Parvovirus pregnancy guidelines,do you get pregnant easier second time,early pregnancy symptoms excessive thirst 48 - Plans Download


How do I remove a giant comedonal cyst (2x2 cm) from the interscapular area and leave minimal scarring in a keloid-forming patient? This article contains information on a range of topics designed to fully educate pet owners about Canine Parvovirus in dogs and puppies.
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Test your diagnostic skills with the photos, then separate truth from fiction in the statements about pseudoanaphylaxis and lichen planus. We doesn't provide when to do a pregnancy test products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. Il se compose d'une combinaison, d'une carapace, d'un loup, d'une paire de coudiA?re et de genouillA?res (chaussures non incluses). What is Parvo?Parvo is a severe, often life-threatening disease of the intestinal tract and bone marrow (and sometimes other organs) of dogs and other canids that is caused by one of a number of strains of parvovirus. These puppies often come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and are of uncertain vaccination history, or they have been recently purchased from, or exposed to, places with high environmental parvo virus levels (such as some breeding facilities and pet shops and even vet clinics).
It is not uncommon to see puppies purchased from pet shops (where their background can be uncertain) and 'puppy farms' (often lots of overcrowding of animals and poor hygiene and disease control) become sick from parvo. Puppies that are malnourished or harboring other intestinal diseases (worms, bacterial pathogens) may be worse affected. Affected cats present with similar disease signs to dogs (bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, severe unwellness): a condition termed feline panleukopenia or feline parvo (it is sometimes misnamed feline distemper by cat fanciers, but it is not a distemper virus). The usual virus responsible for feline parvovirus is not the same virus strain as that affecting the dogs, however some of the strains of canine parvo (CPV-2a and CPV-2b) can infect cats and have been known to cause disease in felines.
3) develops an immune suppressive disease and its immune system can not respond normally to defeat the virus. Where do dogs get parvo virus from?Parvo is shed into the environment in the feces of infected dogs. It is important to note that some vaccines, although they prevent a dog from becoming 'sick' with parvo, do not prevent the same animal from developing a carrier state and being at risk to other pets. Animals become sick when they ingest the feces of affected sick or carrier dogs which contain infective virus particles. This is one of the many reasons why dogs should not be allowed to eat the stools (feces) of other animals.Dogs can also ingest infectious particles when they lick the shoes, hands or clothes of a human that has been in hands-on contact with an affected animal. Those hands and clothes may look clean and may have even been washed, but parvo might still be alive on them. Animals spread virus particles onto their fur through rolling or lying in feces or through licking their feces and then licking their bodies (virus from the tongue is transferred through the coat).Importantly, it must be noted that parvo is an extremely long-lasting, difficult to kill organism. Consequently, wherever there has been parvo feces in the past (indoors or outdoors), there is likely to still be parvovirus in the environment. Just because you can't see any droppings does not mean that the surfaces: pavement, concrete, lawn, cages, food bowls, grooming equipment, ground or vegetation are not infective to your dog. The unvaccinated puppy that you have just taken to the park could walk across contaminated ground and come home, lick its feet, and get infected. Environments that are likely to have had parvo in the past (and are thus at higher risk of containing infectious particles) include pet shops, breeding facilities, puppy 'farms', grooming facilities, dog shows, dog clubs and, ahem, vet clinics.
Parvo is a huge concern when it gets into a vet clinic, breeding facility or pet shop because so many young, under vaccinated puppies go through these places. Although these facilities, veterinary clinics in particular, disinfect their premises top to tail with parvo-killing chemicals every time a parvo case appears, you as the owner of a young dog should protect your puppy wherever possible by keeping him out of contact with surfaces (e.g. What does parvo do to the dog - an overview of parvo symptoms?As mentioned in the opening sentences, parvo causes bloody diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dehydration, shock and severe illness in dogs affected with it.
The following discussion is mostly for those of you who are interested in how the viruses works in order to create these parvo symptoms. Understanding how the virus works is useful because it aids your understanding of why certain treatments are required and why treating parvo is so darn expensive!How a parvovirus works:A parvovirus is a tiny organism (much smaller than a bacteria) which is made up of a shell or capsule (called a capsid) containing a strand of DNA. This DNA contains sequences that code for the replication of more strands of viral DNA; internal viral proteins and other virus components such as the virus capsid and surface proteins (the same ones we called antigens in our How Vaccines Work page) which allow the virus to access cells. Obviously, at a microscopic and chemical level, the parvovirus is more complicated than this, but for the purposes of easy understanding, this is pretty much what a parvo virus is.
