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admin | Low Carb Meal Ideas | 15.01.2014
Millions of households in the developing world depend on food and fodder from forests to supplement their own and their livestock's diets. Homegardens are producing an increasingy important supply of food in many countries, as population pressures reduce the amount of land available to each household for food crops. An adequate supply of livestock fodder is a crucial part of food production for millions of people. Livestock productivity can also be increased on rangelands through greater use of tree and shrub species. LEAVES AND STEMSWild leaves, either fresh or dried, are one of the most widely consumed forest foods.
ROOTS AND TUBERSRoots and tubers provide carbohydrates an( some minerals, and are often important ingredients in traditional medicines.
FISHForests help to maintain the conditions in rivers necessary for fish to live and breed. ANIMALSThe protein content of wild meat-often 20-25 percent by weight-is comparable and sometimes higher than that of meat from domestic animals. Common salt or salt lick: Provides mineral salts like sodium, iodine, chlorine and so many others. However, your production cost will be determined by market conditions and factors such as the sources of purchase of the feed ingredients, cost of the feed ingredients, transport costs, your scale of purchases,the miller’s production costs etc. To be able to produce a feed equal in quality to factory processed feeds,you must have a knowledge of the Compounded feed plan indicating the various feed ingredients and their formulation ratio(correct nutritional proportions) for the different stages of development in the chickens. The objective here is that you can make more profits and spend much less on feeding the birds if you compound your own feed for your chickens.If you decide to make use of the factory feeds, no problem. However, this is only possible if farmers have the right quality of ingredients or raw material for formulating feeds. Assuming that the farmer wants to make bulk organic feed for their chickens using this poultry feed formulation software: Pearson Square method, they have to know the crude protein content of each of the ingredients used in feed making. To determine if a 70 kg bag of feed has adequate crude protein content for birds meant for meat production, the same methods is used: (16. The IFIF says it chose Nigeria due to its growth potential, its existing legal framework for feed and food safety, and because it already has a sizeable feed industry. Nigeria is to be the test case country for an international training initiative aimed at increasing feed safety and quality.
Get FREE access to authoritative breaking news, videos, podcasts, webinars and white papers. Although forest foods do not usually provide a complete diet, they do make a critical contribution to the food supply.
Forested areas, mangroves, streams and fallow agricultural areas within the forest provide a habitat for many wild animals and fish. Homegardens support the cultivation of multi- purpose trees and shrubs, often in association with annual and perennial agricultural crops and livestock, within the household compound.
When intensively managed, the yield from a compound, in monetary terms, can be five to ten times as much per hectare as that from traditional field cropping systems, and returns on labour are typically four to eight times higher.Many homegardens support very large numbers of different species. As the base for soups, stews and relishes they add flavour to otherwise bland staples such as rice or maize, making them more palatable and thus encouraging consumption. In the areas of northeastern Brazil where the babassu palm grows, its kernels provide oil for an average percent of households. They used as drought and famine foods, not only because they survive low rainfall periods, b because they can be an important source of water. Gum, used as a food supplement good source of energy; and both saps and g, have many medicinal uses. In coastal areas, mangrove forests are home to important breeding areas for fish and molluscs, which together provide significant animal protein for many rural communities.
Wild meat is an important source of animal protein in many parts of the world, though availability depends on conditions in the forest. These feeds are usually of excellent quality, containing all the relevant nutrients in the correct proportions required for healthy growth and development of the chickens.However, many Nigerians think they are too costly. While it is difficult for farmers to formulate feeds for hybrid chickens such as broilers and layers, they can do so for their indigenous chickens or dual-purpose breeds such as Kenbro under intensive management system. The Pearson Square method relies on the Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) as the basic nutritional requirement for feed.


The farmer may use whole maize (8.23 % DCP) Soya (45 % DCP) Omena (55 % DCP) and maize bran (7 % DCP) Sunflower (35 % DCP). This shows that the crude protein percentage in the above feed formulation is 19.0 % which is suitable for layers. For, example, forests maintain suitable conditions for fresh water fish by helping to reduce the sediment in streams, while mangroves provide an important habitat for fish (see box).Birds, their eggs, insects, rodents and other larger mammals are sometimes the only source of animal protein for rural people.
In Nigeria, people living near forest reserves consume as much as 84 percent of their animal protein in the form of game whereas, in areas of Nigeria with no access to forests, bushmeat makes up only 7 percent of total meat consumption. Such gardens are found in most regions of the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly in lowland areas with high population densities.Many homegardens resemble those of Java or southeastern Nigeria, with an intensive combination of trees, crops and livestock.
