Vitamin k mk4 supplement,best muscle gain protein powder,top muscle supplements 2014 awards - 2016 Feature

30.08.2014, admin  
Category: Muscle Magazine

Vitamin K deficiency bleeding, thought to be a problem of the past—has been recently thrust back into the spotlight. What did these infants have in common? The infants ranged in age from seven weeks to five months old; three were male and three were female.
Concerned by this outbreak, the hospital asked the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to look into the situation.
When the parents of the five infants were asked why they had declined Vitamin K, their reasons for declining included: concern about an increased risk for leukemia, a belief that the injection was unnecessary and “unnatural,” and a fear that their infant would be exposed to toxins in the shot. Secondary VKDB means that the baby has an underlying disorder such as gallbladder disease, cystic fibrosis, or medication side effects. In 1930, a Danish biochemist found that Vitamin K deficiency was the cause of unexpected bleeding in baby chicks (Lippi and Franchini 2011).
In 1944, a definitive Swedish study was published including more than 13,000 infants who were given 0.5 mg of Vitamin K (either oral or injection) on the first day of life. In 1961, after nearly 2 decades of research had been published, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended giving Vitamin K shots after birth.
By 1999, the name HDN was changed to Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) to indicate that that this condition is caused solely by Vitamin K deficiency. Late bleeding (after the first week of life) is the most dangerous kind of VKDB (Shearer 2009).
When infants receive the Vitamin K shot at birth, anywhere from 0 to 0.62 infants per 100,000 have VKDB.
In low-income countries, many babies with late VKDB may die before reaching the hospital, and because their diagnoses and deaths are undocumented, these cases would not be counted in any of the VKDB statistics. Classical VKDB—bleeding that occurs in the first week of life—is more common than late VKDB. Other treatments that have been used in infants with late VKDB include blood and plasma transfusions, brain surgery to remove the accumulated blood, and giving anti-seizure medicines (Personal communication, Dr. In one small study, researchers measured Vitamin K levels in nine expectant mothers and then measured the levels in the cord blood after birth.  These mothers were healthy and had normal Vitamin K levels, but there was no Vitamin K detected in the cord blood. How much Vitamin K is in the shot and how much might actually be needed to produce the desired result?
Depending on the country in which the Vitamin K is administered, there are 1 to 2 mg of Vitamin K1 in the injection. It has been reported that some parents refuse the injection because they are concerned about ingredients in the shot, which the parents call “toxins.” One way to alleviate this concern is to ask your hospital if they have the preservative-free version of Vitamin K. 10 mg of Polysorbate 80, which helps Vitamin K1 (a fat-soluble Vitamin) dissolve in liquid for the injection. 10.4 mg of Propylene glycol, which helps absorb extra water and maintain moisture in certain medicines.
Circumcision sites are frequently listed as a site of bleeding when infants have classical (first-week) VKDB. A case report was recently published where an infant in a circumcision trial in Africa developed bleeding two hours after his circumcision. Does eating a maternal Vitamin K rich diet during pregnancy and nursing help Vitamin K levels in newborns? Olive and her mother Stefani, four days after Olive had brain surgery to remove excess blood due to the Vitamin K deficiency bleed.
There is no good evidence that giving the mother extra Vitamin K during pregnancy can prevent VKDB in infants. Some people have suggested that an alternative strategy for boosting the Vitamin K intake of breast fed babies is for the mother to take a daily supplement herself after birth. The shot has a delayed release effect that protects against both classical and late bleeding. In contrast, the typical 3-dose regimen of oral Vitamin K1 lowers the chance of VKDB but does not eliminate it entirely. One reason that other countries may use the oral version of Vitamin K is because mothers and infants usually receive home visits from nurses.
The main reason that different countries use different regimens is because they don’t always have the same types of Vitamin K available. If all infants are born with low Vitamin K levels, is it really a deficiency or is this the natural design of human beings? Why are babies born with insufficient Vitamin K?  Obviously, it is impossible for us to know why this happens. Perhaps there is a reason we don’t know of that leads to low transmission of Vitamin K from mom to baby before and after birth.
