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Carbohydrate is the major source of energy for your body to perform its daily physical task.
Complex carbohydrates(starches, dietary fibers) have complex chemical structure that slows down the quick rise of blood glucose level.
Saturated fats raise LDL levels (bad cholesterol) and you should limit it to 10% of the total calories.
Minerals are crucial for body building like bones, teeth, structural parts of soft tissues.
Proteins from animal sources (meat, poultry, milk, fish) are considered to be of high biological value because they contain all of the essential amino acids. Minerals are divided into major or trace minerals, depending on the amount needed by the body.
Intense schedules, long commutes, indulgent business entertainment, skipped breakfasts, nutritionally impoverished canteens and vending machines, all make it increasingly difficult for employees to find the time to prepare, cook and eat a balanced healthy diet. Micronutrient Requirements - There are 4 vitamins and 3 minerals needed in greater amounts during pregnancy.
Vitamin B12 is important during pregnancy to regenerate the active form of folate, therefore, macrocytic anemia can also result from inadequate intake of vitamin B12.
Vitamin C helps form collagen, a part of connective tissue in skin, blood vessels, and tendons, as well as the organic matrix of bones. Vitamin D is needed at the same level in pregnancy as it is prior to pregnancy to aid in calcium absorption. Calcium needs do not change during pregnancy because absorption of calcium is greatly enhanced in pregnancy as long as there is adequate vitamin D intake.
Zinc is necessary for DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, and protein synthesis and facilitates proper growth and development of the fetus. Breast milk, or an approved infant formula, provide the main source of nutrition for the whole first year of life. A greater variety of vegetables would provide vitamin A, C, and E as well as the minerals calcium, iron, and zinc. Preschoolers - The preschooler's growth rate is slower than during the infant and toddler years, but they are more skillful in their activities and more fluent in language.
Calcium is not absorbed as easily in the gut and vitamin D is not produced as easily by the skin. An adequate intake of B-complex vitamins, especially vitamins B6, B12, and folate is necessary to reduce the levels of homocysteine in the blood. One nutrient with increased absorption in the elderly is vitamin A and toxic levels can cause liver damage. Dietary recommendations and guidelines during growth and development of the pediatric patient and eating patterns affecting oral health. Originally, the RDA’s (Recommended Dietary Allowances) were developed to make recommendations for each nutrient to prevent deficiency diseases.
Using the DRIs together with MyPyramid or the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will help ensure an individual consumes a diet that is nutritionally adequate and healthful. Simple carbohydrates raises blood glucose level and mayn't provide any essential nutrients which may lead to different types of health problems (if not consumed in moderate amounts).

Complex carbohydrates are rich in nutrients(vitamins and minerals) and are important for maintaining a healthy digestive system. They cannot be synthesized in the body, hence vitamins must be taken through dietary sources like milk, vegetables, fruits, meat, bread and cereals. Our bodies use these nutrients for energy and to support growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues.
Proteins from plant sources (wheat, corn, rice, and beans) are considered to be of low biological value because an individual plant source does not contain all of the essential amino acids.
While a woman is eating for two, the increase in energy need is not what most people think. The following table provides a summary of the changes in recommendations for these micronutrients during pregnancy. The need for vitamin B12 increases only slightly compared to some other nutrients because it is one nutrient that is absorbed much more efficiently during pregnancy. Vitamin C deficiency can increase the risk of premature birth, preeclampsia, and premature rupture of the membranes. Inadequate zinc intake is associated with malformations in the fetus, decreased birth size, and prolonged labor.
However, vegans, adolescents, and anyone whose diet is not varied enough to provide a balance of all nutrients would benefit from prenatal vitamins. A small amount of solid food is introduced in the second six months to help the infant acquire new tastes and to get a little more iron.
This period begins with puberty, the point in life when sexual development occurs as the body prepares for reproduction.
The thirst mechanism of elderly adults is not as sensitive as it is during younger adult years. For example, During the Great Depression in the 1930’s when some of the vitamins were being discovered and people were not getting enough to eat because there were no jobs, this was an important focus. EER (Estimated Energy Requirement) is the average dietary intake predicted to maintain energy balance in an individual. Essential nutrients are those which our bodies need and must be provided through the foods we eat.
Vitamins and minerals are needed to process (metabolize) the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids to obtain energy from them. Therefore, fat-soluble vitamins may be toxic if large doses are taken for a period of time. Minerals assist in the regulation of many body functions, some of which involve regulating fluids and producing energy and health of our bones and blood.
For one thing the smooth muscles of the digestive tract relax so digestion slows down and more calories and nutrients can be absorbed than normal.
The Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) is the total amount of energy needed per day for any age group. Fruit in the form of juice should be limited to about 4-6 oz per day between the ages of 1 to 6. This age group is not as aware of thirst and yet their activity level causes them to lose significant amounts of fluid through sweat.

Foods such as milk containing both calcium and vitamin D are best, but if the individual is lactose intolerant or has difficulty getting the right foods, calcium supplements with vitamin D are important to minimize the incidence of osteoporosis. There are six major groups of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats and oils, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Vitamins are an essential nutrient because they build and maintain healthy bones and muscle tissue.
It is also necessary to regulate nerve impulses and muscle contractions, as well as for nutrient transport, and excretion of wastes.
While there may be some predisposition toward neural tube defects, it is estimated that the incidence could be reduced by 70% if mothers had an adequate intake.
In addition to the 4-6 oz of juice, another 3 cups of fluids including water is recommended. They also support our immune system, maintain the health of our blood, and ensure healthy vision. Drinking eight to ten glasses of water will ensure that all the above body functions are carried out properly.
While too much fiber can interfere with absorption of some nutrients as in a vegan diet, most children do not get enough fiber.
The range has an upper and lower limit and is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while still providing an adequate intake of essential nutrients.
Vitamins are micro-nutrients, meaning they are needed in small amounts to sustain our normal health and body functions. Iron stores of the mother may be robbed to provide for the needs of the developing fetus. Rice cereal is usually the first choice because it is the least allergenic, although I had a mom in class whose baby was actually allergic to rice cereal.
After about a week a second cereal can be introduced and so on with vegetables at seven months, meats at eight months and fruits at nine months as the ideal pattern. Fruits are saved until last, because they have the least nutritional value and are the most allergenic. A minimum of 3-5 days between each new food will help determine if the baby is allergic to any foods.
DHA (docohexaenoic acid) is an omega-3PUFA that is essential for development of the eyes, nervous system and the rapidly growing brain. Keeping a special cup or sports bottle of water in the fridge can help keep track of fluid intake. More than this might lead to excess mercury consumption which could have a negative effect on the developing fetal nervous system.

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