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10.12.2014


Description: The Lenox Globe is often referred to as the oldest extant post-Columbian globe. What is known about the provenance and acquision of this special globe by the New York Public Library was assembled by Robert W. Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions. Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia. There was no good indication as to when the little globe was made, but three prominent scholars in the late 19th century - Benjamin De Costa, Henry Harrisse and Justin Winsor a€“ addressed this perplexing issue before Joseph Fisher made his discovery of the WaldseemA?ller map in July 1901. Harrisse in his landmark work The Discovery of North America (1892) concluded that the most likely date for the Lenox Globe was 1511. Prior to Harrisse, Justin Winsor in the mid-1880s was equally perplexed concerning what to make of and how to date the Lenox Globe. The scholar who provided the first and to this day still the most in-depth analysis of the Lenox Globe was Benjamin De Costa (1831-1904). What makes De Costaa€™s scholarship in his 1879 essay so outstanding is that he is open and candid about the profound implications of dating any globe or map depicting the entire continent of South America so many years before Magellana€™s voyage of 1519-1522. This is an astonishing pattern of cartographical evidence concerning South America prior to Magellana€™s voyage in 1519.
We should also observe that even before De Costa, the world famous scholar Alexander de Humboldt took seriously the proposition that there may have been more extensive exploration of South America (Portuguese in his and our view) than the conventional wisdom allowed due to the tradition, surrounding Magellana€™s famous voyage. For his part, De Costa was well aware of Cosmographiae Introductio and the small WaldseemA?ller globe gores (#310) found in the passage in the south. It is evident that the Lenox Globe must have been constructed subsequent to the discovery of the coast of South America, in 1500, by Cabral, who gave it the name Vera Cruz, which was soon changed to Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, as on this globe.
On the other hand, the almost complete lack of information betrayed by the maker of the globe concerning the east coast of North America, and the absence of the name America on South America would indicate that it antedates the map of Martin WaldseemA?ller of 1507 (#310). Because the date of this globe could be deduced mainly from its representations of America, let us give a brief resume of the condition of geographical knowledge respecting the New World for several years subsequent to 1510.
In the year 1500, Juan de la Cosa, the Pilot of Columbus, drew a map of the New World (#305), but North America does not appear, Newfoundland being represented as a part of Asia. What has been said thus far applies only to North America, but, upon turning to South America, the representation has the appearance of belonging to a period later than 1511.
In order to present the subject with clearness, it will be useful to state first, that the La Cosa map of 1500 (#305) exhibited the northern coast of South America, together with the eastern coast down to about 25A° S. On this point it may be observed that such a termination to South America was doubtless rendered probable by the argument from analogy.
Sometimes the information thus derived was of great value, and it would appear that the maker of the Lenox Globe had received information of this kind. The uncertainty of the globe-maker respecting Madagascar may be explained by the fact that it was not until 1508 that Da€™Acuhna made his exploration of the island, though it was known to Marco Polo. The SchA¶ner Globe of 1520 (#328) has an island similar in form and situation to the nameless island of the Lenox Globe, but in a reversed position, and called Madagascar.
In support of the suggestion that the Madagascar and Certina of the globe are simply Sumatra and Java misplaced, we may cite the fact that the well-known islands of Sumatra and Java do not appear in their places, while the Malayan peninsula, labeled on the globe as Loac, is extended so far south as to confuse the geography of the whole region.
It is true that one of the first references to the southern coast of Australia in the 17th century was that of 1627, when a Dutch ship sailed along the shore for a distance of a thousand miles, while one of the earliest maps of that century which showed the outlines of Australia was the Montanus map of 1572.
Attention has already been called to the fact that the great nameless island, with its attendant islands, is placed westward instead of southeast of the Malayan peninsula; but Sylvanus, in his Ptolemy map of 1511 (#318), moves the whole group into its proper position to the southeast, thus giving a somewhat correct view of the geography of that region. Thus far nothing has been said of the general appearance of the globe, though, if it were necessary, many details could be pointed out which indicate its ancient origin. In Asia the Himalayan range, anciently known as Imaus, had its influence upon the globe-maker's geography, who indicates Schite extraianivm for Scythia extra Imaum. Moabio appears to be the Maabar of Marco Polo, who says that in this entire Province there is never a Tailor to cut a coat or stitch it, for the very good reason that everybody goes naked. Beyond Newfoundland is a sinking ship, with the figure of a human being in the water, possibly an allusion to the loss of the Portuguese Cortereal. When, however, the maker of the Lenox Globe looked away toward the region now occupied by North America, he saw only a watery waste, in the midst of which the island of Bacaleos or Newfoundland, rode like some ship at anchor.
In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], being close to Yucatan, whose well-known bay, first explored in 1518, has a conjectural coast line trending towards the south instead of the west. The name America does not appear upon the Lenox Globe, which fact, so far as it possesses any significance, favors the belief that the early date of 1504 assigned to the instrument is correct. Hylocomilus, while admitting the priority of the voyage of Columbus, felt no necessity for naming the New World after one who, in the most pronounced manner, declared that there was no New World to be named. Humboldt maintains that Vespucci, equally with Columbus, believed that the land discovered formed a part of Asia. The Viscount Santarem (Researches respecting Vespucci) has taken the ground, as well as some others, that the map of Hylocomilus, in the Ptolemy of 1513, was the work of Columbus. The southern coasts of Asia are drawn less correctly than on the map of Ruysch and on the TabulA¦ NovA¦ of Asia inserted into the Ptolemy edition of 1513.
In the New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names: Mundus Novus, Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, and Terra de Brazil. In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], and one in the far north, but unnamed, clearly resembles the Cortereal region, as it appears on the Cantino and Caveri maps (#306, #307). Most of the inscriptions on the globe reference back to the medieval picture of Asia, combining antique sources, travel accounts, and fabulous legends. From the standpoint of 2012, with our greater appreciation of the WaldseemA?ller world map, we can see how De Costaa€™s suspicions of a pre-Magellan discovery of the strait point to the broader cartographic issue. Either the Lenox Globe really was a post-1507 creation, which in view of its shortcomings oddly failed to take into account the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was reportedly issued in 1000 copies for sale, along with the essay Cosmographiae Introductio.
De Costa did not explicitly renege on his estimation of the 1510 date for the Lenox Globe as the most probable but he waffles.
Given these facts, one has to give serious consideration to the possibility that the creator of the Lenox Globe made it before April 1507 or at least not to long after that date if one is to explain ignorance of this widely published essay. De Costa originally prepared his analysis in 1879 without benefit of any knowledge of the large WaldseemA?ller world map discovered 22 years later.
For his part, NordenskiA¶ld in his Facsimile Atlas (1889) cited De Costaa€™s a€?estimate of 1508-1511a€? and concluded that this a€?seemed to be about righta€?.
In his later work entitled Periplus published in 1897, NordenskiA¶ld dramatically asserted that knowledge of the Pacific, the isthmus and a water passage to the south a€?must have reached Europe prior to Balboaa€™s journeya€?.
Ultimately, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their 1926 work A Book of Old Maps argued that the Lenox Globe was made sometime in the 1503-1507 period. One reason why they came to this conclusion was that the Lenox Globe lacks the sophistication of the Ruysch world map (1507-1508) with its more accurate depiction of features associated with the region of the Indian Ocean, something which troubled both De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld. The bottom line is that the maker of this globe seems to be unaware of not only the WaldseemA?ller 1507 map, the Ruysch map of 1508, but also ignorant of others such as the Juan de la Cosa, Cantino and Caveri maps from the 1500-1504 period which do show substantial parts of the North American mainland including Florida and the Gulf coastline and also in the Caveri map the Central American coastline from Mexico to roughly Honduras. This discontinuity in cartographical conception makes it hard to know where to place the Lenox Globe on the family tree of maps and globes made during the first decade of the 16th century. This analysis, if correct, would suggest that Lenox Globe was not likely to have been based on tightly held information in the possession of Spanish navigators. Furthermore, given that Balboa did not cross the Isthmus of Panama to see the Pacific Ocean until 1513, it is extremely hard to imagine the maker of the Lenox Globe getting his a€?island-likea€? conception or vision of the new southern continent from Spanish sources.
There is other evidence that strongly points to the source of the Lenox Globe being Portuguese rather than Spanish. This geographical distortion seems far too neat or convenient in political terms to have been a mere coincidence as we can see when we superimpose the Line of Demarcation established by this treaty onto the Lenox Globe.
Despite this obvious manipulation of nautical data, Fite and Freeman, like De Costa before them, observed that the Lenox Globe still accurately places the southern edge of of this continent at 55 degrees south of the equator.
What is amazing is that Fite and Freeman made such a bold statement based merely on their assessment of the Lenox Globe of uncertain date with no consideration of the WaldseemA?ller globe gores of 1507 which also clearly shows a southern water passage.
We would argue further that if this analysis is correct, then the Lenox Globe would represent a stepping-stone or interim intellectual stage in the evolution of geographical knowledge that made possible the more impressive and comprehensive cartographic synthesis articulated by Mathias Ringmann in Cosmographiae Introductio and shown visually in the world map and globe made by Martin WaldseemA?ller at the Gymnasium at Saint-Die. Note the same land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere as in the Jagiellonian Globe, but unlike on that globe, unnamed.
The Jagiellonian Globe, dating from around 1510, held by the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland, depicts a continent in the Indian Ocean to the east of Africa and south of India, but labeled America.
The appearance in the mid-16th century of Jave la Grande in a series of mappemondes drawn by a school of cartographers centred on the French port of Dieppe, suggesting an early Portuguese or Spanish discovery of the eastern coast of Australia, has been called a€?one of the puzzles of European historya€?. An ancient Map of the World has been discovered in the British Museum, which lays down the coasts of New-Holland, as described by Cooke and Bougainville.
In all the subsequent discussion of the Dieppe maps and Spanish or Portuguese discovery of the East coast of Australia in the early 16th century, it is noteworthy that there has been no consideration of the Jagiellonian Globe and the bearing it might have on the matter.
The Sydney Morning Herald of 19 January 1911 carried an article with the arresting title, a€?Australiaa€™s Discoverer: was it Amerigo Vespucci?a€?. Professor Estreicher drew attention to a globe of similar date held by the New York Public Library, known as the Lenox Globe. Ein solches Land is nur Sudamerica allein, und wir mussen annehmen, dass jene Insel Sudamerica vorstellen soll, freilich an einer ganz falschem Stelle. Estreicher proposed Louis Boulengier of Albi as having been the cartographer responsible for the Jagiellonian Globe, on the basis of similarity between it and the Tross Gores, dating from 1514-1518 (#324), of which Boulengier is known to have been the author. An armillary clock, similar to the Jagiellonian, made by Jean Naze of Lyons in 1560 is held at the Orangerie Planetarium of the Staatliche Museen Kassel (formerly the Hessisches Landesmuseum). But the most revealing feature of this globe is that its maker was aware of Cosmographiae Introductio, because he refers to America.
If it was impossible that the maker of the Jagellonian Globe with the benefit of access to Cosmographiae Introductio which invented the name America could have been that confused, why the gross mistake? Edward Stevenson, discussing Estreichera€™s work in 1921, commented that he seemed not to have noticed that the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA possibly indicated not only an acquaintance on the part of the Jagiellonian cartographer with WaldseemA?llera€™s suggestion as to the name America, but a belief that America was actually located in this particular region.
In the sixth climate toward the Antarctic there are situated the farthest part of Africa, recently discovered, the islands Zanzibar, the lesser Java, and Seula [Ceylon], and the fourth part of the Earth, which, because Amerigo discovered it, we may call Amerige, the land of Amerigo, so to speak, or America. In his 1911 interview, Petherick pointed out that Thomas Morea€™s Utopia (published in Louvain in 1516) reflected this concept of the eartha€™s geography.
The representations of the east coast of a€?Jave Ie Granda€™ [sic] (Australia) delineated in those maps are, I assert, very rough representations and repetitions of the east coast of South America when that continent and our Australia were supposed to be one, before the Pacific Ocean was known. From this perspective, one might speculate that the bizarre attachment of the name America to a mythical or hypothetical island in the southern Indian Ocean was an expression of strong contempt for the Florentine navigator and an attempt to delink his name from the South American continent, which had been made by WaldseemA?llera€™s team at Saint-Die in 1507.
Catigara was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator. In claiming that Amerigo Vespucci discovered Australia Petherick may simply have been intending to make the point hyperbolically that the coastline of the Dieppe maps, taken by some to represent Australia, was the coast of the land discovered by Amerigo, misplaced into the Eastern Hemisphere. The Jagiellonian Globe demonstrates that it was possible for early 16th century geographers to depict the same coastline, that of eastern South America, in two different places on the same map. The Jagiellonian Globe reminds us that we must try to look at the early maps through the eyes and with the knowledge of their makers, free of the preconceptions arising from our current geographical knowledge. Another four decades were to pass before another scholar addressed the question of the date for the creation of the Lenox Globe. Why did Pohl see the creation of the Lenox Globe being linked so closely to the publication of Vespuccia€™s letters in Italy in 1505? Levilliera€™s analysis in an essay in Imago Mundi entitled a€?New Light on Vespuccia€™s third voyagea€? was stunning in this regard.
We should observe at this juncture that even prior to the so-called Italian-Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters, the famous Cantino map (#306), which is also of Portuguese-origin and which dates to no later than November 1502, also shows the eastern coastline bending abruptly (and falsely) to the southeast.
Thus, in his essay for the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in 1963 Pohl was on solid ground when he pointed to the similar or parallel tampering with the text of Vespuccia€™s original letter for the Italian-Soderini edition as grounds for suspecting that the Lenox Globe dates to a period before the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507. Nevertheless, Pohl deliberately dodged the question of the uncanny depiction of the new southern continent in his 1963 essay. Pohl went to considerable lengths in this long footnote in 1944 to dismiss any evidence -- the account in the Newen Zeytung journal, the SchA¶ner globes and Valentine Fernandesa€™ remarks in a deposition in a Portuguese court in 1503 -- that supports Magellana€™s assertion that Portuguese navigators had discovered the strait much earlier, and no later than 1506. Pohla€™s rigid position concerning the a€?accidentala€? or a€?imaginarya€? features of the Lenox and Jagellonian Globes remains baffling given that he was prone to accept highly dubious claims of evidence for the presence of Europeans and Asians in America -- such as the stone tower in Newport, Rhode Island which has been reliably dated to after 1492.
In the more than forty years since Pohla€™s essay was published there has been little attention paid to the Lenox Globe. Meridians and parallels are engraved and numbered on its surface at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing through the island Ferro.
We believe that when all the evidence and analysis of the historical context are taken into consideration, Fite, Freeman, and Pohl presented a compelling, convincing argument that places the creation of the Lenox Globe prior to the WaldseemA?ller map and globe gores. Furthermore, it seems more probable that the Lenox Globe was based on sensitive information that was improperly acquired directly from someone in Lisbon than it was based on information leaked from the Gymnasium at Saint-Die while the work on Cosmographiae Introductio, the world map and globe gores was still underway in 1505-1506.
Thus, there is some basis for concluding that the maker of the Lenox Globe had learned about a water passage and thus knew a lot more than Vespucci conveyed, at least more than the Florentine navigator revealed openly in Mundus Novus which entered into circulation in 1503-1504. In conclusion, we can summarize what appear to be five solid facts concerning the creation of the Lenox Globe. Second, the maker of this globe also knew from sensitive Portuguese sources a lot more about the overall shape of the entire southern continent than Vespucci conveyed (at least openly) in Mundus Novus that entered into widespread circulation beginning in 1503- 1504. When one considers all this chronological evidence, analysis of the most probable historical context points to the creation of the Lenox Globe between the publication of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus in 1503-1504 and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the large world map were printed. Whatever the truth, the Lenox-Jagellonian Globes add to a large body of cartographic evidence that points to a Portuguese discovery of the strait before 1519 which is what Magellan had always insisted, and to a clandestine exploration of the west coast of this new fourth continent as far north as what we know as Acapulco no later than 1507. Magellana€™s odd decision was illogical or counter-intuitive if he and his contemporaries believed that this new land mass was an extension of Asia.