It also uses the 'cell's machinery' (various cell enzymes and cellular organelles) to get the cell to create hundreds of new capsids and viral proteins. The new DNA copies get packaged into the newly created capsids, along with other viral elements that the cell body has produced and, viola, hundreds of new viruses are made. The cell dies as a result of the infection and bursts, releasing all of the newly-formed viruses into the gut and the body, where they then go and infect other cells. The repeated process of virus invasion and cell destruction is what causes the disease in the animal. In the case of parvo, because the virus needs to make use of the nuclear enzyme used during cell division, it tends to replicate best in rapidly-dividing cell populations where levels of this enzyme are highest (consequently the viral damage tends to occur most severely and noticeably in rapidly-dividing cell populations).
These rapidly-dividing cells are predominantly found in the intestinal 'crypts' (explained next) and in the bone marrow and lymphatic tissues (thymus, lymph nodes) of the animal: thus, most of the clinical signs relate to these organs.
Virus particles can, however, potentially infect any organ, including the fetus, heart, brain and skin, and the impact of infection within some of these sites is discussed in section 7: severe complications of parvo infection. The symptoms of disease are seen when large numbers of cells start dying as a result of this viral replication.
Effects on the intestine:The lining of the dog small intestine is not smooth, but is instead raised up into millions of small 'fingers' called villi (microscopically, the intestinal lining looks like a shag pile carpet!). These villi act to increase the surface area of the intestine over which the animal absorbs nutrients from its food. The cells that form the villi originate in the 'valleys' at the base of the villi (these valleys are termed crypts).
It is like a conveyor-belt, with youngest cells being those closest to the crypts (recently created cells) and oldest cells being those near the tips of the villi (old cells die and drop off the end of the villi and get digested or lost in the feces).Parvovirus, because of its preference for rapidly-dividing cells, replicates in the dividing cells that form the crypts. They disintegrate and fall away from the intestinal wall, resulting in ulceration and bleeding. Without newly-made cells to replace them, the cells lining the villi eventually die off and fall away too. Without these surface intestinal cells to protect them, the internal tissues (connective tissues, blood vessels etc) of the villi are exposed to the chemicals and digestive enzymes of the intestine. The severe, diffuse injury of the intestinal lining results in massive inflammation of the gut: the intestine becomes swollen and paralysed (unable to move) and a condition called ileus (non-moving gut) occurs, which results in vomiting and an inability to keep any food or fluids down.
The bleeding and the massive inflammatory response that occurs in the intestines, results in enormous loss of water and body-proteins into the intestines (these are lost in the diarrhea and vomit), a loss that is further compounded by the fact that the animal can not keep any water or food down (due to vomiting) and the fact that the nutrient-absorbing cell-lining and villi have been lost (there are no cells or absorptive 'fingers' left to absorb any food that does make it to the gut). These bacterial levels in the small intestine can be very high because the gut is not moving (movement of the gut is a normal mechanism by which excessive populations of bacteria get cleared from intestine through the feces). If the gut does not move, bacteria will just brew away in the unmoving regions of the gut, their populations expanding to massive levels.

Bacteria infection of the blood (termed bacteremia, septicemia or blood poisoning) is very nasty, resulting in extensive inflammation and damage to many blood vessels and organs (e.g. Correction of this complication requires surgery: surgery that is likely to be done on an already malnourished, possible septic and compromised animal.
It takes time (about 4 days) for virus particles to replicate and to start shedding into the feces where they can be detected on parvo testing kits. If an animal does not die, infection with parvo will eventually result in a response from the immune system: the immune system will mobilise defensive cells and produce antibodies to try to kill the virus.
Many of these antibodies will remain in the bloodstream, but many will also be secreted into the intestinal tract (antibodies are one of the proteins that leak into the gut through the inflamed, ulcerated zones). These antibodies will bind to viral antigens in the feces and this can 'block' the antibodies in the parvo test kit from getting exposure to them.
Canine Parvo Virus Treatment Options: Treatment of canine parvovirus is pretty much a treatment of symptoms. We know that the disease is caused by a virus, however, we are unable to treat the virus itself per se because no antiviral remedy has been produced or made available in any mainstream capacity to kill it.