In southeastern Nigeria permanently cultivated compounds around the household contain trees including the oil palm, coconut, banana and plantain, intercropped with cassava, gums and other arable crops.Studies have shown that households with homegardens have higher than average nutrition levels. There are 20 to 25 million pastoralists in Africa alone, many of them roaming the dry sub-Saharan belt that stretches from Mauritania to Ethiopia.These pastoralists manage to keep their herds alive on arid and semi-arid land by supplying them with twigs, leaves, small branches, seed pods and fruit from trees and shrubs.
Many plants are used traditionally for these medicinal qualities, and others undoubtedly depend on effects not yet exploited in Western medicine.
One study in Lushoto, Tanzania, found that people who consumed wild leaf relishes favoured the taste of wild leaves over introduced cultivated vegetables.Leaves from wild and cultivated trees are often boiled fresh in stews. In Sierra Leone, oil from the kernel and fruits of the oil palm is consumed by 96 percent of rural households.Among other important oil nut trees are, the shea butternut, cashew nut, African breadfruit, the mongongo nut and the Park species. However, they require time to find a dig up, and often involve extensive process such as soaking and prolonged cooking.MUSHROOMSMushrooms, eaten as meat substitutes and i flavouring, are good sources of protein and minerals. Average figures for Nigeria, for instance, show that more than three times as much fish as beef is eaten.
Although wild meat is also a good source of iron and vitamins A and B, which are commonly lacking in diets, often only small amounts of meat are consumed because of shortages, high prices and legal restrictions on the hunting of animals.
If one were to formulate feed for layers, then they would have to calculate the percentage of digestible crude protein in each of the ingredients to ensure that the total crude protein content is at least 18 per cent to meet this nutritional requirement. Before mixing the feed using poultry feed mixer, whole maize including the other ingredients has to be broken into the right sizes through crushing with poultry feed milling equipment to make it palatable for the chickens. For the full terms and conditions for commenting see clause 7 of our Terms and Conditions ‘Participating in Online Communities’. Leafy vegetables and wild animals add diversity, flavour, vitamins and minerals to characteristically grain-dominated diets.
The naturally abundant small animals-rats, squirrels, mice, porcupine and grasscutters - are the most important species for subsistence consumption. In other cases, however, a single mango tree provides a source of food at a time of the year when few other foodstuffs are available or when the need to plant the next season's crop means that there is little spare time or labour available for gathering and preparing food.The average size of a homegarden is usually much less than one hectare, yet in many parts of the world the fruit, nuts, edible leaves and other foodstuffs grown in homegardens provide a substantial part of the household food requirement. In Puerto Rico, for instance, food from gardens tended by women significantly contributes to the total food supply and is an important source of both betacarotene (converted to Vitamin A in the body) and Vitamin C, especially for children.Trees are also part of traditional shifting cultivation systems practised within forest areas by more than 300 million people world-wide. Pastoralists in parts of northern Senegal, for example, rely on high-quality supplements of browse-leaves, fruits and seed-pods from trees and shrubs-for at least six months of every year, to keep their herds alive and healthy. For example, in southern Cameroon the wine is consumed in most households several times a week.
In Sarawak, Malaysia and the Peruvian Amazon, 50-60 percent of animal protein comes from fish.
Shifting cultivation can involve clearing forest areas to develop agroforestry systems similar to those found in homegardens. Probably as much as three-quarters of Africa's nearly 10 000 tree species are used for browsing.During the dry season, browse can comprise as much as 60 percent of goats' fodder and 30 percent of cattle fodder. In both regions, control of the unpalatable species, linked with re-planting of more useful species, would enhance conditions on the rangeland and enable these lands to support a greater number of animals.Agroforestry can also play an important role in providing fodder for livestock, whether from hedges and windbreaks established to stabilize sand dunes and allow more cropping, or from the variety of trees cultivated in homegardens. By keeping the body healthy, they not only help it to absorb food efficiently but also increase its ability to fight off infections that might otherwise impair digestion and the ability to eat. Fermenting Parkia improves the digestibility the protein and increases the vitamin content of the seeds, providing a nutritious protein fat-rich food known as dawadawa. The gum of Sterculia species, a good source of beta-carotene and vitamin C, is added to soups and stews in northern Senegal.
