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The basic idea behind the keyword-driven testing approach in test automation is to separate the automation from the test case design. Based on the technology-independency, tests might be developed earlier in the QA process and beneficially they are easier to maintain for that reason.
This blog post describes how the keyword driven testing approach in test automation can be followed within Ranorex, granulated on two different levels.
Following this more advanced approach, it’s recommended to have at least basic programming knowledge. First of all, we will use Ranorex Modules as abstraction layer for the elementary actions performed. It is recommended to pack your keywords (aka Ranorex Modules) in separate projects, referenced by one Ranorex Solution. Depending on the level of abstraction you’d like to have here, you can either reference a Ranorex Module Library Project or directly reference the resulting DLL file. Many people prefer defining test cases in an Excel-spreadsheet-like table since they are used to work like this since years. After doing so, you simply can add a user code action (Add New Action -> User Code) and choose one of the predefined keywords and, if defined, set the arguments. You can also follow the data-driven approach within the actions table (as already explained in the previous section) by simply making the keyword parameters variable.
Well, I wouldn’t agree separating tests from test frameworks always simplifies test maintenance.
So, to make maintenance simple I wouldn’t necessarily opt for different technologies. Till now we have covered QTP Linear Framework, Modular Framework and Data Driven Framework as part of the QTP Framework series of articles. In this article, you will read the following topis that will help you understand the basic concepts of Keyword Driven Framework.
Keyword Driven Framework is a type of QTP Framework where for a particular test case, you would first identify a set of Keywords and then associate an action (or function) which each of these keywords.
Now, let’s see how we can approach this test case from Keyword Driven Framework perspective. Once you have identified the functions, the next step is to identify some keywords and then associate the functions with these keywords. From the above image you can see that basically a Keyword Driven Framework is nothing but a collection of keywords & functions (or actions or operations) and the association between these two entities. Below is the list of common components that you will find in most of the keyword driven frameworks. 1) Excel Sheet to Store the Keywords: This is the only extra component that you will find in a Keyword Driven Framework.
2) Function Library: In Keyword Driven Framework, function libraries usually play a very important role.
3) Data Sheets: As with the other frameworks, you can use the data sheets to store the test data that will be used in the application.
4) Object Repository: Based on the design of your Keyword Driven Framework, you can either use an object repository or completely skip it (if you are using Descriptive Programming approach). 5) Test Scripts: Again based on the design of your framework, you can have separate test scripts for each manual test case or a single driver script that will execute all the test cases. 2) The function library opens the excel sheet and reads the first keyword associated with the test case.
4) The function then performs all the required actions on the application that is being tested. As mentioned in the beginning of the article, the basic premise of a Keyword Driven Framework is that – you identify some keywords and write associated functions. That’s the reason why, if you search for Keyword Driven Frameworks on the internet, you would find a variety of ways in which people have implemented this idea.
Example 1: This is one of the most common formats of Keyword Driven Frameworks that you will see around (with slight variations here and there).
Example 2: This is another common structure that is used very frequently and is quite similar to the previous one.