It is a reasonable conclusion that Magellan understood from extensive discussions with Spanish officials and navigators that this land mass was connected to the land region we know as Central America with which the Spanish were quite familiar by 1518- 1519. Chauncey, Henry, a letter written on January 21,1902 to Willberforce Eames, official at the Lenox Library. Lingren, Uta, a€?Trial and Error in the Mapping of America in the Early Modern Period,a€? in America: Early Maps of the New World, editor, Hans Wolff, New York, 1992, pp. Nordenskiold, Adolf, Periplus - An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing-Directions, Stockholm, 1897, p.
Pohl, Frederick, a€?The Fourth Continent on the Lenox Globea€?, Bulletin of The New York Public Library, Volume 67, Number 9 (September 1963), pp.
Stevenson, Edward Luther, a€?Martin WaldseemA?ller and Early Lusitano-Germanic Cartography of the New World,a€? Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, Volume XXXVI, Number 4, 1904, pp.
Winsor, Justin, Narrative and Critical History of America, Houghton-Mifflin & Company, 1884-1889, Volume III, pp. Zakrzewska, Maria N., Catalogue of globes in the Jagellonian University Museum, translated by Franciszek Buhl, Kracow, 1965. A A A  Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions. A A A  Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia. The American and French political wars of the late 18th century, while on the surface appearing to be very similar, were, in fact, quite opposite in their foundations, processes used to achieve freedoms, and in their ultimate consequences. The French saw the Americans as being willing to put the dreams of the philosophes into practice and gave them hope to do the same in France. The French Revolution (1789-1815) looked to the secular theories of the Enlightenment for its guidance and legitimacy. France suffered through a century of turmoil, revolutions, and political upheaval, in contrast to the stable government and society that was established in the United States. The absolutism of the kings Louis XIV, XV, and XVI, the central figures of the French monarchy leading up to the French Revolution, led to the events that precipitated the Revolution that began in 1789. The numerous and extensive wars conducted under Louis XIV (ruled 1643-1715) in the previous century had weakened the economy of the nation. In similar fashion, Louis XV took the throne when he was five years old (ruled 1714-1774), succeeding in 1715 his great-grandfather, Louis XIV. Increasingly the nationa€™s economy was built upon borrowed money obtained from loans granted by private financiers. From the reign of Louis XIII and his primary counselor, Cardinal Richelieu, continuing through the reign of Louis XIV and his finance minister, Colbert, a severe absolutism controlled the nation. In addition, the growing merchant and middle classes resented being excluded from participation in government, and during the reign of Louis XVI (picture right) there was no apparent change in sight.
Increasingly the monarchy lost its charm, sense of loyalty, and honor among the French people. As an indication of how little Louis XVI understood his nation and how unaware he was of the dynamics sweeping France, in 1788, when members of Parliament complained of his dictatorial ways, he issued the Lamoignon Edict, abolishing the power of parliament. Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the i??French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV.
Essays and books by Descartes, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire and others were more widely read in France than in any other place in Europe (see Unit 20).
The philosophesa€™ general disdain for the Roman Catholic Church resulted in a widespread suspicion of the clergy.
This led to a requirement that all Catholic clergy sign an oath of loyalty to France (Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790) or be expelled from the country.
The peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society. The third estate was comprised of the middle class (Bourgeoisie): merchants, lawyers, physicians, government workers, and everyone else in society, including the peasants. The social and economic gap between the peasants the land owning nobility, including the monarchy, grew greater. In lean years 90% of the peasants lived below subsistence levels and were hardly able to survive.
10,000 female market workers (a€?the Paris fish market womena€?) marched the thirty-five miles from Paris to Versailles in 1788 to protest the high cost of bread. Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the north of Paris. Eventually Louis XIV built a huge palace at Versailles and transferred the seat of government from Paris to Versailles. The French nobility resided in and around Versailles in order to be found daily in the French court.
Riots had broken out in Paris over economic failures, the escalating price of bread, and the fear and frustration resulting from the two-year famine in many areas of France.
The Bastille, an ancient prison now turned into a military armory, in 1789 was stormed by Parisians seeking guns and ammunition for their protests. To appease the growing unrest and to convince them, however, that new and higher taxes were necessary to address the nationa€™s problems, Louis XVI, called into session the Assembly of the Notables.This was a weak ruse by the king to gain their support for higher taxes.
The weak king, counseled by strong-willed Maria who held to a strict absolutism for the monarchy, refused to share government with the nobles. The Assembly then demanded that Louis call into Session the Paris Parlement, which had not met since 1614! In desperation, Louis then called into session the Estates General, composed of representatives from each of the Three Estates. In frustration and anger, the Third Estate walked out of the meetings and refused to reassemble with the other two estates. When the third estates walked out, the king arranged to have the meeting place conveniently shut down a€?for repairs.a€? The third estate then took over the kinga€™s indoor tennis courts and held their own assembly, which became known as the Tennis Court Assembly. The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch.
Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings.
It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. Thomas Paine, author of the pro-independence piece, Common Sense, during the American War for Independence, had left America for France. The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people.
The king and queen were brought to Paris and placed under palace arrest so that the French people could a€?keep their eye on them.a€? In 1791 Marie had attempted a secret flight from the country with her husband and children through a secret plan arranged with her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austrian. By Spring 1792 three things were evident: (1) attempts to fashion a constitutional monarchy under Louis had failed, (2) civil unrest was everywhere in France, and (3) the Revolution was going badly. Counter-revolutionaries in France in Austria were at work to restore an absolute monarchy under Louis and had the financial and military support of Leopold II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Vienna.
Furthermore, there was wide-spread speculation that the king, himself, was on the side of the Austrian and Prussian armies that were driving from the north towards Paris. The National Convention, now controlled by the more radical members, viewed King Louis XVI as an enemy of the state, who would be, if he continued to live, even abroad, as a catalyst for enemies of the revolution. On January 20, 1793 the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was i??executed the next day.
His wife, Marie Antoinette, during a purge of other suspicioned enemies of the revolution, was executed in October 1793, nine months after the execution of her husband.
Marie Antoinette gave birth to four children.A daughter died in infancy, a son died at age seven of tuberculosis, a daughter survived and was sent to Austria in a prisoner exchange, and the heir to the throne, Louis-Charles, suffered a horrible death. After his fathera€™s execution, Louis-Charles, born in 1785, stayed with his mother in prison. By June 1793 the crowds in the street, impatient with what they perceived to be the slow progress of the National Convention in pushing forward a radical reform, rioted. In September 1773 the street crowds again rioted and demanded that even terror be used to bring about the social, political, and economic revolution that the street crowds envisioned. Maximillien Robespierre had long argued for the abolishment of the monarchy, promoted the ideas of an assembly directly accountable to the people, promoted the end to the death penalty, and opposed war with Austria.
Although initially an idealist committed to the rights of man as elaborated in the writings of the philosophes in the Enlightenment, Robespierre resorted to terror to maintain the course and direction of the revolution. In May 1794 Robespierre supported a decree that established a new national religion in France, the Cult of the Supreme Being.
The French calendar was changed to include a new ten-day week in order to abolish from the minds of the nation a€?Sundaya€? or the Christian a€?first day of the weeka€? in order to eliminate all references to Christ and the Resurrection.
The French also devised a new clock which measured not a 24-hour day but a 10-hour day, each hour divided into 100 minutes and each minute containing 100 seconds, with exactly 100,000 seconds per day.
By 1794 most French churches were closed, 30,000 priests were either deported, killed, or shipped as prisoners to French Guiana, and no priests remained to conduct the sacraments.
Finally, the treachery and evident emotional and mental imbalance of Robespierre was so apparent and the Reign of Terror so horrendous, that Robespierre himself was condemned to death. With the death of Robespierre, the nation was governed by a new team of leaders, The Directory. Napoleon ordered his cannons to fire into the protesters and quickly brought order to the streets of Paris. Considered to be one of the great generals and military strategists in history, Napoleon Napoleon defeated the army of Austria and proceeded to conquer Italy. Napoleon secretly had the desire to become the next Alexander the Great and saw Egypt as the first step towards establishing a new empire.
Within a few short years the goal for a free France ruled by a representative government would again slip into absolutism.
A French hegemony existed in Europe almost to the very eve of 1789.A  A hegemony is the strong influence of a people, culture, or nation over others. Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV.
TheA  peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society. Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the northA  of Paris. 1.The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch.
1.Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings.
1.It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. 1.The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people. On January 20, 1793A  the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was executed the next day. Increasingly he became more radical, sought to eliminate all opposition to his leadership and ideas. T-Enami.org - A Welcome, all who like old Photos of Japan !YOU ARE ONE OF OVER 100,000 VISITORS TO THIS SITE. In Germany and Austria today there are signs of the seriousness with which geopathic stress is taken.
If you find time, this geopathic stress documentary is extremely interesting and compliments the work I have been doing over the last 12 years and 30 years my father before me with the same conclusions. Please scroll down the articles on this page for a more scientific understanding of geopathic stress.
There is also an interesting piece of research at the end of the page about the credibility of Vega testing for geopathic stress. The most useful research document is below under the heading a€?Vienna Reporta€™ Read my summary and then either open up the original research document in German or the Poor English translation after the summary. The first studies that proved a link between cancer and geopathic stress were carried out in the early 20th century in Austria and Germany but, so far geopathic stress has been largely ignored in the UK.
A A A  Long term exposure in combination with other types of energy such as Hartman lines, high electromagnetic fields or geological faults can give rise to optimistic abnormal cell growth and cancer. Germany has long been the seat of research in to the biological effects that pathogenic locations can have on both human and plant biochemistry. Historic roots of the investigation are built on claims that pathogenic zones exist at certain locations and that sleeping or spending long periods of time above them are linked to cancer, debilitating diseases of the central nervous system, chronic fatigue and general ill health. The research was conducted by a team of distinguished professors, doctors, engineers, scientists and dowsers.
To test this hypothesis the research team used the services of three dowsers known for there expertise in locating earth energies. At present, these so called a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ can only be indicated by dowsers, with its presence being then verified with scientific instrumentation.
The Project a€?The project involved the testing of 24 different biological parameters involving 985 trial volunteers in 6,943 investigations using 462, 421 individual measurements.
Decoder Analysis of the Total Bioelectric Status a€?This investigation was significant and was carried out on a number of patients from a country medical practice.
Heart Frequency Reaction (HFR) a€?In these investigations measurements from an electrocardiogram (ECG) were used in both sitting and lying down positions. Akrale Re-warming Time a€?The temperature measurement at the finger tips revealed that after standardized cooling on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the Rewarming time is delayed significantly.
Optical Flicker Fusion Frequency a€?This test measures the psycho sensory capabilities of the person. Coordinative Vegetative Rhythm a€?Passive rhythms such as breath and pulse frequency operate in balanced Coordinative rhythms especially when at rest. Muscle Frequency Analysis a€?Significant location variations in the distribution of the muscle action frequencies were found in areas of electric muscle potential. Calcium and Potassium a€?On a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ potassium levels increased with a rising significance and calcium increased significantly.
Serotonin a€?Decreased by a factor of 6 on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ whilst increasing its metabolism to advance Tryptophan in compensation. The a€?Location Effecta€™ of the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ on regulatory systems of the human organism is proved without doubt and raises the question of which substratum, subsystem or system the location dependent powers primarily attack.
The test results were lined up by Biometric Significance and are valued with the Serotonin and the Blood Corpuscle Decline Speed (BSG) in lead position. Serotonin a€?Serotonin is diminished on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ and its metabolism advances the tendency for Tryptophan to be increased.
The research team concluded that there was no evidence to relate a€?Location Loada€™ to a specific illness but should be rather determined as a risk factor that can reinforce the effect of different pathogenic factors.
Only rudimental evidence is available today, if such zones could be measured using accepted physical apparatus. One of the reasons why an incontrovertible physical measurement of the assumedly existing electromagnetic fields appears to be impossible at present could be that these are very variable, broad-banded and at the same time only present in very low power strengths, a€?hiddena€? in the surrounding electromagnetic noise. One can assume that there are many origins for the effects of different locations on humans, animals and plants. Low energy, broad-banded and dynamically changing EMFs, creating resonance with structures of the human organism, may well be part of the geopathy phenomenon. In addition, the dipolar nature of H2O-molecules can also be part of the origin of such fields. Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals and certain ceramic materials to generate electrical and magnetic signals in response to applied mechanical stress. Inside an ideal quartz crystal, the electrical charge of the elements silicon and oxygen cancel each other out. Another well known use of piezoelectricity is found in lighters using piezoelectric ignition: There, sudden mechanical pressure onto a synthetic quartz crystal block (containing high amounts of exactly aligned synthetic lattice crystal cells) leads to the generation of high voltage. Another aspect of the geopathy phenomenon, which appears to be largely underestimated in its importance, could be found in the presence of a€?longitudinal scalar wavesa€? (5).
The existence of longitudinal wave proportions, as also present in the near field of a dipol antenna, could already be shown experimentally by Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) (16-16). Proteins and most other bio-molecules are not at all a€?nonrigida€? structures; in order to fulfill their functions, they possess the ability to dynamically change their shapes within certain limits. Huge amounts of very tiny magnetic crystals (magnetite crystals) have been found in the brain, and these could react very sensitively to the slightest changes in magnetic fields (20).
Even though in today's popular media, pseudo-scientific and quasi-medical reports on the topic of geopathy are presented to the public, no a€?peer revieweda€? medical journal indexed in MedLine had published statistically firm and sound provable evidence of geopathic effects on humans until most recently.
Our first concepts how to address the geopathy phenomenon were based on the descriptions and personal discussions with the late Otto Bergsmann (a€  2004) and Alois Stacher (medical doctors, both from Vienna, Austria) and carried out in close co-operation with Adolf Wiebecke and his team (Salzburg and Oberalm, Austria). For detection geopathic stress, we have followed the design of a randomized, double-blinded non-clinical trial (54-44), following the ethical guidelines of the expanded Helsinki Declaration (56). During the experiments, the complete GDV system was mounted on a trolley, in order to measure the effects of the two different zones in the laboratory room directly a€?on sitea€? without moving the test person to another place.
To gain reliable data, we paid careful attention to a number of issues influencing stability, reproducibility and safety (24, 30, 37, 45): Throughout the whole study, the very same GDV system was used.
As overlaying technical fields possibly influencing the results may have been present, we used sophisticated calibrated equipment to scan and record low and high frequency EMFs, potential acoustic noxae or vibrations during the whole study period, as well as a variety of additional physical parameters.
Further analyses were carried out for complementary medical parameters included in the GDV software package.
Those people who are already in the beginning stages of poor health may sense an added sensitivity for diseases of different kinds when staying longer on geopathic locations, as well as notice that healing processes may take longer than usual.
As there are no reliable measuring instruments available so far, presently it makes sense to take advice from an experienced dowser.
If constructional arrangements are not possible before erecting a building or before starting a reconstruction, which is supposedly the case in most instances, there are also other practical possibilities: provided that there is a will to do so, it should be possible to move beds or desk seats, in order to get them out of interference zones. Everyone can do something to prevent negative influences by sources that cause stress: anything that lowers stress in general also helps one deal with specific stress factors, and zones, from any origin. Furthermore, many studies confirm that people who are a€?living healthilya€? a€“ who manage their weight, refrain from smoking, enjoy the outdoors, participate in sports, etc., - have stronger immune systems and feel definitely less stress than their a€?unhealthy livinga€? fellow men. For those who cannot (or do not want to) adopt many of the above mentioned choices, due to illness, age, or some other reasons, things could become more difficult.