Forest foods can thus raise rural peoples' nutritional intake by providing a year-round supply of food.The most important and well documented use of forest foods is in meeting seasonal shortfalls such as the `hunger periods' at the beginning of the rainy season before crops are ready for harvest. Fodder from trees and shrubs is particularly important during this season when the nutritional quality of grasses is markedly reduced.


In either case, incorporating th provision of fodder into the agricultural syster has significant spin-offs for the welfare of the household.Nutrition and healthFood from trees in forests homegardens, and the plants and wildlife supported by forests are often nutritionally essential to the diet of rural people.
It is an important ingredient in side dishes, soups a stews made to accompany porridges in northern and western Africa. Gum arabic (from Acacia senegal) is a traditionally important food for pastoralists, agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers; more recently it became an important source of food for gum collectors. During hunger periods, the practices of digging for roots and tubers and gathering fruit and nuts are almost universal. Dry grasses contain only minimal levels of energy and protein, and lack essential minerals, especially phosphorus.
The medicinal and other properties of tree products also play an important role in keeping people healthy.Many forest foods are higher in vitamins and other important nutrients than domesticated varieties. Other gaps in food supply are caused by sudden needs for cash-for school fees, for example -which force families to sell crops. Tree blossoms provide a year round food supply for bees and, in turn, the fertilizing action of bees during their hunt for nectar can increase the yields of oilseed, pulses and fruit trees.
Such demands leave families short of both food and the money they need to buy food.Trees are also important in emergencies such as drought and famine. In the central rangelands of Somalia, Cordeauxia edulis (yicib), the main dry season food of camel and goat herds, is being overbrowsed and progressively eliminated.The management of fodder resources on farms, in rangelands and in forest areas can help reduce overbrowsing and provide a sustainable source of animal fodder. They provide food when crops fail and products such as gum arabic to sell for cash income with which to buy food. Similarly, on a weight-for-weight basis, wild leaf vegetables contain more riboflavin-another vitamin necessary for good health -than eggs, milk, nuts and fish.It is estimated that some 250 000 children go blind in south-east Asia every year because of lack of vitamin A. Leucine, lysine, arginine and valine were the predominant essential amino acids while tryptophan and the sulphur-containing amino acids were deficient.Azolla meal has a potential as a feed for chicks. The extra time and energy thus acquired are highly valuable, especially as women also prepare the family meals and often have a working day that lasts from four in the morning to eleven at night.Many Nepalese farmers have now started to grow fodder trees on their farms, and they are popular on farm and fallow land in southeast Nigeria. Many forest fruits and their leaves are good sources of beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. Several wild foods are used only in times of scarcity and famine, among them fibres, seeds, tubers, leaves and stems. Riboflavin deficiency, responsible for several eye and skin disorders, can be corrected by many forest foods, especially leaves. Iron, needed to produce blood haemoglobin, is abundantly available in many forest foods.One of the most common causes of dietary deficiencies is the decreasing diversity of diets. Medical surveys have shown that Pacific Islanders, for example, began to consume fewer minerals and vitamins as they became more dependent on imported cereals and developed a preference for introduced vegetables; there was a significant decline in health as a result. In rural Bangladesh it was found that, although people living in `'modern' villages had calorific, protein-rich rice and wheat available all year round, a greater number of people suffered from malnutrition than in `traditional' villages where food was not as readily available. Because of the availability of rice and wheat, the modern villagers were eating less of other foods, and the diet of traditional villagers, which contained more roots, tubers, pulses and vegetables, had a higher mineral and vitamin content. Moreover, as commercial feed is mixed with urea and other artificial milk boosters, it has a deleterious effect on the quality of milk produced and the longevity of the livestock, which in turn leads to degenerative diseases like cancer and coronary ailments in human beings.Dr. They also learned to make compost from worms (vermiculture or vermicomposting) and combine it with manure and fertilizer to further raise crop yields.Bhoochetana is a success.
Azolla-rice cultivation is now also being used in conjunction with fish farming, and result in increased rice production of 20% and fish production of 30% according to Kamalasanana et al. Most abalone species are found in cold waters off the Southern Hemisphere coasts of New Zealand, South Africa, Australia, and western North America and Japan in the Northern Hemisphere.Farming of abalone began in the late 1950s in Japan and China.
Since the mid-1990s, there have been many increasingly successful endeavors to commercially farm abalone for food. Over-fishing and poaching have reduced wild populations to such an extent that farmed abalone now supplies most of the abalone eaten by people.



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