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About 30 seconds after you find out you're pregnant, you enter a crazy world called: IS THIS NORMAL? The range of "normal" symptoms and experiences during pregnancy is almost as wide as your expanding ass. The optimization of medical accelerators is the goal of a new network within the FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network scheme. Researchers in the US claim that exposing a person to a magnetic field could reduce their risk of a heart attack by streamlining the flow of blood around their body.
In a paper accepted for publication in Physical Review E, the researchers describe how the effect is probably caused by the response of red blood cells.
Kalvis Jansons, a mathematician at University College London, believes that the researchers may be onto something "very interesting". Giacinto Scoles, a materials scientist at Princeton University who develops medical applications, believes there is a "tremendous thirst" in the medical community for this kind of physics-based innovation.
But the medical community will still need to be convinced about the need for the new technology and about its safety. Quote:Originally posted by jjeherrera View commentBut what's the mechanism that reduces the viscosity?
Great now some yahoo is going to see this article and we'll see those stupid "magic" magnetic bracelets make a comeback. For now I would prefer to see this technique used to assist in increasing blood flow to the extremities, especially to the feet for those victims who have vascular disease.
May be there is a sense to make a simple observation in hospitals:does the direction of patient's bed (parallel or perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field) influence on his health? Quote:Originally posted by matveyev View commentMay be there is a sense to make a simple observation in hospitals:does the direction of patient's bed (parallel or perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field) influence on his health? People are routinely exposed to static magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla or greater during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique ID that guarantees permanent links to electronic documents. Ellen Merete Hagen (born 1962) Specialist in Neurology and in Community Medicine, currently on leave from her position as Junior Registrar at the Section for Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital.
Svein Faerestrand (born 1946) Specialist in Cardiology, with arrhythmia, pacemaker and ICD treatment as fields of specialisation. The search was limited to articles published before 1 April 2011, but was not limited backward in time. The sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the intermediolateral cell column laterally in the grey matter of the spinal column at level T1–L2 (3). Depending on the level of the SCI, the various parts of the sympathetic nervous system will be disconnected from supraspinal control, which will result in altered sympathetic activity below the level of the injury (4).
Figure 1 The parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation of the heart will respectively reduce and increase the heart rate.
Parasympathetic activity reduces the heart frequency and contractility, while sympathetic activity has a stimulating effect on the heart. Disruptions of cardiovascular control following spinal cord injury are directly related to the level and degree of the injury. In the event of a complete cervical injury, the connection between the upper autonomic centres in the brain and the intermediolateral cell column at level T1–L2 of the spinal cord will be destroyed. Immediately after a spinal cord injury, there is in almost all patients a sudden loss of the autonomic effect of the smooth muscle in the walls of the blood vessels, and as a result vasodilation occurs. Common cardiovascular complications following spinal cord injury in both acute and chronic phase, based on an article by Phillips et al.
Autonomic dysreflexia most frequently develops during the first 2?–?4 months after the injury (12) and affects 10 % during the first year (13). In 85 % of the cases, autonomic dysreflexia is due to a full urinary bladder as a result of retention or catheter blockage (14). The symptoms are an intense, pulsing headache, blurred vision, anxiety, agitation, shortness of breath, nasal congestion, hot flushes, facial flushing, paradoxical sweating above the level of the injury, cold, clammy skin, goose pimples and nausea (14). Some patients only develop mild symptoms, for example if they have a full bladder or intestine, as a signal that the intestine or bladder must be evacuated (15).
If untreated, autonomic dysreflexia may potentially be life-threatening by causing hypertensive cerebral haemorrhage (17). In cases of autonomic dysreflexia, it is of primary importance to prevent, identify and eliminate triggering factors. If the condition is suspected, tight clothing should be loosened and other possible external causes checked. Nitroglycerine is the first-choice drug, but there are no studies of the effectiveness and safety of using nitrates in patients with SCI.
