.
The findings of this study were similar to previous studies which also showed significant improvements in these tests following plyometric training for basketball and volleyball (5, 6, 8, 9).
The majority of studies conducted did their post-test evaluation at six-weeks with the exception of one which evaluated their subjects at two, four and six-weeks of participating in an aquatic based programme (5). The subjects in the present study trained on a netball court and at three weeks, they showed a significant increase in the mean vertical jump score.
This change is important to netballers, since an increase in jump height enables them to intercept an opponent's pass, receive a pass above an opponent's reach or collect a ball rebounding from the opponent's attempt at goal. This also holds true for ball passes outside of the goal area where a player can advance her team's ball to goal or prevent the opponent's ball from advancing.

The findings of the current study were very similar even though there was no resistance-training component. At three-weeks, the magnitude of change in the vertical jump score and broad jump score were almost the same as those accomplished by the previous study (8).
This indicates that resistance training may not be as important for improving power as a plyometric training programme and lends support to the concept of specificity of training.
Improvement in broad jump performance is very advantageous to netball, as any advancement towards the goal area should result in an increased number of goals scored with the least amount of ball passes. Subjects showed significant improvements in the Illinois Agility Test Scores after six-weeks of training. The present study also found significant improvements in Agility Scores; however, the change was not as large as that shown by the previous study. The motor learning literature indicates that neural adaptation is responsible for improvements in performance during the first six-weeks of a training programme (14).
At week three, some amount of neural adaptation probably occurred, however the subjects had not yet reached a plateau. If training had continued for six-weeks, the magnitude of change might have been similar to that of the previous author (6). Another reason for the difference in magnitude could be the number and choice of agility exercises. Shuttle runs with longer distances may have produced the same results as the previous study, with the three weeks of training.
During a game, the players have to receive or intercept a pass, stop suddenly, change direction and then sprint to another position on the court.
This study indicates that even three-weeks of training can improve agility and possibly performance during competition. The authors found that both media produced equally significant changes in vertical jump performance.
Many of the netballers in Jamaica complain of knee pain which may be caused by the type of surface on which they train. Plyometric training places compressive forces on many joints and it may be worthwhile in the future to consider water-based plyometric training programmes, especially for those who have knee pain. All changes were statistically significant and even though the degree of change may appear small, it is worth noting that, in most sporting events, even a fraction of a second could have an impact on the outcome of an event. The small changes in vertical jump height, broad jump distance and agility times could collectively make the difference between winning and losing a netball match. These results are encouraging and can provide the coaches and trainers with a sound scientific basis for further improvement of the quality, effectiveness and appropriate training programmes for all levels of net-ballers. With respect to the sports medicine personnel, the knowledge and use of specific exercises involved in plyometric training will enhance the preventative and rehabilitative care of the netballers. All this will make vital contributions towards the national effort in helping to improve the National (under-21 and senior) Netball teams' chances of being finalists in their respective World Championships.
The outcomes of this research may also be helpful to other sporting organizations in their quest for improved performance and international recognition of their respective national teams.
Inclusion of this type of training may prove to be valuable in improving performance in competition thereby allowing the National team to maintain top international ranking. Plyometric exercise in the rehabilitation of athletes: physiological responses and clinical application. Neuromuscular changes in female collegiate athletes resulting from a jump-training programme.
Effects of short-term plyometric and resistance training programme on fitness performance in boys age 12 to 15 years. The relationship between open and closed kinetic chain strength of the lower limb and jumping performance.

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Author: admin | 07.02.2015

Category: Vert Jump

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