The two main risk factors for VKDB are exclusive breastfeeding and not receiving the Vitamin K shot. It is important to note that Vitamin K deficiency bleeding can happen to any infant, whether they are pre-term and full-term, male or female, trauma or no trauma. In 1944, researchers who introduced the Vitamin K shot found that babies may be more likely to have brain bleeds or intestinal bleeds shortly after birth if they had a traumatic birth (Lehmann, 1944).
In fact, I could find no recent evidence supporting the theory that infants born with instrumental help, or by Cesarean, are at higher risk for Vitamin K deficiency bleeding. In one of the largest studies on this topic, Thai researchers followed women during pregnancy and after birth and examined risk factors for Vitamin K deficiency. As far as insufficient breastfeeding in the first hours of life goes, there is a link between insufficient amounts of breast milk in the first few days of life and classical VKDB. And it is theoretically possible that traumatic experiences at birth would make a baby more likely to bleed during the first week of life if they have low Vitamin K levels. Also, this theory does not explain late VKDB, which happens a week or more after birth, and is the more dangerous kind of bleeding.
In summary, the most important risk factors for VKDB are exclusive breastfeeding and not getting the Vitamin K shot. In 1990, a British newspaper reported that researchers had found a link between Vitamin K injections and childhood leukemia (Golding, Greenwood et al.
Over the next two decades, there were a total of 12 studies examining the link between injectable Vitamin K and leukemia.
In 2002, researchers combined data from six major studies that looked at the potential relationship between Vitamin K and childhood cancer. In 2003, researchers in Great Britain conducted the highest-quality study to date to determine whether there was a relationship between Vitamin K and childhood cancer. For example, I found a 2013 blog article on a popular natural health website, claiming that your child’s chance of getting leukemia from the Vitamin K shot is 1 in 500. Is anyone keeping nationwide stats on how many infants get Vitamin K, and how many infants develop bleeds?
In 2009, researchers published a Cochrane review combining the results of 13 studies that randomly assigned infants—almost all of whom were born at term and without complications—to either oral or injectable Vitamin K. Let’s look at Germany as an example of how oral Vitamin K can sometimes fail to prevent bleeds (see Table 2).
Based on one observational study, the best oral regimen seems to be a weekly oral Vitamin K regimen. Between 1994-2000, all infants had 2 mg oral Vitamin K after birth, then 1 mg of oral Vitamin K weekly, as long as at least 50% of their daily feedings were made of breast milk. Giving a breastfed infant a Vitamin K1 shot virtually eliminates the chance of life-threatening Vitamin K deficiency bleeding.
Save 30% when you purchase all of our top rated Evidence Based Birth® PDFs articles at once, here! Become a professional member, and get access to all of our best Evidence Based Birth® PDFs! I would like to acknowledge Mandi Hardy Hillman, PhD, LPC, CD(DONA), ICCE, for her invaluable assistance with the literature search.
I would like to acknowledge my expert reviewers: Mark Sloan, MD, Pediatrician and Assistant Clinical Professor at the University of California, San Francisco, and Robert F. I shared my personal thoughts on the evidence for the Vitamin K shot in this exclusive interview with Lamaze’s research blog, Science and Sensibility. In view of the importance of the 100:1 ratio of Vitamin C:Vitamin K3 to the efficacy of ProsStay, can you please tell me if the efficacy would be reduced by additional vitamin K2 supplementation (for improved calcium metabolism)?
In other words, if I was taking a separate K2 supplement, at staggered intervals from ProsStay, could that disrupt the 100:1 efficacy ratio of ProsStay? Vitamin K was discovered in 1929 in Denmark, and received its name from the German word for coagulation—koagulation. Research over the past 35 years demonstrates that Vitamin K consists of a number of forms that have multiple effects in the body. Vitamin K1 is formed by plants (green leafy vegetables), and is the principle dietary source of Vitamin K. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) of Vit K1 is about 65–80 mcg—but therapeutic doses range from 500–2,000 mcg (although doses as high as 40 mg per day have been used without signs of toxicity).