Example: As mentioned previously also, in this type of Keyword Driven Framework design, the keyword is associated with a small operation (like click button, set value in some text box) rather than associating it with an entire function (like login, logout etc). In the above example, Set, Click and Sync are the keywords that will be associated with corresponding set, click and sync functions provided by QTP.
Would you like to share any other Keyword Driven Framework format that that we might have missed here? If you enjoyed this article, you can join our blog to get new articles delivered directly in your inbox. I have created an simple framework which has seperate folder for each component such as or,results,function library,script ,datatable and i used the data driven framework-2 with some customization.currently am working on creating batch execution model to incorporate in it.
Having a proper folder structure as you have defined is one of the best practices and helps a long way in coming up with a good framework design.. How do you control the logical events in the Pure keyword driven framework (with lowest level operations)?
For that we would be writing the some custom functions that will do the desired operations.
I am using qtp 11 and trying to create a keyword driven framework where I have parameterized my logins.
But I got more Ideas, even I already worked more than 3 year in a key word driven framework. Awesome explaination…tried searching many articles to get the clear picture and this is THAT ONLY ONE article that came as relief !! If you like reading Automation Repository, you can subscribe to this blog so that all the new articles get delivered directly in your Inbox. A blog on QTP, Automation Repository aims to provide information rich articles to help you learn various concepts & resolve your doubts on QTP.
Exploratory testing is Simultaneous exploration, design and execution. That means a tester is not referring to any pre-designed test cases during exploratory testing. In Agile, the whole-team approach means involving everyone with different knowledge and skills to ensure project success.
We at InnoEye understand that quality not only needs to be defined and implemented but also it should ease the way for enhanced productivity.
A comprehensive repository with numerous reusable scripts and components is already in efficient use for the existing systems for regressive testing and test data creations, saving a lot of manual intervention and reaping high cost benefits to the company. Functional Testing is carried out using QTP (Quick Test Pro) wherein the Automation Testing Framework is based on the Hybrid Test Automation Framework Architecture.
This allows data driven scripts to take advantage of the powerful libraries and utilities that usually accompany a keyword driven architecture. The framework utilities can make the data driven scripts more compact and less prone to failure than they otherwise would have been. The use of Test parameters, Action parameters, Environment variables and Data tables enables the scripts and keyword driven tests to have a single point of maintenance.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. This is usually achieved by using an additional layer of abstraction where the tests itself are defined technology-independent and readable for non-technical personnel as well. Next to that, labor can be divided easier based on different levels of technical experience.
Therefore it could be carried out by different people with different levels of technical and domain-depending understanding.
Here, the keyword implementation is completely separated from the test case design and keyword usage. With Ranorex, it’s possible to implement test cases based on keywords in a table-like workplace as well, namely in the Ranorex Recorder. According to your preferences you can either use the Ranorex Test Suite or the Ranorex Recorder as base of your work. You still can describe your test data in same language as your framework, just remember to introduce some internal DSL (e.g.
Beginning with this article, we will cover the various aspects of QTP Keyword Driven Framework in detail.


Let us consider that you have to automate a flow where you would need to do the following things in GMail. If you look at the above test case from pure Modular Framework point of view, you will be able to easily identify that you would need to write 3 different functions for the above test case. You would have to built all the necessary intelligence in the function library so that it can read the excel sheets and call the different functions based on the Keywords. Steps 2 to 5 are repeated till all the keywords associated with a particular test case are called. This generic statement provides you with a lot of scope to improvise and put in your own thoughts to build this framework. The only difference is that the keyword names are self explanatory and hence you don’t need to provide the description for each keyword. We would be covering each of the above mentioned examples in detail (together with downloadable code) in upcoming articles.
Once you identify the keyword from the data table then you call the corresponding function for that keyword. And even if the keyword name and the function name would match, it would not create any issue. I am trying to implement the same in our project and needed some guidance from you if not much of an inconvenience: how to arrange the folder structure for the test cases? I am trying to implement the keyword driven framework in my project and am starting from stratch; can you give me a general idea of the folder structure that needs to be implemented in regards to the test suites: what considerations need to be taken care of to get the optimum results? This blog aims to provide information rich articles to help you learn various concepts in QTP.
So a well set of defined framework has been set up and has been effectively brought into practice by our experienced professionals.
With this confidence we moved ahead and devised out a mix approach combining the advantages of manual and automation testing that reaps the benefits of both in terms of time and money.
Here the automation (keyword implementation) can be done by technically experienced team members whereas the test case design (keyword usage) can be done by domain testers who don’t need to have technical skills to that extent.
Meaningful data placed in an excel spreadsheet, for instance, could define the credentials to login as well as the set of data to be added in a test case. We will be covering all these details together with examples and downloadable code in 4 to 5 articles. You would need to write some code that will first open this excel sheet and copy the keywords. For ease of understanding, you would also need to provide a description for each of the keywords.
My question is if function for corresponding keyword is also mentioned in the sheet then how can we call that function in the script? I mean what is the optimum way to organize the folders for the various test suites in a project? In contrast, using the Ranorex Recorder with its actions table, the keywords are presented by predefined methods held by the inheriting code module. That would require doing this separately both in the framework that parses the test data, and in XML files as well. So when you associate a keyword with the function, it means that a single keyword is associated with a collection of steps. So the keywords that you will use in this case would be Set, Click, Type etc which will be associated with functions which will just click on the object or enter value in a text box.
The below image shows the structure of the keyword excel sheet with horizontally aligned keywords. It seems like there’s no limitation to data-drive keyword-driven test cases with Ranorex.



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Author: admin | 08.09.2015



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