The most important complications after the acute phase (4?–?5 weeks after the injury) are autonomic dysreflexia, orthostatic hypotension (also in sitting position), reduced cardiovascular reflexes (which regulate blood pressure, blood volume and body temperature) and the absence of cardiac pain. Work physiology stress tests of patients with SCI show that patients with complete tetraplegia can seldom raise their heart rate to more than 125 per minute with maximum loading (25, 26). Lack of physical activity, reduced muscle mass and the development of metabolic syndromes increase the risk of coronary disease after SCI (29?–?31). The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is associated with both the level of the SCI and clinical findings, and increases with increasing age, increasing rostral level of injury and the severity of the SCI (complete vs incomplete) (33). Patients with SCI may additionally have cardiac diseases that are not related to the injury (8). A clinical study of 47 persons with SCI and without symptoms of coronary disease demonstrated that during pharmacological stress testing 84.6 % of the patients with complete tetraplegia showed signs of myocardial ischaemia measured with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
The sweat glands are largely sympathetically innervated in the upper part of the body from T1–T5 and in the lower part of the body from T6–L2. Changes in sweat secretion often occur after SCI, and excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), absence of sweating (anhidrosis) and diminished sweating (hypohidrosis) may all occur. Patients with SCI have a higher risk of coagulation disorders and venous stasis due to physical inactivity, altered haemostasis with reduced fibrinolytic activity and increased factor VIII activity (38). The Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine has prepared guidelines for the prevention of thromboembolism (38). Early mobilisation and training should start as soon as the patient is medically stable (38).
The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) recommend that patients be evaluated systematically with respect to neurogenic shock, cardiac rhythm disorders, orthostatic hypotension, autonomic dysreflexia, temperature regulation disorders and hyperhidrosis as part of their rehabilitation (7).
The recommended evaluation includes physiological, biochemical and pharmacological tests (43). All patients should have their blood pressure and pulse measured in supine, sitting and standing position and have an ECG. Testing of blood pressure, pulse, ECG and respiration during 60° tilt test, isometric testing (of muscle strength), cold test (cold pressor on hand), arithmetic test (calculations) deep inspiration and expiration, hyperventilation, 24-hour blood pressure measurement, meal test and stress test (ergometer test with arm cycle) should preferably be carried out at a laboratory that focuses on and has special equipment for autonomic dysfunctions, and in teamwork involving several specialists: clinical neurophysiology and cardiology as well as departments that treat patients with SCI. Arrhythmias, orthostatic hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia can all be treated medically.
Patients with SCI have a higher risk of cardiovascular complications and long-term effects as well as thromboembolism and autonomic dysreflexia. Received 26 November 2011, first revision submitted 29 November 2011, approved 26 January 2012. I dette feltet kan du skrive inn kommentarer til det faglige eller meningsb?rende innholdet i artikkelen.
Your digestive system gets all techy, your body leaks goo, and everything smells unfamiliar.
I spotted a lot during my pregnancy and kept worrying that I was having a miscarriage -- but actually some spotting is typical.
Your joints are moving around during pregnancy -- they literally become more loose to accommodate your growing belly and all the shifts in weight. This can happen if you've suffered carpal tunnel before when your arms and fingers become swollen (you've noticed you can't remove your wedding ring anymore, right?).
This is partly because you're smelling things differently, but your pee may be different just because. That's caused by hormonal changes, not some bizarre form of iron overdose -- unless you've actually been overdosing on iron supplements.
Physics Connect lists thousands of scientific companies, businesses, non-profit organizations, institutions and experts worldwide. While the work currently remains just a proof-of-principle, the researchers believe that their technique could ultimately provide an alternative to drugs in treating a range of heart conditions.
But research suggests that all such vascular conditions are linked by one common symptom – high blood viscosity.