Which brings us to your questions—Does K2 convert in the body to K3, and would K3’s anti-cancer efficacy be reduced by additional vitamin K2 supplementation to improve calcium metabolism? Doses of Vitamin K1 as high as 40 mg per day have been reported to be beneficial against cancer, with no toxicity reported in any of the participants.18 45 mg per day of MK4 are reportedly beneficial against cancer (although less effective than K3), but more effective than K3 against osteoporosis. Caption: A molecular model of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone), a form of vitamin K that can be stored in animal tissue, playing a role in blood coagulation and maintaining bone mineral density. Licence fees: A licence fee will be charged for any media (low or high resolution) used in your project.
Carotinoide weisen viele biologische Funktionen auf: Sie haben antoxidative Eigenschaften und Provitamin A-Wirkung, aber sie sind auch an der Zellkommunikation beteiligt.
Zum Farben von Lebensmitteln konnen sowohl fettlosliche als auch wasserlosliche Praparate eingesetzt werden.
Vitamin A ist die Sammelbezeichnung fur alle Retinoide, die qualitativ die biologische Aktivitat des all-trans-Retinols aufweisen. 1 µg Retinolequivalent entspricht 1 µg Retinol, 6 µg Carotin und 12 µg aller anderen Carotinoide.
Vitamin A kann entweder in Form seines Provitamins aus Pflanzen oder in Form der Fettsaureester aus tierischen Geweben aufgenommen werden. Retionol stellt die Transportform dar, wahrend 11-cis- und all-trans-Retinal am Sehprozess beteiligt sind. Vitamin D ist kein Vitamin im eigentlichen Sinne, denn es kann vom Korperaus 7-Dehydrocholesterol synthetisiert werden. Die biologisch aktive Form ist das 1, 25-Dihydroxilierte Verbindung Calcitriol die vor allem fur den Calcium- und Knochenstoffwechsel wichtig ist.
Die K-Vitamine spielen eine besondere Rolle bei der Carboxylierung von Glutamat in vielen Proteinen. In 2013, six infants were admitted to Vanderbilt Children’s Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee, with life-threatening bleeding.
Three of the infants were born in hospitals, two were born at home, one was born in a birth center. Researchers from the CDC examined Tennessee hospital records and found that between the years 2007 and 2012, there had been zero cases of Vitamin K deficiency bleeding out of more than 490,000 births. Only one of the families was aware that life-threatening bleeding was a possibility if they declined the injection (Warren, Miller et al. Her Vitamin K shot was unintentionally omitted at birth, and as a result of Vitamin K deficiency, she had a severe brain bleed at 2 months old. The blood clotting factors are there in normal numbers at birth, but not activated fully due to low levels of Vitamin K. Virtually all cases of idiopathic VKDB happen in babies who are exclusively breastfed (Shearer 2009). Early VKDB is usually seen in babies born to mothers who took medicines that interfere with Vitamin K. The researcher found that infants who received Vitamin K experienced a 5-fold reduction in the risk of bleeding to death during the first week of life.
The new name also reflects the fact that some infants begin bleeding later in infancy—after the four-week newborn period is over (Shearer 2009). In an 18 year period in the United Kingdom, only two babies who received the shot had late VKDB brain bleeds, out of 64 million births (Busfield et al.
On the other hand, it is more common in some Asian countries, such as Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand. When an infant with VKDB receives a shot of Vitamin K1, this will usually slow or stop the bleeding within 20-30 minutes (Shearer 2009). Their levels are lowest at days 2-3 and do not reach adult levels until about 6 months of age. Colostrum has about 2 micrograms of Vitamin K per Liter, while mature milk has 1 microgram per Liter (von Kries et al, 1987). When studies looked closely at infants who develop late VKDB, they found that mothers of these babies had normal levels of Vitamin K in their milk supply. This is because in contrast to breast milk, formula has relatively high levels of Vitamin K1—55 micrograms per liter (Shearer 2009). This dose is what was tested in the original studies on Vitamin K, starting in the 1960s and continuing into the 21st century.


