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admin | Weight Loss Fitness Program | 27.02.2013
There is increasing emphasis on the potential benefits of adding resistance training to an exercise regimen, especially for the elderly. Bone is a complex tissue that provides lifelong structural support for muscles, protection of vital organs, and stores calcium, which is essential for bone density (Neiman, 1998).
One of the best methods to maintain current bone mineral density is through physical activity. This resistance training program resulted in a significant increase in bone mineral density of the greater trochanter for both males and females. The high-intensity resistance training groups also trained three times per week for about 75 minutes per supervised session. High intensity resistance exercise also resulted in a significant increase in bone mineral density of the greater trochanter for both men and women. The results of this study demonstrate that both males and females benefit from resistance exercise three times per week of both moderate- and high-intensities. High-intensity and moderate-intensity resistance exercises, when properly progressed and supervised, are safe and beneficial activities for many elderly clients that improve musculoskeletal health and may reduce the likelihood of falling. Marianne Payne works out with others recently at the Prime Movers dance exercise program at Pelham Manor. Further instructing them to lean on a chair as they moved one leg up and down, she went on to tell them to bend, then straightened their leg.
As the nation combats the epidemic of widening waistlines in every age group, the importance of exercise for the elderly cannot be dismissed. Anyone in a wheelchair are not expected to perform at the same level as their ambulatory peers. That means warm-up and cool-down periods, too, even if they mighty last a little longer, which underscores the fact that she makes adjustments for seniors After all, some have ailments, including heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis, so it’s necessary to take steps to minimize the risk of injury and to ensure effectiveness. Exercise also benefits persons with dementia, too, said Cheryl Conley, program director at the Alzheimer’s Association, Northwest Ohio Chapter.
Clearly, the results of physical activity are more far reaching than aiming for and keeping a fit body. These benefits may include increased bone mineral density, increased strength, and an increased ability to perform activities of daily living.
When these levels drop, the parathyroid hormone is released, which activates the osteoclasts. The subjects in this group trained three times per week for about 75 minutes per supervised session. However, only men achieved the added result of a significant increase in lumbar spine bone mineral density. None of the participants were injured during this study indicating that intensities as high as 70% 1-RM are safe for most healthy elderly persons. From the study reviewed in this article, it appears high-intensity resistance exercise yielded slightly greater increases in bone mineral density, lean mass, and muscle strength. Desde 2002, el Proyecto cuenta con el apoyo del CNPq - Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo Cientifico y Tecnologico.El proyecto tiene por objetivo desarrollar una metodologia comun para la preparacion, almacenamiento, diseminacion y evaluacion de la literatura cientifica en formato electronico.

Seegert teaches at the Jewish Family Service Senior Adult Center housed in Pelham Manor in West Toledo, where for 20 years she has helped seniors learn to stay fit.
Seegert incorporates a variety of exercise, such as strength training, yoga, tai chi, and belly and ballroom dancing.
Furthermore, some routines she does not do: Never is the head lower than the heart, and no windmills are done in Ms.
She added that research shows that physical activity decreases the amount of a certain protein in the brain of some dementia patients.
Lots of literature shows that exercise is good for your heart, and the number one thing people can do for their brain is to exercise,” said Ms.
It has a two-fold goal: an association staff member works with seniors with dementia in their homes to help them improve strength, flexibility, and balance.
For the elderly, these benefits of resistance training may, more importantly, result in additional advantages such as increased independence and decreased risk of falls and injuries.
Specific chemical signals direct some bones cells, referred to as osteoclasts, to break down and remove bone (referred to as bone resorption, which means the act of absorbing).
And when the blood calcium levels are high, the thyroid gland releases the hormone calcitonin, which inhibits the osteoclasts and activates the osteoblasts, resulting in bone deposition (Robergs & Roberts, 1997).
These stresses help activate the osteoblasts and favor bone deposition (Robergs & Roberts, 1997). This program involved 12 exercises; free weight back squat, deadlift, biceps curls, sit-ups, triceps extensions, chest press, incline chest press, shoulder press, high lat pull-down, leg curl, gripper, and calf raise. And while it’s not news that everyone needs regular exercise, regular physical activity could be more vital for the elderly because it not only helps them to remain strong and to ward off illness, but in the event of injury or illness, it can help shorten recovery. Fortunately the elderly in the Toledo area can obtain exercises sessions at senior centers . Seegert’s classes get around on their own, though she has had some who use a cane, walker, or wheelchair, and all do as much as they are comfortable doing.
If a comment violates these standards or our privacy statement or visitor's agreement, click the "X" in the upper right corner of the comment box to report abuse. Although research has demonstrated the possible benefits of resistance training, there is still much controversy over which training method is better for elderly men and women. In females, estrogen tends to inhibit the activity of the osteoclasts and therefore helps retain bone mineral (Robergs & Roberts, 1997). The exercises included; leg extension, leg press, hamstring curls, arm curls, triceps press, chest press, pec deck, shoulder press, side lateral raise, lat pull-down, seated row, abdominal crunch, and calf raise. This lack of IGF-I indicates that the increases in bone mineral density were more than likely a result of physical stresses on the bone and not hormonal effects.
Again, there were no significant changes in IGF-I for either gender which reemphasizes the probability that physical stress was responsible for the increases in bone mass. People interested in starting a resistance-training program should consult with their physician first, especially if they are elderly, hypertensive, or have musculoskeletal injuries or diseases.
But most of all, personal trainers should enthusiastically encourage their elderly clients to include resistance training into their lifestyles.

Programs such as the one at Pelham Manor benefit seniors who might be unstable on their own, who lack confidence to move about alone, or whose caregivers are unsure how to help their aging loved one. In fact, Mary Lou Whittaker at Pelham Manor said their seniors come from throughout the area, and that if someone cannot do a routine, the person simply does not do it.
The research study reviewed in this article attempts to answer this controversy by comparing high-intensity standing free-weights resistance training to moderate-intensity seated machine-based resistance training.
The maintenance of bone mineral density levels is an important concern for postmenopausal women because they no longer have the protective effects of estrogen. None of the subjects had participated in an exercise or resistance training program for the two years preceding the study. It is suggested that if appropriate for the individual, high-intensity resistance training with the proper recovery periods is more beneficial. The study also compared elderly men versus elderly women on the effects the two training regimens had on bone mineral density, strength, and body composition. The process of remodeling is regulated by a variety of factors, including physical stress and a multiple-hormone system (Robergs & Roberts, 1997).
Interestingly, although elderly women are more prone to bone loss, testosterone in men tends to have similar effects on bone remodeling as does estrogen (Robergs & Roberts, 1997).
The research study by Maddalozzo and Snow (2000) examined this question in relation to elderly men and women. Baseline measurements were taken for bone mass, body composition, Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) (the bone deposition favoring hormone), and one repetition maximum (1-RM). High-intensity resistance exercise favored bone formation slightly better than moderate-intensity resistance exercise, especially for elderly men. Therefore, it is also important for elderly men to maintain their current levels of bone mineral density as testosterone levels decline with increasing age. Then the subjects were randomly assigned to a high-intensity or a moderate-intensity resistance training program (Maddalozzo & Snow, 2000).
There were two 12-week sessions separated by one transitional (nonresistance fitness activities) week to allow recovery from the high exercise intensity and prevent injuries. If it is not safe to have an individual elderly client perform the high-intensity exercises, then the moderate- to low-intensities may more appropriate.
Each resistance training program must be tailored for the specific individual and each provides important benefits.
The added benefits of increased lean mass and muscle strength are especially important for elderly clients as they may help prevent fall and injuries and preserve independence.

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