These iron-rich cells are the most common type of blood cell and they play the leading role in transporting oxygen around the body. He intends to develop the work further by testing blood flow under a magnetic field in capillary tubes that are similar in size to blood vessels. Tammy Ustet, a medical doctor who carries out rheumatology research at the University of Chicago, believes that the main focus should remain tackling the causes of vascular conditions. I do believe, it could answer your question.I obviously skipped accidentally the essential paragraph. The effects could be readily experienced and measured without being done at a critical time. They're talking about 1 Tesla, that's 10,000 greater than the Earth's magnetic field.Now is the time that magnetic underware are going soon to appear. If this decrease in blood viscosity is real, I wonder whether the decreased viscosity or its effects have been observed before in studies done on people undergoing MRI scans? Den ble sist oppdatert i 2004, har mange sikkerhetshull og følger ikke moderne nettstandarder. She has a PhD in the epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury from the University of Bergen and is a post-doctoral fellow at the same institution. Senior Consultant for the Spinal Cord Unit at the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital. She contributed to the establishment of the Spinal Unit at Haukeland University Hospital, and was medical head of the unit for ten years from its inception. He is Senior Consultant and head of the Section for Pacing, ICD and Heart Failure Treatment at the Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the autonomic innervation of the cardiovascular system and the cardiovascular complications of spinal cord injury. Knowledge and assessment of cardiovascular complications after spinal cord injury are important for correct diagnostics, planning of preventive measures and optimal therapy. Injury to the cauda equina is included in the definition, but other isolated injuries to nerve roots are excluded (2).Injuries to the autonomic nervous system are the cause of many of the cardiovascular complications following a spinal cord injury. There was no restriction with respect to language, patient’s age at the time of the injury or the design of the studies, but the articles had to be available in full text via either online or via the Bergen University Library. Because the parasympathetic preganglionic neurons of the heart extend from the cranial nerve nuclei in the brain stem, the parasympathetic innervation of the heart will be intact in the event of an injury to the spinal cord. Sympathetic neurons in the upper thoracic part of the spinal cord innervate the cardiovascular system of the upper thorax. Patients with cervical injuries have a higher risk of bradycardia (29 %), sudden unprovoked cardiac arrest (16 %) and conduction system disturbances, particularly in the first few weeks after the injury (5). The condition is induced by sensory stimulation below the level of the injury, and is characterised by sudden, uncontrolled response in the sympathetic nervous system. Other triggering factors may be distension of the intestine due to obstipation, anal fissures, urinary tract infection, urological and endoscopic procedures, cystoliths, pressure ulcers, ingrown toenails, pregnancy, childbirth, sexual activity and painful stimuli. A rise in systolic pressure of 20?–?40 mm Hg above the normal level in adults and more than 15 mm Hg in children may in itself be a sign of autonomic dysreflexia. Some disabled athletes induce mild dysreflexia and thereby higher blood pressure in order to improve their performance (16). The patient’s head should be raised and his or her legs lowered to reduce the intracranial pressure and reduce the risk of cerebral haemorrhage.
Autonomic failure occurs to a varying extent, also with incomplete cervical injuries, and may cause patients to become pale and feel unwell in connection with physical exertion. Patients with SCI lack compensatory vasoconstriction in other muscles and organs below the level of injury. Most risk factors for cardiovascular disease occur more frequently in this patient group than in others. In patients with SCI above T4 and a pacemaker, a lead fracture may result in autonomic dysreflexia (34). This is largely due to reduced sensory input to thermo-regulating centres and the loss of sympathetic control of temperature and sweat regulation below the level of injury (3).
Some patients have poikilothermia – an inability to maintain a constant core temperature irrespective of the ambient temperature. Supraspinal control of sweat excretion is located in regions of the hypothalamus and amygdala (3). In most individuals, episodic hyperhidrosis is usually associated with other autonomic dysfunctions such as autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic hypotension, or with post-traumatic syringomyelia. Because all patients with SCI are at increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, they should all be evaluated. The physiological tests include recording of blood pressure, pulse, ECG and respiration in supine, sitting and standing position, during 60° tilt, isometric testing (of muscle strength), deep inspiration and expiration, cold test (cold pressor on the hand), arithmetic test (calculations), Valsalva’s manoeuvre, hyperventilation, 24-hour blood pressure measurement, meal test and stress test (ergometer test with arm cycle). The recommended evaluation of cardiovascular dysfunction includes physiological, biochemical and pharmacological tests. International standards for neurological and functional classification of spinal cord injury.