Polysorbate 80 is made from natural sorbitol and plant-based oleic acid, is used in a wide variety of foods, medicines, and vitamin supplements, and is included in the Handbook of Green Chemicals.
Proplyene glycol is used in many medications (oral, topical, and injections) because it is a very good at helping medications absorb into liquid. Unfortunately, circumcision often takes place when Vitamin K levels in the infant are lowest—during days 2 and 3 of life (Shearer 2009). After applying pressure for 90 minutes, with no decrease or cessation in the bleeding, they discovered that the baby had not received a Vitamin K injection. In the largest known study looking at diets and Vitamin K deficiency, researchers followed 683 mothers before pregnancy and after giving birth.
Also, infants with underlying (and sometimes undetected) gallbladder or liver disorders may not be able to absorb the oral Vitamin K when it is given in a 3-dose regimen. For example, oral Vitamin K is offered to almost all parents in the United Kingdom who refuse the Vitamin K shot, but that is because they have a licensed oral version available. So if you are looking at this as a case of “survival of the fittest,” perhaps there is not a pressing need for newborns to be born with higher levels of Vitamin K.
Maybe there is an unknown beneficial mechanism that is preventing some kind of environmental toxin from reaching the baby, and this mechanism also has the side effect of keeping Vitamin K from reaching baby in sufficient quantities through the placenta and breastmilk. The point is that they are born with low levels of Vitamin K, and that some babies will die from Vitamin K deficiency bleeding if they do not receive supplemental Vitamin K at the beginning of life. Do we perceive a need for Vitamin K simply because it was studied during years of operative vaginal deliveries (forceps, vacuum) when babies were cord clamped immediately and taken away from moms with no breastfeeding all?
However, this 60-year old finding has evolved into a myth in which people believe that the only babies who are at risk are those who had traumatic births (Cesarean section, forceps, or vacuum delivery).
But research (see above) has not supported the theory that traumatic deliveries are directly related to Vitamin K deficiencies. In Asian countries, where rates of VKDB are high, if you administer the Vitamin K1 shot to 100,000 infants, researchers estimate this would prevent 11 deaths, 340 years of lost life from the children who would have died, and 53 cases of life-long disability (Danielsson, Hoa et al. After carefully reviewing the evidence, they issued a statement saying that there was not enough evidence to support a link between Vitamin K and childhood cancer. In this study, there were 2,530 children with cancer (half of whom had leukemia) and 4,487 children without cancer. The same article, as well as others, lists the side effects of intravenous Vitamin K and state that your child is at risk for these side effects if they receive the Vitamin K shot. Because late VKDB is so rare, the researchers could only look at the effects of Vitamin K on classical VKDB and laboratory results (Puckett and Offringa 2000). In two very important studies that took place in the 1960s, researchers compared injectable Vitamin K to no Vitamin K for the prevention of classic VKDB. There have been no randomized trials that compare weekly or daily oral Vitamin K to the Vitamin K shot.
The AAP does not recommend oral Vitamin K, because some infants may have trouble absorbing it and there is no FDA-approved version in the U.S.
The only known adverse effects of the shot are pain, bleeding, and bruising at the site of the injection. You will receive 4 videos sent to your email inbox over the next week, along with a FREE, one-page, printable handout on Vitamin K that you can share with clients, health care providers, and friends!
Sidonio, Jr., MD, Pediatric Hematologist-Oncologist and Assistant Professor at Vanderbilt University. For others who may not be familiar with Vitamin K and its physiological role, here’s a brief overview. It has traditionally been considered to be the “coagulation vitamin,” as it is an integral part of the coagulation cascade in the blood that prevents us from bleeding to death from minor cuts and scratches. Circulating vitamin K concentrations following a single oral dose of 1 mg each of vitamin K1 and MK7.
Vitamin K2 can be obtained through a diet consisting of fermented or aged cheeses and vegetables, eggs, beef, chicken, and dairy products, and can also be synthesized from vitamin K1.