Our studies show that it does matter on which location you stay for a longer period of time. What is the relevance of our findings for hospitals, convalescent homes and rehabilitation centers?
The term a€?wellnessa€?, which is composed of the ideals a€?well-beinga€? and a€?fitnessa€? as well as a€?life-stylea€? and a€?happinessa€?, to a modern point of view denotes a holistic concept of health. In a pilot study (unpublished findings), we have found indications of more aggressive behavior by children living or working on geopathic locations. Naturally, the negative effects of geopathic stress zones also have considerable commercial impact. The follow-up costs associated with longer a€?chronica€? stays on geopathic interference zones are probably enormous: As said before, geopathy is a matter of a€?burdened work placesa€? leading to decreased ability of the employees to concentrate and to increased probability of employees' illnesses.
So far, the present scientific evidence of effects of geopathic zones on humans has been mainly found using complementary medical methods, with the exception of the GDV a€?area-of-glowa€? parameter. At the same time, we have already started experiments above different geological zones to test such key parameters contained in saliva, using biochemical assaying well accepted by orthodox medicine: various hormones, neuropeptides and immunological relevant substances are going to be tested a€?non-invasivelya€?.
The authors extend thanks for their great help in conducting the quoted research and its essential components to this manuscript. For their innovative and far-seeing pioneering work and active scientific exchange in the field of geopathy we thank Univ.-Doz. When it comes to the topic of earth radiation, water veins and earth dislocations a€“ the so-called geological disturbances a€“ the layperson will usually associate this with hocus-pocus concepts such as a€?Dowsers,a€? often a man with large whiskers and an ironic smile. Many people do not believe the dowsera€™s tale, and associate it with occult illusion a€“ even if successes have been reported simply by moving a bed to a different area of the room. The most common reason for the prejudice of the person listening -- who generally considers himself to be moderna€?and intelligent -- is the fact that nowhere do we find soa€?many absurdities, contradictions and a€?silly thingsa€? as in this area. Ten allegedly qualified dowsers generally come to ten different conclusions in the same apartment or building. I am sickened when I am told how people play tricks with the fears and hopes of seriously ill individuals. I hope to make a contribution in this area so that we may have an objective discussion of this subject.
For years, sensitive electronic measuring devices have verified the old knowledge about earth radiations. You can actually measure the natural radioactive radiation from the earth, all over the globe.
We are born amid these natural manifold-radiating processes and there is no doubt that they are appropriate, important, healthy, and life protecting. But there are also zones (areas) where radiation intensities are noticeably different from the norm. I might measure a level of radiation along a long-line, for example, and often the intensity will change suddenly, giving me an entirely different value.
Sometimes these higher intensity zones area€?frequent and can be detected every other yarda€?or so.
It is interesting to note that gifted dowsers will show swinging of rods or pendulums exactly where you would measure these significant anomalies too. I do not like to define, prematurely, every swing of a rod by a gifted dowser or every measured peculiarity as a a€?water veina€? or a a€?dislocation.a€? I have never dug into the ground to find the object which I assumed to be in existence while I was measuring on top of the ground.
It is the task of science to connect one thing with another, and to analyze these connections.
My practical experience is sufficient for me to know that concentrations of terrestrial radiation can be measured, and the findings will show noticeable differences from natural points of reference in the natural environment.
What do we really measure, with our sensitive electronic instruments, if the objects are earth radiation, geological disturbances, water veins and dislocations?
I refer to my own personal experiences, with different measuring approaches, and do not pretend exclusiveness.
That means: when you are above geological disturbances you can measure the distortion of the terrestrial magnetic field, similarly to that of magnetic steel.
Here the compass is not the appropriate device because the declinations are so small that they cannot generate any substantial swing.
This measurement approach is not appropriate for house and bedroom examinations, however, because the artificial distortions coming from steel used in construction, materials, metal fixtures, and even the bed itself, can cause a blur in the measurement or make a reading entirely impossible. I think the argument is exaggerated; that these anomalies of terrestrial magnetic fields above geological disturbances are sufficient to cause biological problems. Conclusion: Though you can measure geological peculiarities, the application a€“ in rooms a€“ is rarely reliable. A second peculiarity, as far as earth radiation is concerned, is that air ions often change.
Ion measurements are extremely difficult and ambiguous since many factors in your house mix up the air ions even more than the terrestrial radiation is capable of. This measurement is just impossible under the influence of an electrically radiating wall, or an electrostatically loaded curtain. I have discovered that a plastic bag, within a five-yard distance of the measurement, can change the environment of the air ions more radically than what could be possible from the geological subsoil. Measurements of the VHF field strength often show a drop in the measurement curve when taken above disturbances. Within buildings, however, evaluations are almost impossible as the measurements within walls are highly unreliable. One has to be very critical and attentive so as not to be taken in by too rash and incorrect conclusions.
Many manuals say that locating geological disturbances by using the VHF field strength is childa€™s play. The geo-rhythmogram measures the skin resistance of a person from hand to hand with simple electrodes and a fitting ohm-meter. When the skin resistance of a test person is normal, at 40 kilo ohm (Aschoff), the values can go up to 100, 200, or even higher when you are above zones of disturbance. Even when all pre-conditions are fulfilled some problems remain: All stimuli towards the test person will be included into the measurement. Only with enough experience can you relate anomalies of the skin resistance to geological stimuli, and totally exclude that they are not produced from radio alarms or a spring mattress. If you can do that, then the physical measurement can be reproduced and give a reliable result.
Particularly interesting is the fifth possible approach to measuring terrestrial radiation.
That means: As I measure the natural radioactive radiation with a sensitive radiometer, I will get values of 100 percent or more if the measure is above a so-called disturbance zone. Though the natural basic radioactivity of the earth has some local differences due to climate and the earth level, the base level is generally consistent. From my experience, regular and reproducible increases in radioactivity above geological stimuli areas, in the range of up to 100 percent, are profound and are significant. If you can sleep for the next 20 years with only half the amount of radioactive disintegrations -- after a change of the bedroom position a€“ then, as a matter of caution, I see no reason to stay in the area that is doubly charged. I think it is greatly exaggerated to speak rashly of a€?cancer zonesa€? if you are referring to terrestrial radiation and other corresponding peculiarities. According to my own personal experience, and the findings of innumerable research and test reports, the healing successes after moving the bed cannot be discounted merely as psychological reaction placebo or coincidence.
During a meeting in Seattle, USA, I detected this phenomenon in a 22 floor hotel, on six different levels: in the underground garage, at the first floor near the reception, and on the roof -- always the same high values, down below and at the top, on the same premises.
As you know, I have found houses in which the radioactive radiation was higher than that which could be found in playgrounds and public swimming pools near the Chernobyl accident.
The reason for this is radioactive construction materials: cinders, ashes, chemical gypsum, tiles, pumice and metallurgical stones -- all sorts of possible and impossible industry waste.
Additionally, certain antiques, minerals and glazes a€“ in direct range of your body a€“ can radiate so strongly that biological risks can become immense. While visiting three patients with brain tumors, I found just beside the head of one person a very old alarm clock that was radiating radioactivity; with another, a dark green glazed image of St. For measuring terrestrial radiation, I use my most expensive instruments: highly sensitive scintillation counters. My experiences with measurements of radioactivity soon led to the decision to build a measuring device especially well-suited for building, biological, and geo-biological work, and one that was constructed to my own specifications. The very high sensitivity of the third prototype convinced me: more than 250 impulses per second in a normal radiation background, and more than 500 impulses per second on geologically disturbed surfaces.
Besides its extreme measuring preciseness, the scintillation counter has the particular advantage of being extremely sensitive to gamma rays.
With his super-sensitive measuring device (of more than 1,000 impulses per second!), he has shown that you can find water from the ground surface - guaranteed. More than 35 years of experience makes it possible for Stangle to define, with his measurements, the exact depth, the amount a€“ to the very gallon -- the mineralization, and the temperature of the localized water. The Daimler-Benz company made five expensive unsuccessful drillings before they called Jakob Stangle with his scintillation counter.
In 1972 Jakob Stangle walked through Vilsbiburg with his scintillation counter and totally confirmed the work of his sensitive predecessor by exact measurements, in two absolute blind tests. An architect intended to buy and renovate a large villa at the Baldeney Lake in Essen, Germany. Another time, a doctor recommended to the manager of a concert agency to have her home examined by me. She also looked into the geological maps and found the disturbance was mapped by the Krefeld agency. After these results, I bought several geological maps from North Rhine Westfalia, Germany, and checked ten plotted geological disturbances with my measuring devices.
Lane November 5, 1990 Contents Justice Souris discusses his family history, living in Detroit and then Ann Arbor as a student, and joining the Air Force in 1943.
Its historical significance arises from the fact that it is the oldest surviving globe from the post-1492 period and the oldest surviving globe to illustrate any portion of the New World.
Thus, in this respect, the small globe does not convey the awareness that there had to be a distinct second ocean (the Pacific) as the WaldseemA?ller map (#310) clearly does. Harrisse believed that the Lenox Globe was made in France derived from a€?an Italian modela€? and he detected what he thought were some features or nomenclature reminiscent of a sketch map allegedly from the hand of Leonardo Da Vinci (#327) now kept in the Library at Windsor Castle. He was one of the first scholars to make the astute observation about how quickly and how inevitably it was that the Europeans would connect the dots, would grasp the continuous unbroken coastline from Labrador to Argentina as seen in the Stobnicza map of 1512 (#319). He remarked in his Narrative and Critica1 History of America that a€?its date is fixed at 1510-1512, but by some as early as 1506-1507.a€? Curiously Winsor, who died in 1897, never identified which scholars favored the earlier date that would place the creation of the Lenox Globe before the WaldseemA?ller map. When he published his critical assessment in a long article for The Magazine of American History in September 1879, he was ahead of his time. There in fact are several other maps, globes, or globe gores - associated with the names Boulengier (#324), Green (#342.1), Hauslab-Leichtenstein (#310), Nordenskiold (#311), Stobnicza (#319), and the well-known globes and maps of Johannes SchA¶ner (#328) from the 1515-1520 period - which show this continent having a strait or cape like the African continent and also having a distinctive a€?ice cream-conea€? shape quite unlike Africa. And this evidence should raise doubts and did in fact raise doubts among some late-19th century scholars such as De Costa, Nordenskiold, Varnhagen and Winsor concerning the conventional wisdom that everyone in Europe was in the dark prior to Magellana€™s famous expedition.
And Humboldt based his conclusion in the 1830s, on the fact that the little essay Cosmographiae Introductio published to accompany WaldseemA?llera€™s world map in 1507 and which names for the first time the New World as America in Vespuccia€™s honor, also describes the new continent in the southern hemisphere as being like an a€?enormous island in it that it is found to be surrounded on all sides by watera€?.
Therefore, unlike Harrisse who curiously was not willing to date the globe before 1511, De Costa was firm in his conclusion that the Portuguese must have found the strait no later than 1510. It seems probable that it was made after the publication, in 1503, of Vespuciusa€™ letter to Lorenzo de Medici, in which he gave an account of his third voyage, when he followed the Brazilian coast 34A° south latitude.
De Costa, Justin Winsor and Henry Harrisse have assigned a date of 1510-11, for the reason, amongst others, that, while several of its representations are in advance of the published knowledge of 1508, they are behind that of 1511-12. In 1508, on the map of John Ruysch (#313), Newfoundland also appears as a part of Asia, being marked Terra Nova.
In its New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names, Mundus Novus, Terra Sanctae Crucis, and Terra de Brazil. The ordinary observer must have perceived that the great bodies of land on the globe terminated towards the south in points. The principle in accordance with which the age of this globe is to be deduced is now therefore quite clear.
The globe shows very distinctly a large island, without any name, lying in the Indian Ocean. This excuse, however, cannot be offered for those who later represented Zanzibar as a great island out in the ocean. Acting, however, in accordance with the suggestion offered, it would prove an easy task to bring order out of the confusion.


Nevertheless it is probable that Australia was known centuries before, when the Chinese, with the marinersa€™ compass, navigated those seas. Amongst these might be mentioned the peculiar configuration of the Asiatic coasts, the style of the lettering, the drawing of the ships, and the aspect of the marine monsters.
He also puts Simarum Situs on the border of the Gulf of the Ganges, where Sinarum Situs is put by Ruysch, Sinarum, like Serica, or silk, being a name applied to China, which on the globe is called East India. The globe-maker, however, should have placed the province where Polo and the Nancy Globe (#363) place it, on the Coromandel coast. Below South Africa is a grotesque monster, intended for a whale, the creature being delineated with much care. He may have heard of the Vinland of the Northmen, but the story of the Cabots had already been locked up in depositories where it was destined to lie too long; while Martyra€™s map of Beimeni, or Florida, together with the publications of 1512, 1513, 1515, had not come from the press.
The word Getulia and Zamor point to the influence of the Goths and Moors in Africa, while Paludes Nile show that, in common with the geographers of that period, the globe-maker had anticipated the discoveries of Livingstone and Stanley. Cuba, on the other hand, is correctly laid down as an island, being called Isabel, in honor of Queen Isabella. The name America was first proposed in 1507 by Martin WaldseemA?ller, known under the Greek pseudonym of a€?Hylacomilus.a€? It appears in his Cosmographiae Introductio, where, having called attention to the fact that the old continents were named after women, he observes that the new one should be called after a man. Hylacomilus was entirely friendly to Columbus, as was the case with Vespucci in his relations to the Genoese; nevertheless the geographer of St.
He says that three times in his second voyage Vespucci calls the country terra del Asia, but in the third voyage calls it una€™ altro mondo and Mondo nuovo. This map shows the separation of America from Asia, but we believe that the Lenox Globe is earlier.
Or the Lenox Globe indeed was made prior to 1507 that would or could mean that its amazing depiction of the new southern continent was derived from highly valued geographical knowledge that also made possible the brilliant synthesis that we see in the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507.
The main reason for De Costaa€™s waffling is that he remained intrigued with the notion that there was a€?some connectiona€? between the Lenox Globe that refers to the New World as Mundus Novus, and Vespuccia€™s 1501-1502 voyage. Curiously, for some reason, even though De Costa lived until 1904, there is no record of what he thought after the discovery of this map in 1901, which might well have prompted him to date the Lenox Globe prior to 1507.
The Baron had no doubt that the globe was made well before Magellan since its depiction of Asia was more primitive than what one sees on the Ruysch map included the 1507-1508 Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia. The Ruysch map was inserted in the widely available Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia which published in 1507-1508, the first such edition of this work since 1490. Instead, in sharp contrast, the Lenox Globe shows what the Cantino and Caveri maps do not show: namely, the coastline from Venezuela around Panama then upward to Honduras with no hint of a strait in the region of Panama. Ita€™s amazing depiction of the southern continent, essentially in its entirety as a land mass totally separate from Asia and surrounded like an island virtually on all sides by water makes the Lenox Globe a strange hybrid. In Spanish maritime circles, knowledge of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, and even much of the coast north of Florida (all of which fell within the Spanish maritime zone) was fairly complete by 1502-1504. At the same time, we know that in the Spring of 1501, after Cabral had found the east coast of Brazil the previous year, the Portuguese focused intensely on exploring the eastern coastline of South America in order to determine if there was a cape and if it fell within Lisbona€™s maritime zone. The globe reflects a pro-Portuguese political bias and here we come to what is perhaps the most astonishing and revealing feature of the globe.