Cardiovascular abnormalities accompanying acute spinal cord injury in humans: incidence, time course and severity. Assessment of autonomic dysfunction following spinal cord injury: rationale for additions to International Standards for Neurological Assessment. Autonomic control of the heart and renal vascular bed during autonomic dysreflexia in high spinal cord injury. Cardiovascular consequences of loss of supraspinal control of the sympathetic nervous system after spinal cord injury. Boosting in athletes with high-level spinal cord injury: knowledge, incidence and attitudes of athletes in paralympic sport. Fatal cerebral hemorrhage due to autonomic dysreflexia in a tetraplegic patient: case report and review. Evaluation of captopril for the management of hypertension in autonomic dysreflexia: a pilot study. Altered ventricular repolarization in central sympathetic dysfunction associated with spinal cord injury. Physical capacity and physical strain in persons with tetraplegia; the role of sport activity. Effects of electrically-stimulated exercise and passive motion on echocardiographically-derived wall motion and cardiodynamic function in tetraplegic persons. Evaluating the prevalence of silent coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients with spinal cord injury. Cardiovascular disease in spinal cord injury: an overview of prevalence, risk, evaluation, and management. The relationship between neurological level of injury and symptomatic cardiovascular disease risk in the aging spinal injured.
Cardiovascular complications after acute spinal cord injury: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management.
Acute spinal cord injuries and the incidence of clinically occurring thromboembolic disease. Orthostatic hypotension following spinal cord injury: understanding clinical pathophysiology. Hemodynamic responses to head-up tilt after spinal cord injury support a role for the mid-thoracic spinal cord in cardiovascular regulation. Static exercise-induced increase in blood pressure in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury. Cold pressor test in tetraplegia and paraplegia suggests an independent role of the thoracic spinal cord in the hemodynamic responses to cold. Hemodynamic effects of liquid food ingestion in mid-thoracic paraplegia: is supine postprandial hypotension related to thoracic spinal cord damage?
Cardiovascular responses and postexercise hypotension after arm cycling exercise in subjects with spinal cord injury. Drugs such as aspirin are frequently prescribed to help lower blood viscosity, but these can have unwanted side effects often related to irritation of the stomach.
The tube formed part of a device called a capillary viscometer used to measure viscosities. In the presence of a strong magnetic field, the red blood cells form chains that align themselves with the field lines where convoys of red blood cells line up behind a leading cell. He also plans to apply for a research grant from the US National Institutes of Health to allow clinical trials to be carried out.
But he also believes that a lot of work would need to be done to show that the process is safe. The idea is: ordered small particles will amplify magnetic field action on blood particles.
If magnetic fields really do reduce blood viscosity one might hypothesize that people who work with MRI (and spend a lot of time at these high field strengths) have a "reduce[d] risk of a heart attack"?!
He has a PhD and is Professor of Cardiology at the Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen.
Important in the chronic phase are orthostatic hypotension and impaired regulation of blood pressure, blood volume and body temperature. Cardiovascular dysfunction in patients with cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury may be life-threatening and may exacerbate the neurological impairment due to the spinal cord injury. Because the bladder, genitals and lower portion of the intestine are innervated by the sacral portion of the spinal column (S2–S4), their parasympathetic innervation will be disconnected from supraspinal control in the event of injuries at the level of the conus medullaris (S2–S4) or above (Fig. The sinus node receives sympathetic innervation from T3–T4 and parasympathetic innervation from the vagal nerve. During the acute phase, the arterial hypotension (neurogenic shock) may be misinterpreted as loss of volume. Sometimes it lasts longer, and in some cases implantation of a temporary or permanent pacemaker is required. This results in episodes of paroxysmal hypertension, frequently accompanied by baroreflex-mediated bradycardia (9, 10). The condition occurs more frequently in patients with cervical lesions and complete injuries (14). When patients undergo surgery (appendectomy, Caesarean section etc.) it is important that they have adequate anaesthesia in order to avoid autonomic dysreflexia (19).
Blood pressure should be measured and treated, if necessary medically with anti-hypertensive drugs which act rapidly and for a short period of time. This results in an exercise-induced fall in blood pressure leading to critically low perfusion pressure in the working muscle and thereby to physical exhaustion (26).