Es fordert die Calciumresorption im Darm und die optimale Calciumkonzentration in der Niere. Die Aufnahme sollte aber an die Menge an aufgenommen ungesattigten Fettsauren angepasst werden. Es dient dem Schutz der Membranlipide, der Lipoproteinen und der Depotfette vor Lipidperoxidation. The infants were diagnosed with late Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB)—four of the infants had bleeding in the brain, and two had bleeding in the intestines.
They randomly sampled records from babies born at three Nashville hospitals and found that 96.6% of infants received Vitamin K injections. These medicines may include warfarin (Coumadin), seizure medications, and tuberculosis medications. Common bleeding sites include the gastrointestinal system, umbilical cord site, skin, nose, and circumcision site.
It was estimated that for every 100,000 full-term infants who were born, Vitamin K would save the lives of 160 infants per year (Lehmann 1944). See Table 1, below.
Infants cannot tell us what is going on, and symptoms of brain injury may be subtle— such as difficulty feeding, lethargy, or fussiness.
This type of VKDB is usually mild and involves bleeding at the umbilical cord site or circumcision site. Mortality rates from classical VKDB are probably higher in developing countries such as Ethiopia because of scarce medical resources and a delay between when babies start to bleed and when they receive treatment (Lippi & Franchini, 2011).
However, if bleeding happens in the brain, the infant may already have brain damage by the time the shot is given.
Vitamin K1 is poorly retained in the body, and the Vitamin K1 that is stored is primarily in the liver, not in the bloodstream. After these mothers were given Vitamin K, the researchers were able to detect Vitamin K1 in the cord blood in 4 out of 6 infants, but the levels were still very low.
It is thought that maybe some of these babies had a problem with absorbing the Vitamin K from their mother’s milk (Shearer 2009). Although this amount may seem high to some, it is thought that the Vitamin K1 injection is temporarily stored in the leg muscle and gradually released into the baby’s system over the next several months.
Any cases about severe side effects from propylene glycol are from decades ago, and were related to very high doses. Infants who are circumcised and whose parents decline Vitamin K may be more likely to experience bleeding at the circumcision site, especially if the baby is breastfed. He received a 2-mg injection and the bleeding stopped within 30 minutes (Plank, Steinmetz et al. In one small study with only 6 mothers, a 2.5 mg oral dose twice a day (5 mg total per day, or one hundred times the amount that would otherwise need to be given to the baby each day) was enough to raise the vitamin content of the milk to acceptable levels (Bolisetty, Gupta et al.
To learn more about a more effective weekly dose of Vitamin K, see the section on “Weekly and Daily Dosing of Oral Vitamin K” below.
When oral Vitamin K is used it requires at least 3 doses (birth, 1 week, and 6 weeks), and the breakthrough cases of Vitamin K deficiency bleeding are often related to missing the final dose (Busfield, Samuel et al. It is possible that maybe an infant’s clotting system also needs time to mature and come into its full strength. Because of this, doses of Vitamin K are typically given to all newborns or to those whose mothers intend to exclusively breastfeed (Shearer, 2009). I have seen this myth perpetuated in many blog articles and on social media, without any supporting evidence or references to back up these claims. The researchers found no difference in the percentage of infants with Vitamin K deficiency between the low-risk and high-risk infants (Chuansumrit et al, 2013). As mentioned earlier, the timing of cord clamping probably does not have any effect on VKDB, since Vitamin K is usually undetectable in cord blood.
When the study was published, there was a massive switch in Great Britain from the Vitamin K shot to oral Vitamin K.
The researchers found no association between injectable Vitamin K and any type of childhood cancer (Roman, Fear et al.
The researchers found that 39% of children with cancer had received the injectable Vitamin K, while 42% of children without cancer had received the Vitamin K.
In fact, some of the children in Tennessee who developed life-threatening VKDB did not receive Vitamin K because their parents thought that the shot could cause leukemia.
