Diet nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases,healthy appetizers at restaurants,health benefits of fruit juice - Review

admin | Weight Loss Fitness Program | 21.03.2013
This is a publication of the Food and Public Health Branch of the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (FEHD) of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Abstract The Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (FEHD) has conducted a study to determine the nutrient contents of the common Chinese dim sum in Hong Kong and proposes recommendations to maintain a balanced diet while consuming Chinese dim sum.
OBJECTIVES This study aims (i) to determine the nutrient values of the common Chinese dim sum in Hong Kong and (ii) to propose recommendations to maintain a balanced diet while consuming Chinese dim sum.
Annex I Recommendations of WHO and FAO on Nutrient Intake In 2003, WHO updated the technical report entitled “Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases” 1 In this report, a series of population nutrient intake goals for preventing diet-related chronic disease was established, and they are presented in Table 1. Annex II Nutrition and Health Energy, carbohydrate, total fat and protein The causal relationship of obesity and high intake of energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods are well established. Energy is calculated as the sum of contents of total fat, protein and carbohydrate multiplying their corresponding conversion factors (i.e. Total carbohydrate is calculated by subtracting the sum of moisture, ash, total fat and protein from the total weight of the food sample.
Protein is calculated by multiplying the content of total nitrogen in the food sample with the conversion factor of 6.25. Sugar is the sum of individual sugars including fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and lactose. Under no circumstances should the research data contained herein be reproduced, reviewed, or abstracted in part or in whole, or in conjunction with other publications or research work unless a written permission is obtained from FEHD. Based on the nutrient data of Chinese dim sum and the above-mentioned advices, three Chinese dim sum menus are presented as to illustrate healthier combinations of Chinese dim sum for different occasions: 1.
Energy content of food, together with information on the content of energy-producing nutrients (carbohydrate, protein and total fat) is the essential information for construction of a balanced diet. Summary of the scientific conference on dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular health: conference summary from the nutrition committee of the American Heart Association. Energy supports the activities of human body, whereas nutrients are vital for growth of human body, tissue repair and maintenance of good health. The values of most nutrients were close to or within the WHO recommendation on the population nutrient intakes4 (Annex VIII) except the calcium content.
On the other hand, many chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain types of cancer are related to an imbalanced diet. It represents the population average intake that is judged to be consistent with the maintenance of a low prevalence of diet-related diseases in a population. Evidence has indicated that saturated fat and cholesterol play an important role in the above mentioned chronic diseases. These nutrition-related diseases are important public health problems in many parts of the world including Hong Kong. Calcium-fortified soybean milk and orange juice, soybean curd, and green leafy vegetable are also the good sources of calcium. 1 If existing population averages fall outside this range, or trends in intake suggest that the population average will move outside the range, health concerns are likely to arise. To establish a database of nutrient composition of local food items, the Food Research Laboratory (FRL) of the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (FEHD) has started conducting nutrient analysis of indigenous foods since 2002. It is recommended that the owners of food premises should try to modify the recipes of Chinese dim sum to lower the total fat, saturated fat and sodium levels in foods. Controlling intake of sugars in diet plays an important role in managing body weight and diabetes. The nutrient analysis of local indigenous breakfast foods was completed and released in January 2004.