A higher prevalence of overweight, lipid disorders, metabolic syndromes and diabetes has been found (32). Profuse sweating above the level of injury and minimal or no sweating below the level of injury is the most common. The incidences of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are estimated to be 15 % and 5 %, respectively, the first year after SCI, with a mortality rate of 1 %, largely among patients with pulmonary embolism (41). Prophylactic anticoagulation with low-molecular heparin should be started within 72 hours of injury, provided that there is no ongoing haemorrhage or coagulopathy (39).
All patients should also undergo physical stress tests with simultaneous measurement of pulse, blood pressure and ECG.
Knowledge and assessment of cardiovascular complications following spinal cord injury are important for correct diagnosis and optimal therapy. Here's just a sampling of things that happen during pregnancy that feel wrong but probably mean everything's great.
Still, if you can save yourself from some unnecessary worry, you and your baby will both be better off. Now, an alternative to drugs may be at hand following recent work by Rongjia Tao at Temple University and his colleague Ke Huang at the University of Michigan.
The sample was then exposed to a magnetic field applied parallel to the direction of flow of blood via a coil around the edge of the test tube.
This process could enable the cells to pass through the blood in a more streamlined fashion, thus reducing the blood's viscosity. Tetraplegia is frequently accompanied by autonomic dysreflexia, reduced transmission of cardiac pain, loss of muscle mass in the left ventricle and pseudoinfarction. Patients have higher morbidity and mortality as a result of the autonomic dysfunction.In this overview we provide a brief outline of the autonomic innervation of the cardiovascular system. Most of the internal organs of the body are supplied with parasympathetic innervation by the n. Parasympathetic afferent nerves from baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus go to the medulla oblongata via the cranial nerves n. Systolic blood pressure of 250?–?300 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of 200?–?220 mm Hg have been recorded with autonomic dysreflexia (11).
The aim of the treatment is to normalise pulse and blood pressure and eliminate the patient’s symptoms. During physical work, heat accumulates to a greater extent in these patients than in functionally healthy individuals.
The cause is a compensatory increase in sweat secretion above the level of injury due to the loss of sympathetic stimulation below the level of injury, which results in reduced sweat production (37). Studies have found a bimodal curve where the incidence is highest 2?–?3 weeks after the injury, followed by a small peak three months after the injury (42). Biochemical tests include catecholamines taken in supine and standing position, while the pharmacological tests include stimulation with adrenaline, noradrenaline, clonidine and atropine. But with pregnancy, if you feel bad, it most likely means everything is just fine and dandy, puking lady! Patients with injuries above the sixth thoracic vertebra have a predisposition to autonomic dysreflexia.
Fig. 2 shows our proposed treatment algorithm, based on treatment algorithms developed in other countries (8, 20, 21). Under physical stress they may therefore develop a paradoxical fall in blood pressure and rise in body temperature (27).
During the chronic phase, the incidence of clinically significant thromboembolism is less than 2 % (38). We recommend prophylactic treatment with low-molecular heparin for three months after injury in the case of complete injury.
This is a condition characterised by sudden, uncontrolled sympathetic response accompanied by a rise in blood pressure. The exceptions are the genitals, bladder, distal intestine and anus, which are supplied by the parasympathetic sacral nerves S2?–?4 (3).
The heart rate of patients with a high thoracic injury may increase to normal maximum frequency and they will then have fewer problems due to fall in blood pressure when they are exhausted (15, 26, 28). Patients with both complete and incomplete injuries who are additionally at risk of thromboembolism should continue treatment until discharge. Peripheral blood vessels have no parasympathetic innervation, with the exception of the vessels that supply the pelvic organs (3). However, they do not have the same rise in blood pressure in connection with physical exertion as functionally healthy persons. Patients with spinal cord injury have an increased risk of atherosclerotic disease due to overweight, lipid disorders, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Figure 3 shows functional ability in relation to level of injury and autonomic control (8). They are predisposed to thromboembolism due to venous stasis and hypercoagulopathy, especially immediately after the injury.
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