Absorb nutrients through skin,low glycemic index foods,water vegetables every day - Videos Download

admin | Ripped Workout Plan | 31.10.2013
Some invertebrates, including mollusks and worms, are also known to absorb nutrients through their skin or gills. Using skin and gill tissue taken from hagfish caught near Vancouver Island in Canada, the researchers tested the tissues' absorption of two amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins.
While some organisms exchange nutrients with the water around them as a way to maintain their body fluid salt concentrations, hagfish likely transport molecules through their skin and gills exclusively as a source of nutrition, Glover said.
Skin cells of hagfish are capable of directly absorbing organic nutrients using specially adapted transport channels and leveraging sodium ion gradients. When Pacific hagfish burrow into a carcass and eat their way out, they may be feeding directly through their gills and skin as well as their guts. Lab tests suggest that hagfish actively take up nutrients through their outer tissues, says fish physiologist Chris M. The gill pouch of a Pacific hagfish (shown here removed from the fish) may be able to take up nutrients directly. To test the idea that these almost-vertebrates use skin-feeding powers during full-contact dining, Wood and his colleagues removed bits of skin or gills from the fish but provided glucose to the tissues to keep cells functioning for at least several hours.
If nutrients were just passing through as if the tissue were a lifeless sheet, then increasing the concentrations of nutrients on one side would have increased the concentrations on the other side. Also, taking sodium away from a seawater-like soup of nutrients on the outside of the tissue disrupted passage through the gills. And once inside a carcass, the hagfish is surrounded by a high concentration of dissolved nutrients.


And their system for taking up nutrients represents a transition between that used by aquatic invertebrates such as worms and the more specialized digestive systems used by vertebrates like us, the researchers write in the current issue of the journal the Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. For instance, the researchers found that increasing the concentration of an amino acid caused the tissues to increase absorption, but only up to a point. All but a few vertebrates accomplish this task by orally consuming food and absorbing freed nutrients through the gut epithelium. Skin with strong barriers against outside substances allowed animals to keep their inner chemistry more separate from the outside world, and thus move into fresh water or onto land. Then researchers exposed the outside of the tissues to varying solutions of two amino acids and checked the other side of the tissue to see how much of the nutrients passed through, and under what circumstances. That blockage, Wood says, suggests the hagfish tissue is using a transport system familiar from other organisms, in which sodium needs to bind to a chemical load for the load to be ferried through a tissue. If a specific transport mechanism is moving the molecules, then all of the absorption sites along the skin and gill tissue can become occupied, maxing out the absorption of the amino acid, according to Glover.
Nutrient uptake through the skin is not observed in most vertebrates because the skin, by nature, is meant to function as a tough, mostly impermeable barrier. However, Pacific hagfish have adapted to suit their feeding habitat by evolving the ability to absorb certain organic nutrients directly through their skin. Hagfish feed by burrowing through the decaying corpses of large animals, a rich stew of organic nutrients that have sunk to the ocean floor. In this environment, absorption of some nutrients through direct skin contact is a valuable adaptation.


However, skin must also be a strong physical barrier and capable of denying passage of non-vital compounds. The hagfish solve this conflict by embedding active transport proteins in the skin epithelium cells.
The transport channels are highly selective for specific nutrient substrates like amino acids. They derive the energy required for transport from a sodium ion gradient that exists between the outside of the skin cells and the inside.
Allowing sodium ions to flow back into the cell through the transport channels fuels the energy-intensive uptake of useful nutrients (symport).
Other factors like allosteric regulation can manipulate how compounds are absorbed through the skin.
In this way, the hagfish permit the transport of select nutrients through an otherwise impermeable skin barrier.



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