The treatment options for parvovirus, their mechanism of action and their pros and cons are discussed below. 1a) Intravenous fluids.If animals have severe vomiting and diarrhea and are pouring massive amounts of inflammatory and intestinal-secretory fluid out into their bowel, then they are going to dehydrate pretty fast. Sometimes, puppies come into the vet which are so collapsed and dehydrated (severe shock signs) the veterinarian can't get an intravenous catheter into them.
In these cases, the vet will sometimes put a catheter into the jugular (large vein in the neck) or put a needle into the bone of the thigh (femur) or upper arm (humerus) to administer fluids. Don't be alarmed to see your vet do this: they are perfectly acceptable ways of giving fluids to animals in severe shock. Often the vomiting and diarrhea are associated with severe loss of blood salts (called electrolytes) into the intestines and these will need to placed in the fluids given to the puppy. This protein is responsible for many actions within the body, one of the most important being the maintenance of colloid-oncotic pressure (COP). Put basically, COP is a force exerted by blood salts and proteins, such as albumin, that keeps the fluid present in blood (plasma) within the blood vessels. Without this force, the fluid would leak out of the blood vessels, resulting in a severely low blood pressure (not enough blood for the organs) and infiltration of fluids into areas where they are not wanted (e.g.
Because they act to increase the colloid oncotic pressure, they can draw fluids from other areas of the body into the blood vessels, thereby boosting blood pressure while the animal is being properly hydrated with other fluids.
They are artificial synthetic substances and, as such, have the potential to cause allergic and anaphylactic reactions in patients given them.
They also have the potential to induce bleeding problems in animals with low blood platelets and can cause blood pressure to become too high.
1c) Special intravenous fluids - plasma:Plasma is the fluid left when you remove all of the cells from blood. It contains loads of really helpful substances that can really make a huge difference to the survival chances of parvo puppies.
These include:1) albumin - as mentioned before, albumin is responsible for maintaining colloid oncotic pressure within the blood of the puppies so that their blood vessels don't start leaking. When these antibodies are transfused into sick puppies, they help to fight the parvo infection.
The effect is similar to the antibody protective response that we want to occur when the animal is sufficiently vaccinated. 4) proteins that mediate coagulation - Some severely affected animals can get disorders of their blood clotting mechanisms: a problem termed DIC (see section 7 - complications of parvo). The animal's blood either wants to clot excessively, leading to emboli and 'strokes'; or it does not want to clot at all, leading to excessive bleeding. If you can afford it, a plasma infusion is strongly recommended for puppies with parvo infection.Also note that plasma, like the synthetic colloids, is not without risk. Thus, in some patients, there is the possibility that it could cause allergic or anaphylactic reactions.
These patients may need a blood transfusion (contains red blood cells) to replace those red blood cells lost into the gut.
If whole, fresh blood is available (blood taken freshly from a donor) this can be particularly helpful. Freshly-drawn, whole blood contains live white blood cells (in parvo dogs that have low white blood cell counts, these might be of some help in fighting infection) and also plasma antibodies and albumin.
2) Antibiotics.As mentioned before, these animals are at huge risk of overwhelming infection.
Not only is their gut ulcerated and non-motile (letting lots of bacteria into the blood), but their white blood cell counts are low, reducing their ability to fight infection. Broad spectrum, bactericidal (antibiotics that actually kill bacteria, not just suppress it) intravenous antibiotics are a key element of parvo virus treatment.
Note that these are considered contraindicated in pups under 12 months old (18 months for big breeds) because of effects of growing cartilage, however, these pups are really sick and it may be vital to use these antibiotics if we are to save them. These are known to be toxic to the kidneys and should not be used in dehydrated animals (i.e the hydration needs to be achieved first). They are less toxic if given as a higher, once-a-day dose than as a lower, many-times-a-day dose.Intravenous metronidazole. Timentin with enrofloxacin is a nice-broad spectrum combination, as is Timentin with gentamicin. 3) Anti-emetics (drugs that stop dogs vomiting).Anti-emetic drugs are often used to make puppies feel better (it must be terrible vomiting all the time), to reduce the loss of fluids through repeated vomiting and to get the gut moving again (many work by making the intestines mobile again). Simply passing a tube into the puppy's stomach (via the mouth) to release the fluid can relieve this discomfort.Skin scalding around the anus of puppies with diarrhea is also very painful.