It can be achieved by reducing the amount of cooking oil used, trimming visible fat of meat, serving the sauces separately if possible, and reducing the use of high sodium condiments. 2 The recommended calcium allowances of individuals in developed countries at different stages of life cycle were shown in Table 2.
1 The importance of managing sugar intake is revealed in various food based dietary guidelines, such as the ones from the US 3 and Australia 4 , which suggest sugars should be consumed in moderate amount.
To determine the nutrient content of Chinese dim sum and facilitate the public making healthier food choices, FEHD initiated a study on the nutrient composition of Chinese dim sum. 1, 5 , For instance, limiting the sodium intake has long been identified as one of the dietary control methods for hypertension.
The term “dim sum” first appeared in Tang Dynasty, and it generally refers to all common Chinese-style snacks.
Apart from this written report, the mean nutrient values (energy, available carbohydrate, protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sugars, dietary fibre, calcium and sodium) of per 100 g of the Chinese dim sum studied will also be uploaded onto the Nutrition Information Inquiry System (NIIS) of the Department’s website for public access. Other than hypertension, sodium also appears to play a significant role in people with renal diseases.
Chinese dim sum is one of the favourite food choices of Hong Kong people for breakfast and lunch. 6 Diet rich in fibre improves gastrointestinal health by increasing faecal bulk and reducing transit time, which in turn may lower incidence of certain types of cancer. The Public Opinion Programme of the University of Hong Kong conducted a survey entitled “The Changing Eating Habits of White-collar Workers” in 2003, and they interviewed 511 white collar workers aged 18-49 by telephone 1 . 1 , 7 , 8 In addition, its possible cholesterol lowering effect may benefit patients with cardiovascular diseases.
In this survey, about 13% of the respondents reported having Chinese dim sum as their breakfast at least twice per week. Resorption and formation of bone is a continued lifetime process and calcium contributes significantly in the maintenance of bone tissue. In Hong Kong, the age-adjusted fracture rates have been significantly increased in recent decades.
There is a wide range of Chinese dim sum, mainly of Southern Chinese style, available in the Chinese restaurants in Hong Kong, such as steamed buns, steamed salty dim sum, steamed rice-roll, pan-fried and deep-fried dim sum, rice and noodles, boiled vegetable and desserts. 10 , 11 Adequate intake of calcium was shown to reduce the risk of osteoporosis in older people. The ingredients used for making Chinese dim sum included different types of cereal products, meat and poultry, seafood, vegetable and condiments. Chinese dim sum is mainly prepared by steaming, and some of them are prepared by pan-frying and deep-frying.
The use of lard and monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to be quite common in the preparation of Chinese dim sum.
Appropriate test portions were taken for determining the nutrient profile by chemical analyses. The energy, total fat, and percentage energy from total fat of three examples of low-total fat Chinese dim sum were presented in Table 2. Generally speaking, the steamed bun, steamed rice roll, and dessert were low in total fat, whilst the pan-fried and deep-fried Chinese dim sum was high in total fat. Steaming is one of the low-fat cooking methods, but some of the dim sum items prepared by steaming could be high in total fat. Among 37 savoury Chinese dim sum prepared by steaming, the percentage energy from total fat of 12 Chinese dim sum was more than 50%.

It may be due to the high-total fat raw ingredients, for example the beancurd sheet roll, fatty meat, sesame oil, and fish head. Foods high in total fat are energy-dense and excessive intake of them may increase the risk of obesity.
The energy, saturated fat, and percentage energy from saturated fat of selected Chinese dim sum with high-saturated fat were presented in Table 3. The main sources of saturated fat are animal fats, such as butter, lard, and fat in meat products.
Excessive intake of saturated fat in the long run will increase the risk of having chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and certain types of cancer.
The mean sodium values in per 100 g basis of the top four high-sodium Chinese dim sum were presented in Table 5. Consuming such high-sodium foods frequently increases the chance of having excessive intake of sodium. Chronic excessive intake of sodium may lead to increase in blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases. According to the data presented in Annex V, calcium content of most of the Chinese dim sum was low. There is convincing evidence indicating the reduction in risk of osteoporosis with sufficient intake of calcium together with vitamin D among older adults. The amount of sauce taken in actual practice per serving of a boiled vegetable sample was studied.
The percentage increase in weight of boiled vegetable consumed with sauces was presented in Table 9.
Based on the data in Table 9, about 6.7 g to 29 g of the sauces was consumed together with each serving of boiled vegetables. Using the data in Table 9, the nutrient content of the boiled vegetables consumed with or without sauces was calculated as shown in Annex VI. The nutrient content in boiled vegetable consumed with or without sauces was very similar except for sodium. The nutritional risks associated with the consumption of Chinese dim sum were evaluated in this study.
Owing to the lack of comprehensive food consumption data in Hong Kong, the nutrient intake of the whole population and population subgroups due to these sources could not be quantified, and the evaluation was based on the nutrient composition of Chinese dim sum only. The Chinese dim sum was selected for this study with reference to the menus of Chinese restaurants in Hong Kong. They covered most of the common Chinese dim sum sold in the food premises, but some special Chinese dim sum was not included in this study. The composition of processed foods varies due to variations in the composition of ingredients and changes in formulation. Chinese dim sum, as one of the composite dishes, showed even greater variation in composition.
Apart from the variations in the composition of ingredients and change in formulation, the recipe formulation and actual cooking method are the major sources of variation.
The results of this study suggested that the total fat, saturated fat and sodium contents of some Chinese dim sum were quite high, whilst the calcium and dietary fibre contents were generally low.

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