We can also see this same eastward twist of the coastline in the Cantino (#306) and Contarini (#308) maps both of which date to before the WaldseemA?ller map. Based on this evidence, Fite and Freeman felt compelled to conclude (again like De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld) that this a€?suggests a water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519a€?. In any case, the preponderance of evidence and the historical contextualization seems to validate the Fite-Freeman argument that the Lenox Globe dates to sometime between late 1503 when the first editions of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novos were published and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller world map and globe gores appeared. The globe illustrates how geographers of that time struggled to reconcile the discoveries of new lands with orthodox Ptolomaic cosmography. The discussion over this puzzle may be dated from 1786, when Alexander Dalrymple first drew attention to the resemblance between the shape of Jave la Grande on the Dauphin, or Harleian map (#378) and the shape of the coastline of New South Wales as it had been charted by James Cook in HMS Endeavour in 1770.
This map, which is on parchment, appears from the characters, and other circumstances, to have been made about the beginning of the 16th century.
This had been described in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and discussed in an article by Benjamin Franklin De Costa in the Magazine of American History.
Estreicher pointed out that the western coasts of both this continent and the MUNDUS NOVUS in the Western Hemisphere are schematic and without detail, in contrast to the eastern coasts which show bays, rivers and promontories, indicating that they are the result of actual discovery by voyagers. Diese Annahme wird zur Gewissheit, als wir auf dem Jagellonischen Globus finden, dass die Insel die Inschrift tragt: AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA. The Tross Gores also bear the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA, but in this case placed over South America (WaldseemA?llera€™s America), and there is no continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. The depiction of the continents on the globe in this clock is similar to the globe or gores made by Louis Boulengier in 1514, indicating how globe makers could persist in using cosmographical concepts that were decades out of date.
Unlike the Lenox Globe, the Jagellonian Globe has engraved on it the lines of latitude and longitude with the prime meridian passing through the island of Ferro. However, as mentioned above, he oddly applies this name, not to the new fourth continent in the Western Hemisphere but instead to an unsubstantiated mythical island in the southern portion of the Indian Ocean.
For his part, Estreicher drew the sensible and logical conclusion that the use of the name America clearly indicates that the Jagellonian Globe was made after the spring of 1507. One distinct possibility consistent with the other indication of a pro-Portuguese political bias, is that the Jagellonian Globe was made by someone with that same bias and who was furious that Amerigo Vespucci had revealed far too much in Mundus Novus for Lisbona€™s liking and who may well have been dismissed in late 1504 from further service for Portugal for that reason.
Hythlodaeus, the narrator, whose name perhaps recalls Hylacomylus (WaldseemA?llera€™s name in latinized form), is said to have accompanied Amerigo Vespucci on what, according to the perhaps apocryphal but widely read Soderini letter, was his fourth voyage (1503-1504). This analysis would suggest that the Jagellonian version of the Lenox Globe might have been a hostile reaction to what the mapmakers had done at St. The maker of the Jagellonian Globe who inserted this erroneous inscription with regard to Americaa€™s location on a globe was dependent on a prior cartographic projection that had to have originated elsewhere. Writing of his 1499 voyage, Amerigo Vespucci said he had hoped to reach India by sailing westward from Spain across the Atlantic around the Cape of Catigara into the Sinus Magnus, the Great Gulf that lay to the East of the Chersonese Aureus [Malay Peninsula].
Johannes SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1515 (#328), like Boulengiera€™s of 1514 (#324), depicted America but, like the Jagiellonian and Lenox, showed another continent to the South West, labeled BRASILLIE REGIA. This was a cosmographical concept, not based on actual surveys, but as Stevenson pointed out, assumed because the geographers of the time such as WaldseemA?ller, ignorant of the reality of the Pacific Ocean or of North America, thought Amerigo Vespuccia€™s newly discovered land was located in the Southern Hemisphere to the eastward of Africa. As an authentic document from the early sixteenth century incorporating and demonstrating the cosmographic concepts of that time, it deserves consideration in any discussion of how the Dieppe maps came into existence.
Frederick Pohl (1889-1991) accepted the Fite-Freeman position in an essay published in the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in September 1963. Pohl drew this conclusion in part because after he published a biography of Vespucci in 1944, Pohl seems to have become aware of the observations of German Arciniegas and Robert Levillier that the Portuguese map makers were in the habit of twisting the southern coastline of South America toward the southeast so that the cape or strait would fall on Lisbona€™s side of the Line of Demarcation established by treaty in 1494.
Although Pohl in his 1963 essay curiously did not mention Levilliera€™s essay or Arciniegasa€™ well-known Vespucci biography, he had already argued in 1944 that someone must have tampered with Vespuccia€™s letters to Soderini in various passages, especially that conspicuous alteration from a€?southwesta€? to a€?southeasta€? to give the false impression that the eastern coastline shifted abruptly in that direction a€“ as we can see illustrated in the Lenox Globe in a quite dramatic fashion. This exaggerated geographical feature strongly suggests that officials in Lisbon were quite eager as early as 1502 to spread misinformation or disinformation about the true direction of the coastline below the Tropic of Capricorn at 23 degrees latitude south.
We can say this because he buried a discussion of this specific issue in a long footnote on pages 225-226 at the back of his biography of Vespucci published in London in 1944. However, the most telling observation is that if there was no European knowledge of a cape or a strait with regard to the new southern continent prior to Magellan, why do these globes a€?twista€? the southern portion of the continent to make people believe that a cape and water fall so far to the east, in the direction of, and therefore within the Portuguese maritime zone? Hans Wolff who edited and also contributed to America: Early Maps of the New World (1992) made a passing remark about how the Lenox Globe a€?is slightly older than the Brixen-Hauslab globe of 1523a€? but his suggestion that the globe dates to around 1520 is not credible. While it is neither signed nor dated, there is scarcely a doubt that it is as old as the Lenox globe; indeed, the geographical features of the two globes are so similar that they appear to be the work of the same globe maker, or copies of a common original, yet it is note-worthy that the nomenclature of the Jagellonicus globe is somewhat richer.
At the same time, the maker of the globe evidently and curiously was still not aware of the decision at Saint-Die to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci. First, the maker of this globe accepted or echoed Portuguese cartographic propaganda after 1502 concerning the configuration of the eastern coastline which was depicted as shifting or twisting in a highly exaggerated fashion in a southeasterly direction into the Atlantic. Third, despite all the evidence that the maker of the Lenox Globe was working almost exclusively with Portuguese sources, he oddly fails to provide the more accurate depiction of South Asia that we find in the Cantino, Caveri and Ruysch maps all of which were completed in the 1502-1507 time period.
Pohla€™s suspicion that this globe appeared around the time of the publication of the questionable Italian or Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters in 1505 or 1506 is a compelling argument. Magellana€™s strange decision to turn and sail due west across the Pacific after having sailed northward to a considerable extent up the Chilean coast remains an intriguing fact.
Instead, Magellan seems to have been acting on the assumption or belief that this new southern land, though quite huge, was either an enormous island or a new continent totally separate from Asia, which is precisely what both the Lenox Globe and WaldseemA?ller maps clearly suggest.
And surely at that time the Spanish had abandoned any hope in a strait in that region, otherwise they would not have backed Magellana€™s expedition to reach the Moluccas. In this letter, Chauncey conveys what he was able to learn about Hunta€™s discovery of the Lenox Globe and its later acquisition by Lenox from conversations with Hunta€™s widow who was Chaunceya€™s sister-in-law. In der Jagellonischen Bibliotek, Bulletin lnternational de la€™Academie des Sciences de Cracovie, Comptes Rendus des Seances (March 1900), a€?Resumesa€?, pp. The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point, the Goddess of Reason as its central cult.
The persecution of French Protestants forced most of their capable leaders to flee France, to the benefit of Holland, England, and the United States where they found new homes.
French nobles had revolted against the Bourbon royal family and the early childhood of Louis was spent with his mother in hiding. And the French military effort under Louis XVI to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France.
Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies ini?? Europe in order to stamp out dissent. He dealt with dissenters harshly by means of lettres de caches (indefinite imprisonment without benefit of official charges, trial, or jury -- or the total absence of the English habeas corpus). She was the daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, Marie Antoinette married Louis at age 15 and by the age of 20 was queen of France. Their works championed social justice and participatory government and their ideas stirred up the middle and merchant classes to an intoxicating quest for some form of democracy. The big question asked whether the Roman clergy was loyal to France and the French Church or were they loyal to the pope in Rome? 50% of the clergy refused to sign the oath of loyalty, including the majority of the local, village priests.
They owned 20% of the land, were 2-3% of the population, had access to the kinga€™s court, participated in government, and paid no taxes.
They made up 96-97% or the population, but owned only 40% of the land, AND PAID ALL OF THE TAXES! But a severe drought in the spring of 1788 and a devastating hail storm in July ruined the wheat harvest. The march turned into an ugly protest and the women armed with knives, shovels, and rakes, stormed Versailles seeking the hated queen.
It was soon discovered, however, that his trips to Versailles were not for the purpose primarily of hunting but for secret rendezvous with his mistress. It was considered an architectural masterpiece and during the period of the French hegemony was copied in many European capitols. One of the great honors of a nobleman during the reign of Louis XIV was to assist him to dress and to empty his chamber pot (the kinga€™s a€?toileta€?).
The French lost their reverence for the monarchy, gained new understandings of the worth and the basic rights of the individual in a more just society. Hearing of the success of the Parisians in this takeover, the peasants revolted against the land owning nobility, destroyed fences, records of land ownership, seized manors, and killed many of the nobility.
It did not work, however, because his new proposal included the taxation of the nobility, something from which they had traditionally been exempted! Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the Paris Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces.
The Estates General was in actuality the Parlement which had not been assembled since 1614. Their appeal for a€?one person one votea€? was rejected by the first and second estates because the representatives of the third estate represented 94% of the people, and the first and second estates were not about to give up their traditional power. The Communes invited representatives from the First and Second Estates to join them and to boycott the Estates General. They were captured at the border by French soldiers and taken back to Paris as virtual prisoners. The National Assembly abolished the monarchy, the French Republic was proclaimed, Increased in-fighting, civil war, regional disputes, and the eventual lack of an emerging strong leadership, opened the door for a small group of representatives, the Committee of Public Safety, to take control of the Assembly.
In response, Revolutionary leaders on the other side declared war in April 1792 against the Holy Roman Empire with the hope that war against Austria and the Empire would unite France in a new national spirit. In August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown. He was tried for crimes against the people and the National Convention declared France a Republic.
The Committee of Public Safety passed the Law of Suspects, giving it broad freedom to seize and arrest anyone suspected to be an anti-revolutionary.
In the 1793-1796 civil war in western France between conservatives opposed to the excesses of the revolution and revolutionaries, it is estimated that up to 450,000 combatants from both sides died.
He lead one of two major political factions in the National Assembly, the Mountain (so-called because they sat to the rear of the Assembly in rows higher up from the floor level), which was the more radical of the two.
He purged the Committee of all opposition and conducted the execution of hundreds of remaining noble families. The house arrest of the king was the final sign on the wall of their own future if they stayed in France.
In fact, each of the new months did not contain actual a€?weeksa€? but three decades of ten days each.The names of the months were also changed. A grateful Directory rewarded Napoleon and approved his plan to build a stong military with the goal of invading Italy and Austria, Francea€™s two hated enemies--Austria because of its constant threats of invasion and Italy because of the Popea€™s constant attempts to interfere in Francea€™s politics. Instead, he convinced the Directory to allow him to invade Egypt as a first step to conquering India, as an attempt to break the financial and political empire of England which occupied both India and Egypt in its vast British Empire. The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point,A  the Goddess of Reason as its central cult.
Styles of dress, architecture, literature, music, theater, vocabulary, technology are all avenues through which a hegemony develops. And the French military effort under Louis XVIA  to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France. Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies in Europe in order to stamp out dissent. Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the ParisA  Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces. InA  August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown. The event itself was turned into a major display and triumph for the Revolution.A  1,200 armed horsemen accompanied him from the prison to the place of execution, two hours away, with crowds lining the route. If you continue to stay in these areas especially during sleep, then in the long term the stresses on our bodies will emerge as more serious conditions such as, diseases of the central nervous system, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), miscarriages, and cancer. Not only are the public more generally aware, but their governments funds aid and continuing research in to the matter. Geopathic Stress is only one of them and it is becoming more difficult to gauge especially when the natural energy field is constantly changed and amplified by man-made electromagnetic fields.
The phenomenon has been linked to insomnia, migraine, headaches, loss of balance, short -term memory loss, joint pain, cot death, infertility, miscarriages, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) and cancer. It has been known for a long time that when there is flowing water under a dwelling the inhabitants always feel more tired, are prone to premature aging and have a loss of vitality than those who sleep above neutral ground. I have the original 134 page research document in German and a badly translated version in English. These pathogenic locations defined in the report as, a€?earth radiation's evoked by a discontinuity of the normal physical parameters on the surface of the earth,a€™ and shortened to a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ are the subject of the research. Such locations have been termed in China and many European countries as either a€?curseda€™ or a€?cancera€™ houses.
The functioning hypothesis of the research was that geophysical characteristics of the surface of the earth are not uniform and that location dependent influences exist that can have a detrimental effect on both human and plant biochemical systems. They were enlisted to independently dowse eight different locations and submit reports and diagrams of the strongest a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ found, together with a a€?Neutral Zonea€™ at the same location to enable them to carryout double blind experiments with volunteers at each selected location.
Technology does not yet exist to do this the other way round; the dowser does not yet appear to be replaceable with scientific instrumentation.
However because of the high standard of the research only significant results were accepted.
The stereotypical result on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ was deterioration of the electro-biological functioning in the sense of depression or blockage of bioelectric functions. In the 15 minute time exposure on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the results remained under the significance barrier.
An apparatus able to discriminate such low energy broadband EMFs from noise apparently is not yet available. Both, technical and biological systems can be influenced by EMFs, whereby numerous questions are still open, such as the concerning limits and the nature of physical interference fields (5). As an extremely dielectric medium, water favors the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly. In nature, piezoelectrical dischargings can occur in some areas of geological a€?warpsa€? containing quartz sand particles, and may be another plausible cause of geopathic stress effects (14).
When a crystal lattice cell is compressed by mechanical pressure, an imbalance is the result, manifesting itself in the development of a tiny electrical voltage (Fig. In spite of the fact that scalar waves in the field theory of Maxwell are usually neglected and set to zero, numerous experiments can lead to the conclusion that they do really exist and influence the human organism (5). The presence of pure physical interactions and in addition also of a€?physiologic sensorsa€? located inside the body can be assumed. Physical resonance is defined as a synchronization of two sources which vibrate with the same pulse frequency but with contrary polarity. Internal protein dynamics can potentially affect protein function through a variety of mechanisms, some of which are tautological or obvious in nature while others are subtle and remain to be fully explored and appreciated (18). Black dots on magnetic resonance imaging pictures (MRI) of human brain tissue led researches to the idea that these could be magnetic particles. Evidence that these microscopically small magnetite particles would function for some kind of sensory perception in humans could not yet been confirmed. Previously described effects and descriptions of the pioneers (1, 3 and others) in this area unfortunately arena€™t available in the standardized, scientifically acceptable nor reproducible format required for peer-reviewed medical journals, but rather as monographs. Because of the lack of a€?directa€? physical measurement techniques for the doubtlessly existing a€zenergy fieldsa€? at least partly originating in the ground, we decided to use the human body as an indicator.
Being fascinated by its highly sensitive ability to detect stress effects, and also by the fact that this method is being used world-widely for manifold applications combining a€?pure physicsa€? with complimentary evaluation of apparently high accuracy, we could reproducibly show using this method that different zones above ground do exhibit different effects on the human organism.
