Vitamin d and health,cheese crisps low carb,healthy snacks for kids - Test Out

admin | Boot Camp Training Routines | 02.08.2015
Early in the twentieth century more than 80 percent of children in industrialized Europe and North America were ravaged by the devastating skeletal consequences of rickets. Vitamin D deficiency has again become a major public health interest with its association with osteoporosis, osteomalacia, fractures, and more recently with prevention of cancer, diabetes, heart disease and other chronic illnesses. At the early part of the 20th century, rickets remained one of the most devastating health consequences of the Industrial Revolution. Common folklore, especially in Scandinavian countries and on the coastline of Great Britain, had known that cod liver oil was effective in preventing and treating rickets. Once vitamin D2 was easily made from ergosterol, it was added to milk directly and replaced the irradiation process. In the early 1950s, in Great Britain, an outbreak of hypercalcemia in infants was thought to be due to the over fortification of milk with vitamin D. During exposure to sunlight, 7-dehydrocholesterol in the epidermis and dermis absorb ultraviolet B radiation resulting in the production of pre-vitamin D3.
Patients who are vitamin D deficient absorb only about 10 to 15 percent of their dietary calcium and 60 percent of their dietary phosphorus.
Vitamin D deficiency causes a decrease in the efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption and results in a decrease in ionized calcium.
Reports of Vitamin D deficiency from countries as diverse as Great Britain19 Austria,20 Germany,21 Finland,22 New Zealand23 and India24 indicate the scope of the pandemic. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is pandemic and is seen in essentially every country in the world. Public policies to ensure adequate vitamin D intake in public health nutrition are vital for all countries including the industrialized countries as well as former Soviet countries in transition and developing countries.
Vitamin D deficiency is so widespread that a combination of food fortification for the total population and individual screening for people in groups at risk for this important deficiency is needed. All countries in Europe and globally should mandate fortification of milk, (including milk formulas, powders and evaporated milk), soft milk products (yoghurts, cottage cheeses and others) as a key vehicle for prevention of deficiency of vitamin D, including in sunny countries. There are two major types of vitamin D1,2:Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) – which is synthesized by plants and is not produced by the human bodyVitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) – which is made in large quantities in the skin when sunlight strikes bare skin. Finding that exposure to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight treated and prevented rickets led to the ultraviolet irradiation of foods including milk.
Studies conducted on rachitic rodents demonstrated that when they were irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp, the healing of rickets was similar to that of rachitic rodents that received cod liver oil, suggesting that the antirachitic factor was both a nutrient and a hormone.
When vitamin D deficiency is corrected, intestinal calcium absorption increases to about 30-40 percent and phosphorus absorption is increased to about 80 percent.
The calcium sensor in the parathyroid glands immediately recognizes the decrease causing the parathyroid glands to increase the production and secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) (Figure 1).6, 7 PTH maintains serum calcium levels by increasing tubular reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys. However, the unmineralized matrix underneath the periosteal membrane that is heavily innervated with sensory fibers is hydrated and pushed upwards, often being perceived by the patient as throbbing aching bone pain. It is well documented that living at upper and lower latitudes increases risk for multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. When the macrophage produces 1,25(OH)2D, it instructs the cell to produce cathelicidin which is a member of the defensin protein family whose purpose is to kill infective agents such as tuberculosis.6,33 This led to the suggestion that the reason why upper respiratory tract infections and influenza are most common during the winter is that that is the time when the 25(OH)D levels are at their lowest. Adults work mainly indoors, and children and adolescents are spending increasing amounts of time indoors playing on computers instead of being out of doors.
In one case report, a man took 2 teaspoons a day of a product thinking it contained 1000 IU of vitamin D per teaspoon for more than six months. There are many causes (Figure 3), but lack of awareness of the importance of this deficiency is crucial in individual and public health. There is no drawback to increasing your vitamin D intake unless you have a granulomatous disorder. New recommendations continue to emerge, substantially increasing the adequate intakes for children and adults as well as what is considered to be the safe upper limit of intake. Clinical testing and population surveys of 25(OH)D levels should be integral to population health monitoring.


