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We report a protocol that employs direct coating of smaller hapten on microtiter ELISA plates for the detection of low molecular weight analytes such as pesticides in an immunoassay format. Figure 1: Reaction mechanism of direct coating of carboxylated hapten molecules on APTES treated polystyrene surface. The amine modified PS surface is used for demonstrating binding of carboxylated hapten for immunoassay applications.
Figure 2: Binding of purified Rabbit anti-2,4-D antibodies with immobilised molecules of 2,4-D on PS surface of NUNC ELISA plate. Figure 3: Competitive inhibition assay using conjugated hapten (BSA-hapten) and direct hapten coated plates for 2,4-D. Step 7 Curing of microtiter plates at 62 oC for 2 h is critical to enhance the binding of APTES to the PS surface, and also enabling formation of monolayer on the PS surface. We here describe a method for generating amino groups on polystyrene microtiter wells using simple one-step aqueous silanization method. In this method, the polystyrene surface of microtiter plates was functionalize with amino groups using 3-aminoprpyltriethoxysilane (APTES) for the covalent linkage to small molecular hapten with carboxyl groups. Free 2,4-D is pre-incubated with rabbit anti-2,4-D antibody for 30 min before adding into microtiter plates.
The amine modified PS surface was used for demonstrating binding of carboxylated hapten for immunoassay applications. The developed immunoassay format could be used as convenient quantitative tool for the sensitive and rapid screening of pesticides and other low molecular weight analytes in samples. This method allowed us to link carboxylated hapten to amine grafted polystyrene microtiter plates for the quantification of 2,4-D pesticides.


Hapten specific antibodies against 2,4-D were used in the present assay format showing high degree of assay sensitivity. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), a degradation product of the herbicide dichlobenil. The fact that antibodies could be made virtually against any substance, and its usages in developing highly sensitive assay makes this approach quite useful for the analysis of these toxic molecules1-4. These assays apart from being highly specific, exhibit the desired sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of low molecular weight contaminants present in our environment5-8. This was confirmed by measuring the loading of antibody on hapten coated microtiter plates by ELISA.
An ELISA for small molecules, in general, needs conjugates of the hapten with large carrier protein for coating the wells of microtiter plates. This makes it difficult to evaluate hapten-protein stoichiometry and to understand the precise orientation of the hapten on the protein9. Development of a highly sensitive enzyme-immunoassay for the determination of triazine herbicides.
Development of an immunoassay for diagnosis of exposure to toxic organophosphorus compounds. Development and application of immunoaffinity column chromatography for atrazine in complex sample media.
A multichannel electrochemical detector coupled with an ELISA microtiter plate for the immunoassay of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.
Strengths and limitations of immunoassays for effective and efficient use for pesticide analysis in water samples; A review.


Chromatographic characterisation, under highly aqueous conditions, of a molecularly imprinted polymer binding the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Immunochromatographic dipstick assay format using gold nanoparticles labeled protein-hapten conjugate for the detection of atrazine. A new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for spermidine using glutaraldehyde coupling of the hapten to carrier-coated microtiter plates. The immunochemistry of sandwich elisa—Greater than 90% of monoclonal and 75% of polyclonal anti-fluorescyl capture antibodies (CAbs) are denatured by passive adsorption. Surface functionalization by RF plasma treatment of polymers for immobilization of bioactive-molecules. Amination of Polystyrene Microwells: Application to the Covalent Grafting of DNA Probes for Hybridization Assays.
Strategies for direct attachment of hapten to a polystyrene support for applications in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Direct hapten coated immunoassay format for the detection of atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides.
An efficient enzyme immunoassay for glutamate using glutaraldehyde coupling of the hapten to microliter plates.



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