In addition to the promising data presented in numerous publications before, including our own, we are presently in the middle of an evaluation targeting a validation of GDV mean area-of-glow as a reliable measure of certain aspects of stress. All test persons had been informed about the GDV system and related safety issues, and about the fact that they may feel a slight a€?crawlinga€? in their finger tips. In practice, to capture one a€?static GDV imagea€?, a very stable high voltage (10 kV, 1.024 Hz, square pulses) is pulsed on and off every 10 ms for a duration of 0,5 s. For each test person and test phase, 50 single static measurements were performed (each finger tip was measured 5 times for 0,5 s). Before use, the GDV camera (kept inside the laboratory at constant room temperature) was switched on at least 30 minutes prior to measurement, and careful calibrations were performed. In addition to the calculation of descriptive data (mean, median, standard deviation etc.), we carried out Gaussian normality tests and subsequently used the paired two-sample t-test for dependent variables to determine whether there are significant differences between the 4 experimental sub-period results.
The two measurement areas in the laboratory used for the experiments turned out to be indistinguishable from the aspect of technical fields and acoustic background noise, and the field strength and loudness levels present were far below existing (safety) guidelines. Statistical significance again was enormously high (p < 0,0001) when compared to the results on those zones without the a€?Wavea€? device (24).
In later stages, it my not be impossible though that chronic stress caused by geopathic locations may finally even forward the development of malignant disease.
However, according to the Munich barn-experiments (66-68) and other independent investigations, only a low percentage of the people claiming to be successful dowsers are actually capable of making reproducible and reliable conclusions. This includes methods of stress-management and relaxation techniques, such as meditation, tai chi, guided imaginative journeying, and also certain hypnotherapeutic approaches (69-73). Para-scientific reports about sleeplessness or higher rates of occurrence of different diseases have been with us for many years. In hospitals, observant physicians and nurses sometimes know from experience that there appear to be locations of sickbeds where, remarkably, many patients have a delayed recovery, or in especially blatant cases they may not recover at all. Wellness enhancing methods and applications aim to increase physical, psychological and spiritual well-being. Individual performance on a€?interference reduceda€? zones increases, and all sides - superintendents, managers and employees - would possibly benefit. This can produce enormous costs for our social and health systems, and the hidden costs we can only suspect today. As preliminarily presented in this book, we have already obtained data underlining the validity of GSV as a reliable instrument for measuring stress, provided that all pre-cautions are taken into account and that well-trained and experienced persons use it. Adolf WIEBECKE (Oberalm bei Salzburg), whom we want to congratulate for his most promising invention of the a€?Wavea€? device, for the possibility of doing experimental research using his device. Seidel P, Schmidl F, Becker C, Springborn U, Biering S, Grosse V, FA¶rster T, Lorenz P, Bechstein R: Planar high-temperature superconducting dc-SQUID gradiometers for different applications. Hong R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Weng EQ: Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on DNA of testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure in mice. Chen P, Yang YQ, Tao HH, Yang HC: Effects of electromagnetic fields of different frequencies on proliferation and DNA damage of gallbladder cancer cells. Nylund R, Leszczynski D: Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent. Grassi C, Da€™Ascenzo M, Torsello A, Martinotti G, Wolf F, Cittadini A, Azzena GB: Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their role in modulation of neuroendocrine cell proliferation and death. Hecker R: Emission elektrischer und magnetischer Signale von Gestein infolge A¤uAYerer mechanischer Belastungen. Baureus Koch CL, Sommarin M, Persson BR, Salford LG, Eberhardt JL: Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes.
Mathie A, Kennard LE, Veale EL: Neuronal ion channels and their sensitivity to extremely low frequency weak electric field effects.
Dobson P, Oa€™Keefe E: Investigations into stress and its management using the gas discharge visualization technique.
Russo M, Choudhri AF, Whitworth G, Weinberg AD, Bickel W, Oz MC: Quantitative analysis of reproducible changes in high-voltage electrophotography.
Bascom R, Buyantseva L, Zhegmin Q, Dolina M, Korotkov K: Gas discharge visualization (GDV)- bioelectrography. Korotkov KG, Popechitelev EP: Method for gas discharge visualization and automation of the system of realizing it in clinical practice. Treugut H, Gorner C, Ludtke R, Schmid P, Fuss R: Reliabilitat der Energetischen Terminalpunktdiagnose (ETD) nach Mandel bei Kranken.
Medvedev SN, Mala€™tseva AS, Popkova AM, Serov VV, Igonina NP, Tkacheva OI, Kozin AN: Possibilities of the use of Korean acupuncture Su Jok in the clinical practice.
Kato M, Honma K, Shigemitsu T, Shiga Y: Circularly polarized 50-Hz magnetic field exposure reduces pineal gland and blood melatonin concentrations of Long-Evans rats.
Burch JB, Reif JS, Yost MG: Geomagnetic disturbances are associated with reduced nocturnal excretion of a melatonin metabolite in humans.
Jajte J, Zmyslony M: The role of melatonin in the molecular mechanism of weak, static and extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields (ELF). Torpy DJ, Chrousos GP: The three-way interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and gonadal axes and the immune system. This often results in the purchase of expensive screening and de-jamming devices, for which only the unreliable producer and distributor gets any profit.
We all know that the earth a€“ in fact, all of life a€“ a€?radiatesa€? as a natural process.a€?There exists a strong terrestrial magnetic field, which guarantees that the top of a compass is always drawn to the north, no matter where you are in the world. It has been known for a long time that underground watercourses and geological dislocation produce spectacular radiation intensities. Sensitive magnetometers can, however, easily make these distortions visible and can be defined as biologically effective by experts.
This method is only justified when you know that artificial fields, from say a€“ magnetic steel, are not in the area.
That is hardly possible because the magnetic field of some spring mattresses equals more than a hundred water veins. The importance of these findings to the area above the disturbance is very much in dispute. The results of these unqualified statements are that credulous laymen go over their bedrooms with a 30 dollar portable radio and assume there are water veins (and other phenomena of terrestrial radiation) whenever NBC or ABC gets bad reception, or a song by Elvis is jammed by noise.
The much more exact electro- geobioscopy measures the skin resistance between one hand and acupuncture points on the other hand. You should consider however, that every response of a human being to the stimuli of his environment is a specific one, ita€™s individual, and cannot be easily transferred to others.
This radioactive electromagnetic radiation is considered the most penetrating, strongest and biologically most hazardous kind of all of the known radioactive rays. But no onea€?can deny that an avoidable risk exists undera€?long-term influence, such as sleeping every nighta€?for eight hours in the same physical position, and doing that for many years. Regardless of the kind of radiation, no sensible scientist dares to contradict this opinion. For measuring construction material, I use proportional and Geiger-Muller-counter tubes, and xenon-large-area detectors. The rays are converted into light flashes, boosted as electrical impulses via a photo-multiplier and then calculated and displayed by sophisticated electronics. Wust had already reported about measurements of gamma rays at a€?geopathic zones.a€? The scientists, physicists and doctors Williams, Weber, Cody, Lorenz and Bickel (the last one from California) had made similar successful experiments.
He, more than anybody else, has shown that there is a relationship between subterraneous water sources and ionizing radioactive radiation. All bells rang when the drilling machine cut the granite crack 500 yards below a€“ out of which the curative water came. There turns out to be significant relationships between these zones and cancer patients of the town, as they were sleeping exactly above these zones. My measurement of the radioactivity, with the scintillation counter, showed a 12-yard wide disturbance that could be detected in the whole house, outside the building, and in the nearby yard.
He found there was indeed a water-bearing dislocation, which was officially plotted on two geological maps made in 1911 and in 1980. In all cases, my scintillation counter showed, for hundreds of yards, values that were well above average. He then talks about returning to the University of Michigan in 1945 to finish his degree and complete law school. The globe was first discovered in an antiques shop on the Quai Voltaire in Paris around 1854 by a New York architect named Richard Morris Hunt. Despite this fact, what makes the Lenox globe extremely important, indeed revolutionary, is that it depicts the continent of South America as a separate island-like continent. He argued that this globe was not part of the a€?cartographical familya€? with roots in Portuguese sources a€“ such as the Cantino (#306) and Caveri (#307) maps However, closer examination requires a major reassessment of that conclusion because the historical context and other cartogcaphic evidence imbedded in the Lenox Globe suggest that it is indeed of Portuguese origin, or inspiration, or was made to convey Lisbona€™s political perspective on discoveries in the New World. Harrisse correctly predicted in 1892 that the Stobnicza map was a derivative of the WaldseemA?ller world map of 1507 and argued that if and when it could be found, it also would show this same continuous unbroken coastline. However, it is probable that among the unnamed scholars was the agent Henry Stevens himself who stated that he favored the date of 1506-1507 in an undated letter in the possession of The New York Public Library. For example, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their folio-sized work entitled A Book of Old Maps published in 1921 by Harvard University Press essentially repeated much of what De Costa had said more than forty years earlier. These scholars were not entirely convinced that these maps and globes (including especially the Lenox Globe) were a€?provocative geographical cartoonsa€? as Lawrence Bergreen claims in his book on Magellana€™s famous voyage. He suggested that the Lenox Globe had a€?some connectiona€? with the voyage of Vespucci in 1501-1502 to South America in the service of the Portuguese King Manuel. The western coast of South America is drawn here, as in other maps that were constructed before the news of Magellana€™s circumnavigation had arrived in Europe, laid down not by direct observation but by estimation. Of course the simple fact that an instrument of this kind represents the condition of geographical knowledge at a certain period does not infallibly prove that it was produced at that particular period. On the Lenox Globe, however, Newfoundland appears as an island, though without any name, and at the same time no part of continental North America is laid down. In fact, the entire continent is laid down, though apart from the Lenox Globe, no analogous representation is found before that of the SchA¶ner Globe, 1520 (#328).
Nevertheless the Lenox Globe gives all of South America, the drawing alone rendering it probable that the draughtsman was not unacquainted with the configuration of Terra del Fuego. Good reasons also exist for believing that Africa was accepted as the a€?modela€? for South America. To the northward of this island is another, called Madagascar, though the true Madagascar is laid down in its proper place without any name. This may be done by moving the great nameless island into the position occupied by Australia on the modern maps, carrying with it Certina, the so-called Madagascar, and the three islands without name. From Lelewela€™s sketch of map of Idrisi (#219) it is evident that the region including Java was perfectly well known in 1154. In fact he made too long and too sudden a stride towards the truth to be followed, though Lelewel, while severely criticizing his work, admits that some of his delineations were not equaled for many years after. The delineation of the Asian coast using the a€?Tiger Lega€? configuration carries on the tradition also employed by the Behaim Globe, and the Marlellus, King Hamy, WaldseemA?ller, Roselli, and Contarini maps. In this region, near the equatorial line, is seen Hc Svnt Dracones, or here are the Dagroians, described by Marco Polo as living in the Kingdom of Dagroian. In the work entitled Globus Mundus, printed at Strasburg, 1509, the suggestion occurs again, Hylacomilas, evidently repeating himself. To break the force of this, Humboldt refers to the fact that Cadamosto calls the west coast of Africa Altro mondo. The separation, however, on the map in question proves that it could not have been the work of Columbus, as it has been shown repeatedly that Columbus died in the belief that there was no separation. Third: It is the oldest instrument of any kind showing the entire continent of South America. And this connection, if correct, would suggest that a 1510-1511 date might be too conservative, especially when De Costa himself drew attention to one crucial fact. As far as direct European knowledge of the west coast of South America which was implicit in the Lenox Globe, NordenskiA¶ld hesitated, even though in 1884 he had on his own discovered a fabulous set of globe gores very similar to the WaldseemA?ller globe gores that conveys the continenta€™s the distinctive ice cream- cone shape.
The main reason that he shifted was that he was heavily influenced by the discovery in the 1890s of four copies of the WaldseemA?ller 1507 world map made by Heinrich Loritti (Glareanus). By the time the Ruysch map appeared, the Portuguese had established a presence in South Asia (India), which this map reflects. It conveys or mixes the sophistication of the 1507 WaldseemA?ller map with respect to the southern continent, with a retarded perception of the new lands in the northern hemisphere that lay within the Spanish maritime zone. The Maggiolo world map (#316), which dates to January 1511, is the last known map to contain this curious geographical feature. According to Robert King it offers a clue as to where Thomas More located his Utopia, and may provide a cosmographic explanation for the Jave la Grande of the Dieppe school of maps. The names are in French, and it is adorned with Fleur de Lis, but most probably has been translated from the work of some Spanish Navigator, whose discovery being forgotten, left room for the new discoveries of the English and French Navigators. Petherick, Commonwealth Parliamentary Archivist, historian, collector of Australiana and bibliographer, whose name is commemorated in the Petherick Reading Room of the National Library of Australia. It is five inches in diameter and made of copperplate, manufactured probably in France to form the central feature of an astronomical clock or armillary sphere, like the Jagiellonian Globe. WaldseemA?llera€™s America referred to what later became known as South America, as the continental extent of the lands later known as North America was not understood in 1507. The formula AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA would indicate a common authorship, and therefore a French origin, for the Tross Gores and the Jagiellonian Globe. The relevant phrase on the Jagellonian globe is America novitert reperta [America, land newly discovered]. However, there is no way such a mistaken attribution to a island in the Indian Ocean could have been made if the maker of the Jagellonian Globe had in his possession the world map or globe gores made at St. Amerigo set out from Lisbon in May 1503 in an unsuccessful attempt to reach Malacca (Melaka) by sailing westwards. In sum, the Jagellonian borrowed directly from the Lenox Globe which does not refer to America. On the earliest of the Dieppe maps, that of Jean Mallard of c.1536-1540, La Catigare is located on that part of the Terre Australe occupied on later Dieppe maps by Jave la Grande. SchA¶ner said that his source of geographical information was the Newe Zeytung auss Presillg Landt [New Tidings from the Brazilish Land], printed in Augsburg, probably in 1514 and compiled from reports on the recent discoveries sent back to the Fugger banking house in Augsburg from their agents in Madeira.
Pohl went further and also argued that the globe in all probability was made in the immediate wake of the publication in Italy in 1505 of Vespuccia€™s letters concerning his four voyages ostensibly addressed to the Florentine leader, Piero Soderini.
Despite his personal fascination with European, especially Norse or Viking expeditions to the New World prior to 1492, Pohl declared in that footnote that while he was impressed by the accurate placement of the endpoint of South America at about 56 degrees latitude south in both the Lenox and Jagellonian globes, he concluded that this was a€?accidentala€? and that the depiction of a west coast was a€?imaginarya€?. Another contributor to this volume, Professor Uta Lingren (University of Bayreuth) preferred the 1511-1512 date. We do know that Lenox Globe reflects the island-like conception or model for the new continent that in fact was articulated in Cosmographiae Introductio, in sharp contrast to Vespuccia€™s remarks in Mundus Novus.
Again, when we take all the facts into account, the analysis continues to point to the time period between 1503 and 1507 for the creation of the Lenox Globe. Fourth, the maker of the Lenox Globe was still not aware of the Spanish and also English exploration of significant coastline of the North American continent which we already find reflected in the Cantino and Caveri maps made by 1504 (#306 and #307). We believe that he made that decision based on inside knowledge which suggested to him that if he took the clearly safer route and followed closely this largely barren, mountainous coastline further northward, then he was not going to reach Asia and the Moluccas. The knowledge that the region associated with the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean was a vast a€?cul-de-saca€? or a gulf - il grand golfo as both Peter Martyr and Vespucci described it - supplied the prime motivation behind Magellana€™s attempt to reach Asia in the alternative fashion that he proposed. A copy of this letter is in the possession of the Rare Book Division (Reserve Room) of The New York Public Library.