International agencies such as the World Health Organization, UNICEF and the major donors should promote fortification as an essential element of the New Public Health.
Hypovitaminosis D among healthy children in the United States: a review of current evidence.
Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors.
High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in northern India. Association between serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. For example, residents at 42° N latitude or higher are unable to synthesize vitamin D via the skin during the winter months (from November through February). The two forms have traditionally been regarded as equivalent based on their ability to cure rickets, but evidence suggests that vitamin D3 is approximately three times more effective at maintaining serum concentrations because the binding protein has a higher affinity to vitamin D3 than vitamin D2.
These practices along with the fortification of a variety of foods including dairy products with vitamin D and widespread use of cod liver oil eradicated rickets as a significant health problem by the late 1930s. Vitamin D deficiency is especially prevalent in dark skinned children and adults living in Northern latitudes, and obese children and adults. These observations prompted Steenbock to introduce the concept of irradiation of people and animals to induce antirachitic activity, and to then suggest the irradiation of food. Schematic representation of the synthesis and metabolism of vitamin D for regulating calcium, phosphorus and bone metabolism.
However, the conundrum was that the kidneys only produced a finite amount of 1,25(OH)2D that was tightly regulated by the serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH levels in the circulation. 1,25(OH)2D returns to the nucleus where it increases the expression of cathelicidin (CD) which is a peptide capable of promoting innate immunity and inducing the destruction of infective agents such as TB. Since rickets is not commonly seen, physicians, regulatory and healthcare agencies and the general public concluded that vitamin D deficiency was conquered.
Oily fish, cod liver oil and mushrooms exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet radiation are the only natural sources. A Schematic Representation of the Major Causes for Vitamin D Deficiency and Potential Health Consequences. Thus there needs to be increased awareness on the part of the medical community and public about the insidious consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Recommendations for sensible daily sun exposure and adequate vitamin D supplementation are both in a state of flux.
Awareness by the general public, healthcare providers and health insurance systems of the importance of vitamin D adequacy could have a dramatic impact on the health and welfare of all children and adults. Further, all health systems should incorporate routine clinical testing of 25(OH)D levels for those at risk and vitamin D supplementation as routine preventive measures among age groups as discussed above. This allows vitamin D3 to reside in the circulatory system longer and increase the concentration to sufficient levels more quickly.
Many countries mandated the fortification of milk with vitamin D to prevent rickets during wartime shortages. Improving the vitamin D status worldwide would have dramatic effects on public health, and reduce healthcare costs for many chronic diseases. However, the medical community found it inconceivable that skin exposure to sunlight could have any beneficial effect for bone health. He and his colleagues demonstrated that irradiating a wide variety of foods with ultraviolet radiation imparted antirachitic activity.
Windaus and colleagues developed an analog of ergosterol that had a side chain for cholesterol which had similar antirachitic activity as irradiated ergosterol.
Finland and Sweden began to fortify their milk with vitamin D in the 1990s, but overall, fortification is not widely practiced in Europe.
Neither a skeletal x-ray nor a bone density scan can distinguish between osteomalacia, osteopenia and osteoporosis.


When they received 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 weekly for eight weeks, there was a substantial decrease in their PTH levels. In the US, a 20 percent decline was reported in the serum 25(OH)D levels as measured by the national database NHANES III between 1994 and 2004. Recognition of the pandemic of vitamin D deficiency obliges governments to lead in regulation of mandatory fortification and monitoring of compliance by industry.
In the 1950s, in Europe, many countries forbid fortification of dairy and food products except breakfast cereals and margarine because of an outbreak of vitamin D intoxication in neonates.
In 1919, Huldschinsky exposed children to a mercury arc lamp and demonstrated radiologic healing of rickets.4 He promoted the use of ultraviolet irradiation as an infallible cure for rickets. Vitamin D (D represents D2 or D3) made in the skin or ingested in the diet can be stored in and then released from fat cells.
When phosphorous and bone genes levels signal a normal state of bone remodeling, the kidney reduces the production of 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D to a normal level. I review the pathophysiology of vitamin D deficiency and its health consequences and provide recommendations for a new policy approach to this vital public health issue. Pharmacies in the United States and Europe sold ultraviolet lamps to parents so that they could expose their children to the anthracitic ultraviolet radiation. The practice of using ultraviolet radiation of milk was quickly implemented throughout the US, Canada and Europe as a means of preventing rickets in children. It is believed that the local production of 1,25(OH)2D in the breast, colon, prostate, and other cells regulates a variety of genes that control proliferation including p21 and p27 as well as genes that inhibit angiogenesis and induced apoptosis. Beginning in the liver it is transformed into 25(OH)vitamin D (calcidiol), which is the primary circulating form of Vitamin D and the most commonly measured form in serum.
Once 1,25(OH)2D completes the task of maintaining normal cellular proliferation and differentiation, it induces the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24-OHase). Holick, an endocrinologist from Boston University, has spent 30 years researching Vitamin D and its impact on health. Then in the kidneys it is transformed into 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D (calcitriol), which is the biologically active form of vitamin D.
Serum phosphorus, calcium fibroblast growth factors (FGF-23) and other factors can either increase (+) or decrease (-) the renal production of 1,25(OH)2D. Thus, the local production of 1,25(OH)2D does not enter the circulation and has no influence on calcium metabolism. 1,25(OH)2D feedback regulates its own synthesis and decreases the synthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the parathyroid glands.
The parathyroid glands have 1-OHase activity and the local production of 1,25(OH)2D inhibits the expression and synthesis of PTH. The production of 1,25(OH)2D in the kidney enters the circulation and is able to down regulate renin production in the kidney and to stimulate insulin secretion in the β-islet cells of the pancreas. Holick adds, “Every tissue and cell in the body requires Vitamin D, not just for bones and teeth.
Vitamin D deficiency contributes to the cause of many diseases such as cancer, MS, rheumatoid arthritis and depression. The mature osteoclast removes calcium and phosphorus from the bone to maintain blood calcium and phosphorus levels. Humans can get Vitamin D from these sources: exposure to sunlight, dietary intake and supplements.



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