These authors do not even understand the difference between intravenous and intramuscular injections. Some countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands have surveillance programs to monitor the effectiveness. Most of the studies in the Cochrane review looked only at infants who were exclusively breastfed.
The researchers found that Vitamin K led to a 27% decrease in the risk of bleeding between one and seven days, and an 82% decrease in the risk of bleeding after a circumcision.
In the 3-dose regimen, infants received 1 mg of Vitamin K orally 3 times—at birth, 1 week, and 2-3 months. Almost all (29 out of 30) had a severe deficiency, 83% had bleeding (late VKDB), and 43% had brain bleeds. In the Netherlands, the current practice recommendation consists of giving 1 mg Vitamin K orally directly after birth and a daily dose of 150 mcg from day 8 through 13 weeks of life (de Winter et al, 2011). Out of many millions of injections, there has only been one report of an allergic reaction in recent history.
It also helps to form intravascular emboli and thromboses that cause heart attacks and strokes.
Points are means from 15 subjects; Note the excellent absorption and prolonged elevation of levels of MK7. Menadione (vitamin K3) is a catabolic product of oral phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in the intestine and a circulating precursor of tissue menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) in rats.
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Hier ist es wichtig zu wissen, dass es bei fettloslichen Vitaminen zu Hypervitaminosen kommen kann, da die Ausscheidung, im Gegensatz zu den wasserloslichen Vitaminen etwas anders lauft. Carotinoide sind in der Regel reine Kohlenwasserstoffe, Xanthine enthalten zusatzlich noch Sauerstoff. Sie bilden zusammen mit Proteinen 3 blaue und einen gelben Komplex (-, - und - Crustacyanin = blau). Fur wassrige Lebensmittel werden die Carotinoide in eine Gelatine-Zucker-Matrix eingebunden.
Retinsauren haben eine ausgepragte auf die Proliferation und Differenzierung der unterschiedlichen Gewebe (v.a. Durch Sonnenenergie konnen die Vorlaufer (Ergosterol und 7-Dehydrocholesterin) in die aktivierte Form D2 bzw. Im Knochen induziert es die Proteinsynthese, die fur die Knochenmatrix verantwortlich sind. Although the six infants survived, two required emergency brain surgery to save their lives, one has severe brain damage (a stroke with right-sided paralysis and severe cognitive delays), and two have mild to moderate brain injuries (Schulte et al, 2014).
Both the babies and their mothers had not been taking any antibiotics, they had not been sick, the mothers were not on restrictive diets, and the babies had no head trauma.
In contrast, only 72% of infants born in local freestanding birth centers received Vitamin K (Warren, Miller et al. Townsend was the first person to figure out that there was a connection between poor or insufficient breastfeeding and bleeding in newborns (Shearer 2009). Unfortunately, a brain bleed may reach a critical size before parents seek medical attention.
So although delayed cord clamping increases iron levels, it is highly unlikely that this would help raise Vitamin K levels enough to prevent VKDB (Shearer 2009; Olson 2000).
It is thought that Vitamin K1 either does not cross the placenta easily, or that the baby’s blood lacks enough fatty lipids that are needed to pick up the Vitamin K1 (Shearer, Rahim et al.
This kind of delayed-release explains why the shot protects babies from both classic AND late Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (Loughnan and McDougall 1996) . For example, in one case, infants were given a multivitamin that had 300mg of propylene glycol daily (Macdonald et al., 1987). In a large clinical trial in the 1960s, researchers found that administering Vitamin K at birth can decrease the risk of bleeding during a circumcision. Finally, an example of infants bleeding after “gentle births” can be seen in the case report from Tennessee. In European countries, when they went from no Vitamin K1 to giving Vitamin K1 shots, researchers estimate that this probably prevented anywhere from 4 to 7 cases of late VKDB per 100,000 infants (Shearer, 2009).
There was also a huge rush to study Vitamin K1 injections to find out whether there really was a link between the injection and cancer (Shearer 2009). The researchers stated that “there is no convincing evidence that neonatal Vitamin K administration influences the risk of children developing leukemia or any other cancer” (Fear, Roman et al. This is not surprising, given that rumors, myths, and non-evidence based information about Vitamin K run rampant on the internet.