It is now a prized possession of the New York Public Library, of which the Lenox Library now forms a part. And it produced a weakened Catholic Church which rapidly lost the allegiance of the masses to the spirit of humanism and secularism.
France was at war three of every five years during his reign and participated in four major European wars. Defeat at the hands of Great Britain in the Seven Years War and the humiliation of the Treaty of Paris (1763) was blamed by the nation on Louis XV. The French hatred for the Austrians (resulting in wars under Louis XIV) and the British (Louis XV) drove France to the brink of national bankruptcy. The situation was so dire that lenders were no longer willing to loan the French monarchy money. But by the time of the reigns of Louis XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses. Flour for bread, the sustenance of the French diet, became very scarce and drove the price of bread extremely high. It began to dawn on the more educated of the third estate that they could agitate for greater access to the government and that perhaps they could, in an organized effort, bring reforms to France. The nobility refused to consider any new taxes unless the king gave them a major share of the government. He gave them the same sales pitch for higher taxes and got from them the same negative response. This was then reformed to become the National Constituent Assembly and existed from July 1789 to September 1791.
A new government, the National Convention was declared in September which immediately declared that France was no longer a monarchy but a republic. Marie was tried by the Committee for Public Safety and accused of holding orgies at Versailles, sending funds secretly to her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austria, and even committing incest with her son, so intent was the Committee on establishing guilt worthy of execution. But after his mothera€™s execution, Louis-Charles was given to a shoemaker and his wife to oversee him in a small prison cell.
This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria and Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris. Armed militia from Paris spread out into the other provinces to root out whomever they determined to be an enemy of the revolution. The instrument of death was an invention created just for this period in the Revolution, the guillotine. Earlier the Paris Cathedral had been stripped of all Christian symbols and in November 1793 a large statute of the Goddess of Reason was erected in the cathedral. It was not a popular move, however, because under the new calendar there were nine days of work separating each day of rest which occurred at the end of each decade, rather than after six days under the Christian calendar. The Rulera€™s Law of the Corsican general would merely replace the Rulera€™s Law of the Bourbon kings.
It eventually reverted back to a dictatorship under Napoleon, not very different from the a€?rule from the top downa€? of the French monarchy against which they had revolted. But by the time of the reigns of LouisA  XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses.
This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria andA  Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris. While we are asleep our body should be resting so it can repair body cells, fight infections and absorb nutrients from food. In some schools children are moved at frequent intervals to avoid possible harmful effects.
If geopathic stress is suspected, it makes sense to move away from the source or to think about dealing with the threat.
Women are more likely to be at risk from geopathic stress because their hormonal systems are more susceptible. While water running beneath a domestic dwelling should be avoided, a stream situated nearby and open to the sky will favourably discharge its negative energies harmlessly into the atmosphere. The aim of the report is to establish whether these a€?Disturbed Sitesa€™ can produce statistically significant results to support the high degree of topicality the phenomenon is having in both main stream and alternative medical practices.
A number of these were rejected when illnesses (circulation interference and infections) were discovered. Three silver electrodes were used placed on the forehead, palms and soles; a microprocessor based unit automatically produced the results.
All measured parameters gave reference to location dependence with the integral rake size for Systolic ventricle work showing significantly different behaviour. It was thought however, that if the experiment allowed further time exposure the investigation may have achieved a significant result.
The Biometric analysis showed that on the a€?Indifferent Zonea€™ the pulse-breath quotient remained in balance but was significantly affected on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™. One of the main functions of Serotonin is to act as a neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic system which controls energy provision. Gernot PAUSER: University Clinic for Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and General Intensive Care, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria.
A recent technological innovation can now aid us in this quest, allowing a sophisticated physical measurability of deviations of the earth's magnetic field: the SQUIDa€“technology. In addition to the discussed weak, broadband transversal electromagnetic and magnetic fields assumed to be originated in the ground, other forms of a€?energiesa€? might exist, such as the often controversially discussed longitudinal scalar waves (5).
There is growing experimental evidence that EMFs - at least those of technical origin a€“ can have significant effects on cells and the entire organism. If you turn a water molecule with its electric charge distribution, then from the moving charge a magnetic field results. The effect was already discovered in 1824 by David Brewster and then experimentally elaborated by Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1880. According to Professor Konstantin Meyl (Furtwangen University, Germany), to a measurement technician scalar waves experimentally manifest as (antenna-)noise, a mixture of frequencies and wavelengths. However, an extensive discussion of the origin and effects of radioactivity from the ground would go far beyond the scope of this manuscript. In the case of resonance, information is being exchanged, energies are transmitted and, in fact, a component of balance between the sources is being formed (from personal communication, A.
Certain processes of proteins as parts of their 3-D conformation have the ability to oscillate or rotate. From post mortem brains, magnetite crystals of a size of 50 nm could be isolated, and their magnetic field could be measured. However, speculations are that the presence of magnetite crystals in brain might be understood as proof of a a€?submerged magnetic sensora€?, similar to that of carrier pigeons or whales, theoretically easing human orientation and direction a€“ thus a kind of a€?relict of evolutiona€?. Nevertheless, this doesna€™t lower their importance and relevance: Those pioneers in research on the geopathy phenomenon neither had the scientific-medical verifiability methods that are available today, nor was the time mature for such publications in the kind of medical journals we know today. In our first approaches, we utilized methods from complementary medicine (bio-resonance, kinesiology, heart-rate variability, etc.). Petersburg, Russia), as used in that work, delivers a number of sensitive and reproducible parameters (25-46).
Although not yet completed, our tests appear to show that this is indeed the case: Parallel measurements of the diurnal time courses of GDV mean area of glow and of biochemical parameters collected from saliva (50-53) indicate that the diurnal curve progressions of GDV image areas and the levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) go parallel, whilst another accepted parameter of stress, saliva alpha-amylase, progresses just the opposite to IgA and GDV. Fifty-two voluntary test persons were measured at two locations, one of which has been identified by a group of six distinguished dowsers as being a a€?geopathic zonea€? and the other a a€?neutral zonea€?. The electric field produces a visible gas discharge glow around the fingertip (Kirlian image), and such corona discharges have been recorded from each of the 10 fingertips of the test person repeatedly.
In addition, we have recorded dynamic GDV images from both ring fingers, repeated 3 times during each test period.
Each test person was asked to thoroughly wash their hands using a pH neutral laboratory soap (without re-fattening properties), followed by wiping the fingertips with alcohol. From the results of our studies it can be concluded that geopathic zones do cause stress in nearly all of the persons tested.
Such zones might cause distress (a€?malignant stressa€?) even when present for a short time, but there are also reports that (not scientifically proven) energetically stimulating zones (a€?positive energy zonesa€?) might exist, often also referred to as a€?power placesa€?.
During the planning stage in construction of new buildings, the geopathy phenomenon should be taken into account, so as to consciously design and construct buildings and rooms in a manner that, in areas where people will stay for longer periods of time, geopathic exposure should be as low as possible. Therefore it makes sense to consult with a competent building environment engineer who has experience, skill and expertise in these matters. Interestingly, these positive lifestyle choices may also show up indirectly and in the subconscious: even technically derived EMFs seem to have much less of a negative effect with people who prefer such an a€?awarea€? way of life. It is clear that the accumulation of different factors stress can have strong effects on humans, animals and even plants. One of the tests, taken in a care center for children displaying behavioral problems, additionally showed, among other changes, that the incidence of bedwetting [nocturnal enuresis] definitely decreased when the a€?Wavea€? was present, and that the learning ability and the quality of sleep changed for the better (unpublished findings). A serious athlete who doesna€™t sleep well before a competition is far from being as able-bodied as someone who has had a€?a good night's resta€?. When individuals feel better, they will perform better, and be healthier and happier at work too a€“ facts that would also have economic consequences. Parameters measured in saliva in parallel to GDV, such as IgA, alpha-amylase and cortisol, appear to change in level in direct relationship to the GDV mean area of glow.
From an extended vortex and field theory to a technical, biological and historical use of longitudinal waves. Their findings usually provide shockingly different interpretations of the biological effects of natural conditions. Once I move past this zone, the striking radiation intensity can decrease, giving me a a€?normala€™ value again. In all three cases, the radioactivity coming from these items were several times higher than the law allows for workers in nuclear power plants a€“ and for a short period of time only.
Some of the well- known mineral waters exist only because he found their origin deep in the earth.
They found water, which had the prophesied 17 degree hardness, and which flowed abundantly. In the late 1860s Henry Stevens, an agent for James Lenox and other collectors of rare books and other historical artifacts, became aware of this special globe and recognized its historical significance. We can even detect the suggestion of a cone-shape in the lower latitudes below the equator and a cape or water passage at the far southern end.


Given his perspicacity, it remains odd that the Lenox Globe with its distinct image of the South America as a real a€?islanda€? - totally disconnected from other landmasses - and with no depiction of North America at all a€“ was still not enough to persuade Harrisse to date the globe prior to 1507. Stevens must have taken this position by the late 1870s, because an entry under a€?Globesa€? in the Encyclopedia Britannica edition of 1879 quotes him as assigning the date of 1506-1507 to the Lenox Globe. This total separation from Asia is exactly the cartographic projection we find on the Lenox Globe. And De Costa astutely pointed to Vespuccia€™s repeated assertion in Mundus Novus that he had reached 50 degrees below the equator which means the Italian navigator would have fallen just short of the strait by only two degrees on this voyage.
Under peculiar circumstances, it would be possible for an instrument like this to possess many of the marks which indicate an early origin, simply through the failure of the designer to incorporate the results of the latest explorations, concerning which he might have been ignorant; but this suggestion, in order to have any weight in the present case, should be supported by some proof of such ignorance. In Peter Martyra€™s work (Legatio Babylonicd) of the following year, Florida appears as Beimeni, while the Stobnicza map in the Ptolemy of 1512 (#319), gives a rough view of North America, similar to that found in the Ptolemy of 1513 (#320). This circumstance might, therefore, lead some to conclude that the globe originated at a late period. How, then, could the globe-maker have known that South America terminated in such a form near latitude 55A° S.? But it is by no means unreasonable to suppose that the termination of South America was known in 1510, even though its circumnavigation had apparently not been accomplished.
Perhaps it is not too much to believe that this globe has some connection with the third voyage of Vespucci, which brought him to the latitude of the Straits of Magellan. When this is done, the student will have before him a tolerable indication of the geography of that region. In the 13th century Marco Polo traveled with a map of the world in his hand, by the aid of which he appears to have described Madagascar. The a€?Tiger Lega€? is Catigara which was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator.
These people, as once charged against the Irish, feasted upon the dead and picked their bones. That country is called TERRA SANCTO CRVCIS, as upon the Ruysch map, and MVNDVS Novvs, a name given by Sandacourt, a Canon of St. The name occurs in SchA¶nera€™s Luculentissima, etc., 1515, but the idea that it was generally used is a mistake. It is probable that he had resolved upon this course before Columbus died, while there is nothing whatever to indicate that Vespucci took any action to secure the honor awarded to him, or even that, any more than Columbus, he was solicitous upon the subject. This, however, he confesses is a mere adaptation of the old classic use, the alter orbis of Pomponius, Mela and Strabo.
The Genoese, at the end of Cuba, on his second voyage, required his companions to declare on oath that Cuba was not an island the person maintaining the contrary being liable to a fine of ten thousand maravedis, and to have his tongue cut out. Fourth: It is the oldest instrument showing that the discoveries of Columbus formed no part of the Asiatic Continent, and that America was absolutely Mvndvs Novvs, or the New World. That fact is the absence of America on the globe as a name for the new continent - a name which caught on quickly at least in Italy and northern Europe after Cosmographiae Introductio was published in many editions following the first edition in St Die in eastern France in April, 1507.
Glareanus states that he had followed the projections of WaldseemA?ller whose large map still had not been found but whose globe gores were well known since the early 1870s. The other crucial factor that Fite and Freeman cite as in favor of an earlier date prior to 1508 is the fact that the Lenox Globe does not show any portion of the North American mainland - meaning, as observed earlier, that the maker of the little globe was still wedded to the Ptolemaic concept of only one ocean separating Europe and Asia. Although there is in fact a curl in that direction, it is quite exaggerated on the globe which is a strong hint that someone wanted to be sure that others would conclude that the cape or strait fell inside the Portuguese maritime zone as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494.
In the interview, Petherick referred to the work of Tadeusz Estreicher, a professor at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. On both globes South America is shown, bearing the names MUNDUS NOVUS, TERRA SANCTAE CRUCIS and TERRA DE BRAZIL. This conclusion becomes a certainty when we find that on the Jagiellonian Globe the island bears the inscription: AMERICA-NEWLY-DISCOVERED].
The fact remains, the Lenox Globe and the Jagiellonian Globe are evidence that there was an authoritative map made around 1507-1508 that showed, albeit mistakenly, a continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. Having gone with Amerigo as far as the farthest point he reached (ad fines postremae navigationis) on the coast of the new continent, Hythlodaeus left the expedition and after passing through unknown lands proceeded on to the Portuguese base at Calicut in India by way of Taprobana (Ceylon, present day Sri Lanka) discovering the fabulous island of Utopia on the way. The reverse sequence - the notion that a€“ the Lenox Globe could appear after the Jagellonian Globe, the WaldseemA?ller map and also the many editions of Cosmographiae Introductio a€“ and deliberately drop the name America - makes no sense whatsoever.
On the Harleian mappemonde, CATIGARA is not to be found on the western coast of IAVE LA GRANDE but, as noted by Petherick, is located on the western coast of LA TERRE:DVBRESILL, indicating a pre-Magellanic lack of knowledge of the existence of the Pacific Ocean and the notional character of IAVE LA GRANDE.
And last but not least, he refused to follow or more likely did not know of the decision at St. All the foregoing analysis means that Magellana€™s main claim to fame as a navigator rests not with the discovery of the strait - an achievement which he disavowed - but to his bold decision like that of Columbus in 1492 to cross an ocean whose real breadth was unknown. The small globe is composed of two copper-engraved hemispheric sections closely fitted along the equator, as in the case of the Ulpius Globe (#367), and pierced for an axis. Over 30,000 priests and nuns were eventually either killed, exiled, or sent to prison in French Guiana. Those early experiences embittered him against the nobles and resulted in his building an absolute monarchy.
She had a distain for French culture, refused to learn or use the French language, was highly materialistic, vain, and considered by the nobility to be a snob.
Crowds in Paris stormed the prisons and executed 2,000 prisoners, including many priests, nuns, and nobility. War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government in Paris. Even former close friends and colleagues of the Committeea€™s leader, Maximillien Robespierre, were executed by the guillotine. When 32 of the Girondist leaders were imprisoned, supposedly due to fear that they would work to reinstate the monarchy, Robespierre became the undisputed leader and virtual dictator. Louis requested and was accompanied by an English priest living in France, Henry Edgeworth, who Louis requested be with him prior to his death.
War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government inA  Paris. However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all its energy just to keep its vital organs going. Reports from other countries such as Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Scandinavia indicate that they too have been taking notice.
Geopathic stress - or harmful earth rays - is natural radiation that rises up through the earth and is distorted by weak electromagnetic fields created by underground streams, certain mineral concentrations and fault lines. Foresight, the pre-conception care organisation, even suggests that couples trying for a baby should get their homes checked for geopathic stress and ensure that electrical equipment is not located under their beds as this can cause electromagnetic stress and deplete the immune system.a€?For many of us who fall sick and seek the help of a doctor a few minutes is spent discussing symptoms and lifestyle quickly followed by the doctor scribbling on a proscription pad. In order to rule out possible influences of man made electromagnetic or microwave disturbances at each location an independent report from an electromechanical engineer was requested for each chosen site.
Other participants were also used from the Outpatients Department for Physical Therapy in the Rehabilitation Centre, Grobming and from the Surgery of Dr. This deterioration of the HFR was thought to be due to a€?Location loada€™ from the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™.