The scalding can be reduced by applying waterproof, soothing creams to the perineal skin (skin around and under the anus). Useful creams include vasoline (petroleum jelly) etc.Ulcer medications (next section) can also act to soothe the pain of intestinal ulceration. Many of these tests will be performed several times a day and treatment and prognosis adjusted according to the results gathered. Trends over time (a series of measures) are particularly helpful as they can give veterinarians and their owners some idea of prognosis.
The trouble with such intensive monitoring is that, not only does the poor puppy have to get bled several times a day to get the samples, but the repeated lab-work is also expensive for their owners.
Diagnosed by abdominal palpation and confirmed on ultrasound, intussusception can be acutely life-threatening because the telescoped bowel can strangulate and die or it can adhere in this position (i.e. 2) Infected joints or other regions of the body:Bacteria that enter the bloodstream can deposit in the small capillaries of the joints, eyes, heart and kidneys, leading to infection and even abscesses within theses places. Depending upon where they 'seed' these infections can be very damaging to organs and joints and very difficult to remove and cure once they have set in.

Infections such as bacterial endocarditis (infection of the heart valves) can be fatal and infections of vital organs such as the kidneys can result in renal failure.
Septic arthritis (bacteria in the joints), is a well-known complication of parvovirus and treatment of it involves surgically opening the affected joints; flushing them out and placing long-acting antibiotic beads in them. 3) Parvoviral myocarditis (damage to the heart caused by parvo) :In young puppies (usually under 6 months) the parvo virus can sometimes attack and damage the muscle of the heart directly. This can result in sudden death or progressive signs of congestive heart failure and may occur with or without obvious signs of gastrointestinal disease. 4) Fetal parvovirus:If an unvaccinated female dog is inadvertently vaccinated with a live parvo inoculation (vaccine) or infected with parvovirus disease during pregnancy, the virus (wild-type virus or vaccine virus) may be able to infect her unborn puppies. The virus could infect any rapidly dividing cells in the fetus, causing a number of fetal abnormalities or even death of the fetus, but in particular, the virus is known for infecting the fetal brain and heart. The virus (live vaccine virus or wild-type virus) can destroy certain cells of the developing cerebellum, resulting in puppies being born with poor cerebellar function and intention tremors (the puppies tremor when they try to move) of varying severity. It is a complicated disease process, but put basically, the bacteria and their toxins cause injuries to the lining of the blood vessels all over the body.
Eventually, the body runs out of clotting factors and is unable to repair the blood vessel defects made by the bacteria: this results in an animal with an inability to clot its blood - a bleeding problem results and the animal shows excessive bruising and hemorrhage.
7) Multiple organ damage and failure:Parvo animals that are in severe shock or that are severely septic (lots of bacteria, bacterial toxins and inflammatory proteins in the blood and organs) are at risk of multiple organ damage.
This condition (termed acute respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS) stops the lung from taking in oxygen and the animal effectively drowns. The price of treating a parvo puppy.Parvovirus is one of the more expensive infectious diseases that we, as veterinarians, treat. Obviously the cost varies depending on the severity of the animal, however, in Australia, where I come from, it would be very rare to treat a moderate-badly affected case of parvo for under $1000.
Once you start talking 24-hour care and blood and plasma transfusions and all of the expensive antibiotics, $2000-upwards would be fairly normal (in some places even this would be considered a gross underestimation).Add some of the parvo complications (surgery on an intussusception or septic joints) to this and you start getting into quite high figures.
Some of the reasons why it can be so expensive to treat a parvo case:1) These animals require a lot of work - repeated blood testing, lots of drugs, lots of one-on-one care.
The reason I have included a piece on the costs of parvo therapy is not to discourage you from treating parvo, but to make you well-informed of what is entailed. The moderate to severe cases are often very expensive and not for the financially faint-hearted. They aren't the kind of cases that can generally be managed by trying a couple of small, inexpensive measures, just to 'see if it works': in my experience, these pups tend to deteriorate quickly and sometimes unexpectedly. In my opinion, severe parvo cases are "all-in or not-in" cases: you either get them treated properly (understanding everything that this intensity of treatment might entail) or be prepared to end up with a very expensive, deceased puppy. Remember that, even if your puppy is treated with the very best treatment money can buy (thousands of dollars-worth in some cases), many of these puppies are simply too unwell and weak and young to survive. Parvo is one of the more deadly diseases to afflict our canine population and it is no walk-in-the-park to manage. 10) How to prevent parvo - hints for the typical dog owner.Hopefully, the above discussions about clinical parvo disease should have made it very clear to you how important it is that puppies be prevented from getting infected with parvo in the first place. The protocol for these follow up boosters differs depending on the type and brand of vaccine used by your vet and the manufacturers' recommendations: your vet will notify you of when the next vaccinations are due. The original conventional vaccine brands put out by vaccine companies (and still commonly used) typically advised puppy vaccinations at 6-8 weeks, 12-14 weeks and 16-18 weeks (basically, three injections approximately one month apart).