And yet parents all over the world are reading information from these websites and making important health decisions based on misleading and inaccurate claims. Please do not make any health decisions for yourself or your family based on information you read on the internet (including this article) without talking with your healthcare provider first.


So instead of looking at clinical trials, we need to review studies that compare regimens in different time periods. The main concern with using oral Vitamin K is that it may not work for infants with undiagnosed gallbladder problems (Ijland, Pereira et al. In New Zealand, the guidelines state that infants should receive 1 mg of Vitamin K as a single intramuscular shot at birth. A regimen of three doses of oral Vitamin K1 at birth, 1 week, and 1 month reduces the risk of bleeding. Although this 3-dose oral Vitamin K1 regimen is better than nothing, it is not 100% effective.
I have not found any literature to support whether taking additional K2 (as MK4)—which is the most effective form of K2 to enhance calcium metabolism—would impair the cancer-fighting effects of K3.
Es sind bislang mehr als 600 strukturell unterschiedliche Carotinoide bekannt, die in den meisten Fallen fettloslich sind. Durch das Kochen der Schalentiere wird das rotlich Astaxanthin aus den Komplexen freigesetzt und farbt sie somit rot. Der Abbau erfolgt entweder durch direkten photochemischen Abbau oder indirekt durch die lichtinduzierte Lipidoxidation. Das MK4 wird im Gewebe aus Phyllochinon produziert und Dihydrophyllochinon entsteht bei der technischen Verarbeitung von Olen.
All of the infants were exclusively breastfed, and they all had critically low levels of Vitamin K in their blood.
For the most part, our bodies can continue to clot appropriately with low Vitamin K levels. Some infants may also be at higher risk if they have undetected gallbladder disease, cystic fibrosis, chronic diarrhea, and antibiotic use. Researchers don’t know why rates of late VKDB are higher in some countries compared to others, but it’s thought that it is related to a combination of environment (diet) and genetics (Hanawa, Maki et al. And it can take even longer for health care professionals to figure out what is wrong (Schulte et al. This dose, which was 30 times higher than the one used in the Vitamin K shot, led to seizures in the infant. In this study, infants who were born on odd-numbered days received a Vitamin K shot at 24 hours of age, while infants who were born on even-numbered days did not.
In another small study, researchers looked at a small number of mother-infant pairs– first 10 pairs, and then 20 pairs. For example, you could compare rates of VKDB during time periods when countries used nothing, when they used oral Vitamin K, and when the Vitamin K shot became standard care. Five out of these 23 infants had a Vitamin K deficiency, and two of the five had late VKDB. Because it is sold as a supplement without FDA approval, this medication is not required to have the stated amount of vitamin K.
If parents do not consent to the shot but do consent to oral Vitamin K, then 2 mg of Vitamin K should be given by mouth soon after birth, once at 3-7 days, and again at 6 weeks.
It is important for parents to administer all 3 doses in order for this regimen to help lower the risk of late Vitamin K deficiency bleeding.
Most importantly, what these infants had in common was that all of their parents had declined Vitamin K shots at birth. Vitamin K1 from plants makes up about 90% of our overall Vitamin K levels, while Vitamin K2 from bacteria makes up only about 10% of our overall Vitamin K intake. As far as allergic reactions to the Vitamin K shot, almost all of the cases in history occurred with the intravenous (IV) form, something that is never used in the newborn period unless an infant comes in with vitamin K deficiency bleeding.
However, this condition is extremely rare (1 out of every 60,000 babies), and it has no relationship to adult gallbladder or liver disease.
They were all healthy, exclusively breast fed infants born during spontaneous vaginal births at term. Instead, researchers looked at changes in laboratory results that indicate Vitamin K deficiency. Table 2 below shows the rates of late VKDB in multiple countries over different time periods.