Hacker: Head, IGGMB - Research Institute for Frontier Questions of Medicine and Biotechnology, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria. In recent years, the expressions a€?geopathic stressa€? and a€?geopathic interference zonesa€? have been accepted internationally to describe the phenomenon. At present, for most aspects contained herein, only hypotheses can be formed - and there are many of them.
With Super-Conducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID), it is possible to quantify variations of one ten billionth [American English] of the earth's magnetic field. Certain ions and metals moved by water can a€“ depending on concentration, composition and flow rate a€“ can indeed lead to geoelectricity. If thus in a pipe a hydrodynamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and a magnetic vortex, the potential vortex and the eddy current, are the result (5).
Although also present in tourmaline, topaz, cane sugar and Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate), the effect became particularly known for quartz. Vice versa, quartz can be triggered to oscillate by applying a voltage to it (a€?quartz oscillator crystala€?; in use for example in crystal controlled clocks). In the case of plasma waves, they are charged particles, and in the case of sound waves, they are air particles. Inside our body, there are the a€?intrinsica€? (internal) structures and molecules of the organism, which are either a€?resonatinga€? because of their physical nature (as with stringed instruments: compare the vibration of the string alone versus string with resonator sound box), or create a certain frequency themselves.
Such only a few nanometers sized processes have been discussed as possible sites of resonance induced by external EMFs, acting as a€?protein-antennasa€? (19). The research was done in a special laboratory room that was completely shielded from the natural magnetic field of the earth by tons of steel. But, if it would really be a relict, those particles would not exist in such a high quantity anymore.
Nonetheless, what these people achieved, and their courage, as well as of the publishers who rightly published their works, deserve high credits. Although successful in some areas addressed, the effects found had not the high statistical significance required, and the methodology used was not a generally accepted one, guaranteeing medical relevance and reproducibility. For us, the mean a€?area-of-glowa€? was the best possible means for sensitively indicate stress.
In other words, a higher GDV mean area of glow value corresponds to a higher IgA level (to be understood as an sign for lower stress or relaxation), and a lower GDV mean area of glow value can be understood as an indication for higher levels of alpha-amylase, i.e. In the specific setup for the static GDV images used in our study, the overall GDV image area values calculated are to be understood as mean values of 50 single finger GDV images in total, per test period. A number of further statistical analyses were performed, also including distribution-independent tests.
Such areas have been dowsed within some churches and other buildings constructed centuries or often thousands of years ago. Mental components are just as important: the more someone lives consciously, and even optimistically, in a state of positive thought, the less external stress factors can influence the person somatically.
Possibilities to minimize the effects of geopathy on our organism in general have already been discussed above. Thus, for this practical reason it may be worth considering installing a device that has a balancing effect here. The results of our research are of great relevance for a€?wellness-centersa€? too: sustainable success in relaxation and stress management methods is essentially dependent upon the particular location of sleeping and of therapy beds. The number of staff on sick leave will probably decrease in the long run, when all employees work at geopathically (and otherwise also) more balanced work places. Soon, we shall have completed those experiments testing a number of test persons sufficiently high for good-practice statistical examination. Petersburg Division of the Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing Unit a€?Kulturaa€™, Petersburg, pp 58a€“83 (1999).
After hundreds of tests, I can say: With special ion meters (electronic instruments that measure the number of small ions in the air) you can detect increased measurement values above the area of a disturbance a€“ particularly in the range of positive air ions. My electro-geobioscopic measurements use test devices that are well tested in medicine: Aschoff, MORA, and Vega.
In 1869, he persuaded Hunt to permit the Coast Survey Bureau in Washington DC to make an accurate facsimile projection which has been used by many subsequent scholars. Unfortunately, we have not been able to find any explanation from Stevens as to why he chose this date.
For all these reasons, De Costa at several points in his essay conveyed his strong suspicion that the Portuguese learned a great deal more about the continenta€™s configuration in the years that followed and well before Magellana€™s expedition. Respecting the points on which the globe gives no light, information was, nevertheless, so wide-spread in 1511 as to render it difficult to believe that any globe or map maker of the period could have failed to know of its existence.
The very early map attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (#327) shows Florida as an island, but since the map was not published, no inference can be drawn from it. If, however, it were to be argued that the Lenox Globe belongs to a period subsequent to SchA¶ner, it might be necessary to assign its date to the 16th century. How, in fact, could he have known that it terminated at all, especially since sketches later than 1515, with one or two unimportant exceptions, represented Terra del Fuego as joined to a great continent, supposed to cover the entire region around the south pole? Peter Martyr, writing to the Pope in 1514, seems to have a definite view of the shape of South America quite in advance of published maps. Since, however, this part of the Indian Ocean contains no such vast island, and since Australia does not appear in its proper place, it has been suggested by De Costa that, though we do so with extreme diffidence, that Australia is represented by the great island in question, which was misplaced; while the so-called Madagascar and Certina are simply Sumatra and Java. Borneo and Celebes (called Java Minor by Ramusio), having their proper place, New Guiana, without any name, also appearing. At that period the great island of Australia, lying close to well-known islands, could hardly have remained unknown to geographers. At the same time the maker of the globe, in common with Sylvanus, in forming the outline of what we venture to offer as Australia, appear to have made a certain use of those outlines characteristic of the Java Major of the Fra Mauro map and the Behaim Globe (#249 and #258), which lay on the east coast of Asia.
Loac is the Locac of Marco Polo, and Seilan is the Borneo of our day, the former name having been taken from its proper place near India to make room for Taprobana, which was often applied to Sumatra.
568), believes it necessary to refute what Sebastian Munster said in his Cosmography, to the effect that it sometimes falleth out that Mariners, thinking the Whales to be Islands, and casting out ankers vpon their backs, are often in danger of drowning.
Die, when he framed the title of the Latin version of Vespuccia€™s letter, which described Brasil. The name was first published on a map made by WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (#310) and later by Appianus, 1520 (#331), in the work of Gamers, but the Ptolemy of 1513, in a legend on the map made by Hylocomilus himself (#320), attributes the discovery of the new world to Columbus. He then shifts the argument, and shows that Peter Martyr in 1493-4, while speaking of the novis orbis, did not recognize its separation from Asia, and that this use was long continued. And the date of April 1510 on one of these Glareanus copies made it impossible for the Baron to support von Wiesera€™s attempt to push these maps to the 1520s. This strange level of ignorance on both points seems puzzling for any map or globe made as late as 1510- 1512, and defies a good explanation. Professor Estreicher described a globe which he dated to between 1509 and 1511 held in the Library of the University.
De Costa noted a large land mass depicted in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere, unnamed on the Lenox Globe and suggested, a€?with extreme diffidencea€?, that this land represented Australia, misplaced to this location. The Jagiellonian Globe shows that its maker believed this continent to have been the New World discovered by Amerigo. Is it possible that this globe-maker was simply confused because he did not have the benefit of the world map and only had a copy of Cosmographiae Introductio in front of him?
This placed the land discovered by Amerigo and the island of Utopia which lay contiguous to it to the south of Taprobana and India. When we also note that the Lenox Globe was made by someone who amazingly still seems to be in the total dark about basic geographical knowledge concerning North America a€“ well-known by 1507 to many scholars, not just those involved with WaldseemA?ller - then this would lend considerable weight to the conclusion that the Lenox Globe should date to a time period prior to or no later than Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller map - namely, to the 1503-1507 period as Fite and Freeman argued in 1926. In other words, the Brazilish Land, Presillg Landt, was differentiated from Brazil proper, otherwise known as America. Given her exclusively technical approach to this globe, she complained about the bending of the tip of the continent towards the east, but it never occurred to her than this feature might have been part of an attempt to deceive, an effort to spread disinformation to make persons think that a cape would fall on the Portuguese side of the maritime demarcation line established in 1494.
Die that became widely known after April 1507 to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci who had re-entered Spanish service in early 1505. A disease created by abuses of power and neglect of the peasants class was eating away at the inner core of the the nation.
However, he was also a man of the arts and culture, and during his reign French culture blossomed and became a hegemony throughout Europe. Furthermore, to strengthen his position militarily he had aligned France with its hated neighbor, Austria, and lost the economic benefits of a valuable alliance with Frederick the Great of Prussia.
She hosted lavish parties at the palace, promoted gambling, and filled her closets with expensive clothing. The first and second estates traditionally voted in tandem, and usually against the third estate.
By 1794 The Committee went so far as to deprive those accused of being not supportive of the revolution from legal counsel and the requirement that witnesses be present to give testimony against them.
While several factors led to the escalating price of bread, the government received the blame.
As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it has difficulty in absorbing nutrients or fighting off infections as efficiently as it should. Claims and counter claims abound regarding devises to achieve this, leaving the public in total confusion. The wave lengths of the disturbed natural radiation can seriously affect our health, causing cancer, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) infertility and miscarriage. It may surprise you therefore, that in many European countries, Germany and Austria in particular, one ofA  the first questions the doctor may ask is about theA  location of your bed and how long have you been sleeping there. Most explanations tried concentrate on the existence of natural electromagnetic fields (EMFs) present at particular locations, a€?interferinga€? with the organisms.
Overlapping, or a a€?build upa€? of resonance effects are also part of the geopathic phenomenon. With a proportion of 12 % of the upper eartha€™s crust, quartz is the most frequent mineral after feldspar. In the case of resonance, both sources attract each other, which can be explained and calculated by the occurrence of field changes during that process (5). When experimentally irradiated by EMFs of frequencies in between about 1-2 GHz, they displayed a changing of conformation, respectively changing in their manner of oscillation, even when only very low field strengths had been applied (19). Magnetic particles in the brain could turn out to be one of the reasons why dowsing can work. Furthermore, one can acquire a€?corona diagramsa€? in the manner of complementary medicine from the individual allocation of the a€?coronaa€? gas discharge from the different fingertips, following the principles of the energya€“meridian theory and of acupuncture.
The exact test design, as well as the way how dowsers independently labeled the different zones in the laboratory test room, have been described in detail (24). The glass plate surface of the GDV camera was cleaned using alcohol frequently, and it was taken care that none of the test persons had wet hands. The corona diagrams directed into a weakening of the energies of the immune system and the pineal organ (which might be understood as an indication of possible changes of the melatonin production) (compare to: 57-60), the cardiovascular and the urinary system in many of the test persons. The a€?Wavea€? device investigated in our study could therefore, by its balancing effect, not only aid in lowering of stress, but also be understood as a tool for disease prevention.
Concerning the a€?Wavea€? device especially interesting is the fact, that it substantially reduces stress in people on a€?neutral zonesa€? too, a finding which indicates that there is no real a€?neutral zonea€? existing.
In the following, we will briefly show what addressing geopathy do affect health care facilities, public places, and economy. By inference, if these results are applied to public facilities in general, the a€?Wavea€? could probably have a number of desirable effects in schools, offices, banks, supermarkets, etc. Contrarily, at a€?highly burdeneda€? workplaces, performance will decrease, discontentment grows, and the vulnerability to diseases and the resulting rise of employees' illnesses will be greater. Ursula DEMARMELS-HACKER, for her love and support, and for abandoning many evenings and weekends of togetherness to find time for investigation and creation of this manuscript. At the time, Stevens hoped to conclude a purchase for the British Museum and was prepared to pay Hunt the handsome sum of A?2,000, according to Hunt's widow.
To get some clue as to why that date might have made sense to Stevens we need to turn to a contemporary scholar who pondered more deeply and put his thoughts in writing as to when this globe might have been made.
The maps of 1511, 1512 and 1513 nevertheless must have been known to every intelligent person engaged in globe making, and if the Lenox Globe had been made during those years, or later, it would have reflected information published to the world. On his map is found a Latin legend, translated as follows: Portuguese mariners discovered this part of this territory, and proceeded as high as the fiftieth degree of South latitude, but without reaching its southern extremity. Being secretly together in a chamber with the Bishop of Burgos, Martyr says that they examined many sea charts, one of which Vespucci was said to have set his hand, while another had been influenced by both Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus. In accordance with this view, it would be necessary to conclude that, though misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, even Australia was known to the geographers of that early period.
It would appear that the Java Minor of Marco Polo, a term applied by him to Sumatra, came eventually to include the entire region. The maker of the Lenox Globe may have misunderstood his instructions, and thus pushed Australia into the Indian Ocean. In Northern India is Sacha- vvm Regno, the sugar region described in the Ptolemy of Patavino (1596). It would appear as though Milton found his own Leviathan on the page of Hakluyt, in whose works he had read the treatise signed Arngrimus Ionus. This has been alluded to as very curious, though the course pursued by Hylacomilus was altogether consistent. The Lenox Globe appears to have been made at a time when geographers regarded the matter with unconcern, as neither Columbus nor Vespucci have any honor awarded. He forgets, however, that Martyr describes South America as land never known by the ancients. 145.) Pinzon on the first voyage understood Cuba to be a city, and that the land here was a continent of great size, which extended far to the north (First Voyage of Columbus, Boston, 1827).
That said, NordenskiA¶ld was still content in Periplus to give the Lenox Globe a date of about 1510 that just happened to be the same year for the Glareanus copies of WaldseemA?llera€™s work. Fortunately, it has survived the vicissitudes of the 20th century and is still held in the Treasury of the Jagiellonian Library, now the Muzeum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego Collegium Maius. If so, a€?it would be necessary to conclude that, although misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, Australia was known to the geographers of that early perioda€?. Not likely because Vespuccia€™s detailed letters concerning all his voyages were attached to Cosmographiae Introductio. This is just where Amerigoa€™s newly discovered land is shown on the Jagiellonian Globe, indicating that Sir Thomas More probably had such a globe before him when he wrote Utopia. The Zeytung described the voyagers passing through a strait, like the Strait of Gibraltar, between the southernmost point of America or Brazil, and a land to the South West, referred to as vndtere Presill (in Latin, Brasilia inferior).
In sharp contrast, Rudolf Schmidt in the 1991 reprint of Konrad Kretschmera€™s famous 1892 atlas of facsimile maps underscored the crucial question in his brief commentary where he remarked: a€?How does the unknown author of the Lenox Globe arrive at a quite good representation of South America, if we disregard the eastward kink, which after all persisted for a long time in drawings of Africa as well?a€? Schmidt at the time was the President of the International Coronelli Society that promotes the study of globes. For this he was also called a€?the Sun Kinga€? because French language and culture dominated Europe. I pardon the authors of my death, and pray God that the blood you are about to shed will never fall upon France.a€™ The executioners seized him, the knife struck him, his head fell at fifteen minutes after ten. Government buildings generally sought to copy the architecture of Versailles (pictured below). From an incredible range of gadgets offered there are many tales about their ineffectiveness or of making the receiver feel much worse. These questions are routinely asked not only by several thousand doctors, but also many cancer specialist hospitals will recommend a Geopathic Surveyor or Geobiologist as they are often called to investigate your home before deciding on a course of therapy or reaching for the prescription pad. It was reckoned with over 95 a€“ percentile certainty that there is a location influence on the governing system of the circulation.
Many a€?specialistsa€? presume that the origin to be in the ground a€“ below the earth surface. Furthermore, technically generated EMFs are present on every place on earth; their likely influence on our health is presently the subject of intensive worldwide research. Whittaker already in 1904 showed mathematically that the known and accepted Laplace Wave Equation of the year 1787, besides indicating transversal electro-magnetic waves, also describes longitudinal scalar waves (15). The magnetite-particles could also be visualized and further analyzed using a high-definition transmission electron microscope. In any case, magnetite crystals in the brain could possibly be a hint to explain how (certain qualities of) geopathic zones may affect the body: Magnetite reacts more than one million times stronger to an external magnetic field than every other biological material.