Vets also tended to give an additional 20 week parvo-only vaccine to black and tan dogs that were considered parvo-sensitive. The reason for the (comparatively) long course of puppy shots was the issue of maternal immunity and the fear that, if puppies were not vaccinated at 16-18 weeks, their maternal antibodies might have 'killed off' the previous vaccinations and thereby prevented the puppy from gaining its own protective immunity. More recently, potentiated vaccines have been brought out that stimulate a greater immune response, overcome maternal immunity and allow for the vaccine course to be completed earlier (by 12 weeks), thereby allowing earlier socialization.
The vaccine guidelines for these vaccines typically advise a 6 week vaccine, 9 week vaccine and a 12 week vaccine or (if the first vaccination was an 9 week vaccine), a 9 week and a 12 week vaccine.
Intervet's Nobivac DHP and Fort Dodge's DuramuneAdult C3) even advocate a 6 week, 8 week and 10 week vaccine or (if the first vaccine is given at 8 weeks), an 8 week and 10 week vaccine, with full protection for a year conferred within a week after the final parvo vaccine (e.g. 10 weeks in this case) has been given.The newer potentiated vaccine types also feature 'one-shot protection' in that full immunity (12 months minimum) can be attained with a single parvo vaccination if the vaccine is given at or after 12 weeks (for the 12-week finish types) or if the vaccine is given at or after 10 weeks (for the even newer 10-week finish types). This is a great feature, but owners should not wait until 10 or 12 weeks has passed before getting their puppy their first parvo vaccine because they will unprotected until that time.
Following the course of puppy vaccines, your dog will need to receive a parvo booster annually to remain fully protected. Newer vaccines such as Intervet's Nobivac DHP and Fort Dodge's DuramuneAdult C3 confer immunity against parvovirus for three years. Does brand of vaccine matter?Obviously if you are looking to socialize your puppy as early as possible (and most people are), then a potentiated vaccine that induces full protection by 10 or 12 weeks is much more desirable. As far as the strain of virus used in the individual vaccine brands goes, it should be mentioned that the strain of live parvovirus used in the vaccines rarely ever seems to be an issue (at least, in Australia) with regard to the effectivity of the vaccines. Most vaccines seem to include all that they need to in order to prevent parvovirus from occurring in most populations of dogs (after all, it is still rare to see cases of clinical parvovirus in vaccinated animals). Greene CE) which state that the parvo virus strains used in the vaccines are very rarely ever associated with vaccine failure in dogs and that it is more likely to be inference of strong maternal antibody levels or lack of appropriate immune response to vaccination which are responsible for vaccination failure. Consequently, any live parvovirus vaccine that your vet administers should be perfectly adequate to prevent parvo in your pet. Given that these animals (which often come from close regional locations) should not have all had issues of conflicting maternal immunity or a failure of immune response, one would surmise that such outbreaks must be due, in part, to the appearance of a different strain of parvo that the vaccines used are not protecting against (typically the CPV-2b strain is one credited for this occurrence).
Over very recent years, Fort Dodge has brought out a range of potentiated Duramune vaccines which do include cover against the CPV-2b strain of parvovirus. This parvovirus vaccine should induce a better immune response towards the 2b strain than vaccines which comprise of the CPV-2 strain only.
Although vaccination is key to promoting the 'right type' of immune response, the overall health and wellbeing of the animal is critical if there is to be a strong immune system response to disease. Disease prevention (including parvo prevention) involves a holistic approach, with nutrition, exercise and mental health care all important parts of the process. Animals that are in good body condition and which have been given a balanced diet and are well-exercised and emotionally sound (e.g. Control of disease in these situations involves: 1) protecting the susceptible animals and preventing them from becoming infected and 2) reducing environmental contamination. They should not come into contact with the general canine population nor any areas that the parvo has been in or that are impossible to disinfect (lawns etc.).
Early weaning (4-5weeks instead of 6+ weeks) is a consideration here - try to get the pups out of the environment as early as possible.

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