Using that particular aspect, we were able to indicate which organ systems of the body might be affected by geopathic stress. A third marker, saliva cortisol, although displaying its very own rhythmicity, also appears to fit into the concept that GDV could be reliably used for biophysical stress measurement (Hacker and Augner, unpublished results). Altogether, more than 137,000 individual fingertip GDV corona images were captured, interpreted by means of computer-aided image analysis and analyzed in detail using bio-statistics. For further calculations and analyses, the GDV Meridian Analysis and the GDV Diagram software (both with version no. The latter device had been mounted or de-mounted in another room at an upper floor, and neither the test persons nor the examiners could see if the device was present or not. The test persons were advised to keep their fingers still and relaxed during measurements and not to apply undue pressure when putting their fingers onto the glass plate at an angle of approximately 30-degrees to the instrument axis (28). If present for a prolonged time, however, eustress may soon turn to distress and thereby suppress the immune system. We would therefore suggest using a terminology towards a a€?more geopathica€? and a€?geologically more neutrala€? zone in this context.
Johanns-Hospital, so far, more than 50 a€?Wavea€? devices have been installed to harmonize critical locations - especially in the intensive care unit and in the entire surgical ward), and at other major hospitals (e.g. Thus, especially in already existing establishments, the purposeful placement of a€?Wavea€? devices can be of great benefit.
The aggregate economic success of a company or institution can very well be in the balance; responsible (and visionary) managers should take heed of the results of our studies in their plans and act accordingly. Petersburg Division of Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing nit, a€?Kulturaa€™, pp 84a€“108 (1999). But before Stevens could make this offer, Hunt already had already decided to give the globe as a gift to Lenox out of admiration for him.
This was the case with many of the early geographical works; but in every such instance it is easy to show that the map is not in accordance with the text, and that the map was introduced by the publisher in lieu of something better.
According to this argument, this globe, therefore, takes its place in the year 1510, or the beginning of 1511. But this question is one that may be disembarrassed, for it will not prove a difficult task to show how the globe- maker may have obtained, in 1610, the knowledge which he exhibits. Speaking of South America, he says it reaches forth into the sea even as Italy doth, although not like the leg of a man, as it does. That this was so appears from the fact that names belonging to Java and the neighboring islands are given on maps of a later period.
The attention of the designer of the globe may have been directed to the subject by the voyage of Gonnville, who sailed from Honfleur in June 1503, for the East, and fell upon a great country, not far from the direct route to the Indies, which they called Southern India. Near Persia is Carmenis, the Kermann of Marco Polo, who does not refer to the neighboring Calicut, or Calcutta. The history of this name, however, is not quite so clear as the others, though Navarrete calls attention to Muratoria€™s notice of the fact that brazil, signifying a red dye-wood, was an excisable article at Ferrara and Modena in 1193 and 1306.
The really curious thing remains to be stated, and for the special consideration of those writers who have had so much to say about the ingratitude shown to Columbus by early geographers.
Certainly Vespucci never gave the impression in these letters or in the earlier publication known as Mundus Novus that he was sailing in the Indian Ocean. A very similar globe, belonging to an astronomical clock and apparently of about the same age as the Lenox Globe, is in the library of the Jagiellon University at Cracow in Poland. However, she was the strength in the royal marriage and was a major source of energy and direction for Louis. The Committee of Public Safety had hoped to use him as a pawn to trade to the Austrians in a prisoner exchange, as they had done earlier, with his older sister. There are many products on the market that claim to cure some or all geopathic zones of its noxious energy. However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all ita€™s energy just to keepA  vital organs going. The search, using both dowsing methods to locate geopathic energies and scientific instruments to detect man made electromagnetic energies willA  determine whether your illness is linked to geopathic stress electromagnetic stress or both. Frequencies in between about 0,1 Hz up to the GHz-range are being suggested in public literature. The most exciting result of those experiments was that, most of the regions of the brain appear to contain about five million biogenous a€?single-domaina€? magnetite crystals per gram wet weight on average, and the meninges (pia and dura mater) contain even more than 100 million. Recently, in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, an article describes possible roles that magnetic ferrous amalgamations could play in neurological disease (21).
The accordant calculations and projections were done interactively using specific software for analysis, based on the energy-emission-analysis according to Mandel (47-48), the Su-Jok-System of acupuncture (49) and clinical data of thousands of test persons from the St. In order to minimize chronobiologic influences to a sensible degree, the experiments were carried out only in forenoons, and also in that respect, phase randomization in time was an important prerequisite (24). As already stated above, technical fields and noxae [nocent influences] of different kinds are present everywhere on earth. In the workplace and in the home: this is only part of the whole picture, because a€?ready to goa€? or rested and productive employers and employees should also be able to benefit at peace and harmony at home. Hunt had a close relationship with Lenox because Lenox had hired him to design a large mansion in Manhattan to house his private collection. After passing this year, and reaching 1520, the newly found lands are so well known as to be celebrated in an English poem, entitled the Four Elements. 7) calls attention to the fact that in the fourteenth chapter of the work, in which the map of Ruysch appears, there is a separate statement, to the effect that the Portuguese had surveyed the coast of South America as far as 37A° S., and that it was known as far as 50A° S. The Globe of Ulpius (#367) illustrates this phase of the question, Java Minor appearing as a very large island, and the true Java not being laid down at all. He also quotes from Capmanya€™s Memorias sobra la antiqua marina, commercio, y artes de Barcelona, which contains references to this wood connected with the years 1221, 1243, 1252 and 1271.
The point is this, that though Ferdinand, the son of Columbus, lived until 1539, and for many years was an owner and diligent reader of the Cosmographise Introductio, which he annotated and rebound, he is not known to have written or spoken a syllable, or to have caused any one else to write so much as a word, expressive of any sense of injustice done to his father by the naming of the New World after Vespucci. It has invariably been used by mapmakers to represent the coast of North America, whatever may have been its origin. Winsor, neither of who had seen the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was only discovered in 1901, fixed the date at 1508-11 and 1510-12, respectively.
The globe consists of two gilded copperplate calottes, inscribed with the Eartha€™s principal features as understood at that time, including a continent inscribed AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA. The Zeytung said that Malacca was only six hundred miles from the western point of this Brazil. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. Most of these claims are quite dubious and do not stand up to the most rudimental scientific testing. As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it doesna€™t absorb nutrients or fight off infections effectively. If so, you will be advised how to avoid or eliminate these harmful energies from your home so you stand a better chance of responding to any treatment given. In our following attempts at explanation, we will concentrate on natural sources possibly originating from the a€?grounda€?, i.e.
As we could show, the a€?Wavea€? device in fact can help, and its exceptional promise as a preventive measure is of great interest. Gerfried BRANDSTETTER (manager of the science department of the Salzburg federal government); Landeshauptfrau Mag. The offering of the globe as a gift was evidently timed with the completion of the construction of this mansion in 1870.
The scholar Henry Harrisse, in his Life of Fernand Colomb, also calls attention to the fact that the partisan Life of the Admiral, which has been attributed to his son, while exceedingly severe upon those who detracted from the fame of Columbus, does not mention either Hylacomilus or his book. It is the earliest surviving globe on which the name America appears, a name invented by Martin WaldseemA?ller and published in his Cosmographiae Introductio, St. In SchA¶nera€™s 1520 globe, AMERICA had evolved into TERRA NOVA, AMERICA vel BRASILIA sive PAPAGALLI TERRA [Land of Parrots], while BRASILLIE REGIO had become BRASILIA INFERIOR (a translation of vndtere Presill). All of the problems that developed within France over the previous 100 years became his when he took the throne.
Higgins, editor, The French Revolution as Told by Contemporaries, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966, pp. Fortunately there are now a growing number of dowsers that are equipped with scientific monitoring instruments that can test such claims. To locate geopathic stress dowsers visit land, offices and homes where theyA  seekA  the location of underground streams, geological faults or the eartha€™s natural grid lines. Thus in 1508 there existed at Rome a general understanding of the coast to within about two degrees of the entrance to the Straits of Magellan. Major discusses four maps with similar characteristics, belonging to same period, in the Hakluyt Societya€™s work on Australia, and the matter is also touched upon in his Prince Henry.
It would appear, therefore, that the indignation referred to is, upon the whole, a modern thing, of which the immediate friends of the famous Genoese had no experience. The Lenox Globe, though giving no lines of latitude, represents the coast as far south as about 55A° south latitude, the correct latitude of Cape Horn. SchA¶nera€™s 1533 globe showed the BRASILIAE REGIO as part of the TERRA AVSTRALIS, with an enormous peninsula, the REGIO PATALIS, attached to its southeastern part. OTHERWISE, BEGIN SCROLLING DOWN FOR A TREASURE-TROVE OF RARE AND BEAUTIFUL PHOTOS OF OLD JAPAN. With such facts before him, Humboldt came to the conclusion that between the years 1500 and 1508 a succession of attempts were made by the Portuguese along the coast of South America, beginning at Porto Seguro in latitude 16A° S. Some of the geographers endeavored to set off Java, reduced to proper proportions, SchA¶ner, 1520, being amongst the number; but in the attempt Australia in some cases disappeared altogether. Moreover, it places open water to the south of this new continent and thus suggests that the water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519.
Oronce Finea€™s 1531 map exhibits this cosmography, and the Dieppe maps show its further evolution, even though it was out of date by the time they were made in the 1540s and 1550s. However, for thousands of years people from all over the world have been finding underground water for wells and mineral deposits to mine by dowsing methods.
Brazil appears on a map of the 15th century, but the Catalan map of 1375 (#235) also shows an island in the Atlantic bearing the name. The SchA¶ner globes of 1515 and 1520 (#328), on which South America is separated from an Antarctic continent by a strait connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, give further evidence of this fact. Remember ita€™s the energy from the water and other artefacts that they first respond to as it rises from deep beneath the ground to the surface.
Still the student is not justified, with such data, in declaring precisely how far the navigators knew the region by actual observation.
Perhaps, therefore, the Lenox Globe may be regarded as showing one of the earliest attempts to correct a misunderstanding. The inference is that the navigators who passed along that region viewed the strait afterwards discovered by Magellan as an inlet, and that they learned from the natives the configuration of Terra del Fuego.
It is reasonable, however, to conclude that the name was applied to South America, because the first navigator found there an abundance of desirable dye-wood. ENAMI WEARING SAMURAI ARMOR, TAKING A REST BETWEEN POSES IN HIS YOKOHAMA STUDIO, CA.1898-1900.
He then talks about other cases concerning government immunity and the relation that such cases and court decision have with the creation and revision of law.
ENAMI, OTHER WELL-KNOWN JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHERS WHO OPERATED DURING THE MEIJI-ERA (1868-1912) ARE MENTIONED THROUGHOUT THE COMMENTS.I HOPE YOU FIND THE STORY AND DATA BOTH INTERESTING AND HELPFUL. He further discusses such issues as presumption of undue influence, summary judgment, the right of discovery, and the type of law he practices.
FOR THOSE WHO ARE HERE PRIMARILY TO LOOK AT THE IMAGES, I HOPE THAT YOU EXPERIENCE SOME ENJOYMENT IN GAZING AT A FEW OF ENAMI'S"LOST PICTURES" OF OLD JAPAN. The Hudsona€™s Bay Company possess at their House important sketches made by the Indians; while Balboa, called the a€?Discoverer of the Pacifica€? had the Pacific discovered for him by the Cacique of Zumaco, who, upon the arrival of the Spaniard in the Bay of Panama, figured for him the coasts of Quito, and described the riches of Peru. THOSE THAT LIVE FOR DISCOVERING NEW DATA AND CONNECTING THE DOTS WILL NO DOUBT FIND SOME EYE-OPENING REVELATIONS HERE.A OF COURSE, WE ALL LOVE KIMBEI KUSAKABE AND THE REST OF THOSE ILLUSTRIOUS JAPANESE PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY WHO GOT THEIR START LONG BEFORE ENAMI OPENED HIS OWN MEIJI-ERA STUDIO. THEIR BEST WORK IS ENOUGH TO TAKE YOUR BREATH AWAY.HOWEVER, ENAMI ALSO HAD HIS FANS AND FRIENDS, BOTH AS A PERSON AND AS A PHOTOGRAPHER. AS YOU SCROLL DOWN THESE PAGES, FOR A FEW MOMENTS YOU MAY STEP INTO ENAMI'S SHOES, AND TAKE A PEAK THROUGH HIS LENS.A LIKE SO MANY OTHERS --- SOME NOW FAMOUS, BUT MOST BEING FORGOTTEN --- ENAMI DEDICATED HIS LIFE TO CAPTURING, AS BOTH ART AND DOCUMENT,A WORLD THAT WAS QUICKLY VANISHING BEFORE HIS EYES.
This was all that the Spanish and Portuguese navigators needed to have done for them by the natives of Terra del Fuego.
AS THIS SITE IS A PERSONAL HOMAGE TO ENAMI, YOU WILL FIND SOME AMATEUR ELEMENTS, AND THE OCCASIONAL PITFALL. AT ALL TIMES, PLEASE "EAT THE MEAT, AND SPIT OUT THE BONES" WHILE DIGGING FOR VISUAL TREASURE.DISCOVERING THE OCCASIONAL GEM OF A PICTURE, OR ODD BIT OF INFORMATION, WILL HOPEFULLY MAKE THE SCROLLING WELL WORTH IT.
The general wording seen above was fairly common to all photographic self-promotion during the Meiji-era, and actually contains less specifics than some of his studio ads which he placed in various guide books of the time.
OGAWA, who was actually a year younger than Enami, was still his "elder" in terms of experience. It was photographed by Enami's friendly competitor and neighbor Kozaburo Tamamura, whose studio was located at No.2 Benten Street. It would be built in 1894 just down the street on the right hand side, and appear in endless views and postcards as the most recognizable landmark of Benten Street. Other images of Enami's studio -- both interior and exterior views -- are shown farther down on this page.A  While offering many of the same services and productions as his contemporaries, he also engaged in other activities that made him unique. Further, while no photographer did "everything", Enami worked and published in more processes and formats than any other Japanese photographer of his time.
The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH!
A He was one of only a few photographers born during Japan's old Edo-Bakumatsu period, who went on to photograph right through to the Showa period of Emperor Hirohito.Enami was also one of the few to experience, and then successfully outgrow his roots as a traditional maker of the classic, large-format "Yokohama Shashin" albums. While successfully embracing the smaller stereoview and lantern slide formats, he added to that a portfolio of Taisho-era "street photography" that maintained his own unique and artistic content. Enami and Kimbei Kusakabe are now the only two Japanese photographers known to have a surviving list of their commercial 2-D images. While Enami's 2-D portfolio contained a sprinkling of older, public domain images, his 3-D images and slides made from them were wholly his own.A THE 3-D CATALOG "S 26. Girls Looking at Pictures" A Maiko and two Geisha Looking at Stereoviews in Enami's Yokohama Studio.
One of over 1000 cataloged 3-D images of old Japan.A THE "CATALOG OF COLORED LANTERN SLIDES AND STEREOSCOPIC VIEWS"A  Not surprisingly, Enami matched his older Catalog of Meiji-era Prints with a separately published catalog of his classic STEREOVIEWS. In the case of the 3-D Catalog, the lantern-slides were all made directly from one half of the stereoview negatives. The Cover and two sample pages of the Stereoview Catalog are shown just below in the Enami Activity List numbers (6) and (9). ENAMI'S ACTIVITIES and CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD OF JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHYA A  For the moment, based on a wide range of primary sources, it is now clear that T. Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley.
We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said.
People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines.
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society.
In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia.
They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed.
However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have.
The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach. Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour.
Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants.
Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments.
Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery.
He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.




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