Out of these 32 cases, 2 infants did not receive any Vitamin K at all, 6 infants did not complete the entire 3-dose regimen, and 22 received all 3 doses of oral Vitamin K.
There was one case of late VKDB after the weekly oral Vitamin K, and one case of late VKDB after the shot. None of the Danish infants had a brain bleed.
The amount could vary widely from vial to vial, and K-Quinone is not regulated or certified by a third party. Parents should be informed that bleeding can still occur with the oral Vitamin, even if the parents comply with the oral regimen.
The Danish regimen of 2 mg oral Vitamin K after birth and then 1 mg orally each week seems to protect infants at higher risk who have undiagnosed gallbladder disease.
Side effects from vitamin K injection given at birth are incredibly rare and if they are seen, they end up being case reports due to rarity. In the first phase, mothers were randomly assigned to take 2.5 mg or 5 mg of Vitamin K daily by mouth. This means that you cannot use a “family history of gallbladder or liver disease” to predict whether or not your baby will have this problem. Multiple researchers found that giving Vitamin K1—whether it was a shot or an oral dose—significantly improved the baby’s lab results in the first week of life, when compared to nothing or a placebo. As you can see, the Vitamin K shot (IM Vitamin K1) basically eliminated all cases of late VKDB. This means that the 3-dose oral regimen—even when all 3 doses were given—still failed some of the time.
The risk of a breastfed baby with gallbladder problems having late VKDB was 8 times higher in the Dutch infants compared to infants who were part of both Danish regimens. In the United Kingdom, guidelines state that all parents should be offered Vitamin K for their infants.
Recently, there have been many myths, misconceptions, and misinformation floating around the internet and social media about Vitamin K. Also, the first sign of a baby’s gallbladder or liver problem is usually a bleed in the brain or stomach. In the studies that compared the Vitamin K shot to a single dose of oral Vitamin K, some researchers found no difference in lab results. The use of three doses of oral Vitamin K1 (at birth, one week, and one month of age) lowered the risk of late VKDB but did not eliminate it entirely.
In other words, although giving 3 doses of oral Vitamin K1 is better than nothing, it does not work 100% of the time, and infants who receive the oral regimen are still at risk for late VKDB. If parents choose the oral version of Vitamin K, it is very important that they give their infant all three doses. Babies with gallbladder problems have trouble absorbing fat and fat-soluble vitamins like Vitamin K, so they are at higher risk for late VKDB. The results showed that the Danish weekly regimen was more effective than the Dutch daily regimen, probably because the overall weekly dose (1 mg) was much higher in Denmark than the overall weekly dose given in the Netherlands (0.18 mg). It is important that parents look at the facts so that their consent or refusal is informed. A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal osteocalcin gamma-carboxylation. If you have ever read any of my other articles, or taken one of my Evidence Based Birth classes, you will know that one of my teaching methods is to use real-life stories to teach about health conditions. Before the 1960s (mostly in the 1950s) there were some reports of severe jaundice and anemia, as the dose was not determined and the formulation was quite different. So most parents don’t know their baby has this very rare problem until the baby starts bleeding (van Hasselt et al, 2008). However, when researchers looked specifically at Vitamin K levels, they found that the Vitamin K shot resulted in significantly higher levels of Vitamin K at one week and one month when compared to the single oral dose.
However, even if all three doses are completed, the infant will still be at risk for bleeding. Often the first sign of a gallbladder problem is bleeding in the brain or stomach from Vitamin K deficiency (Van Hasselt et al.
After this study came out, the Netherlands increased their daily dose to 150 micrograms per day, so that it would be closer to the Danish overall total of 1 mg total per week (de Winter et al. If the parents do not consent to the Vitamin K shot, they can be offered the oral Vitamin K, but they should be informed that this method requires multiple doses. Right now, parents who have been declining Vitamin K may not have all the information, or they may have been given inaccurate information. Although Vitamin K deficiency bleeding is rare, it is real and it can happen to real infants. During this time they were using a water soluble version of the vitamin K shot and following these cases, they changed to the fat soluble version that is used today.
In the second part of the study, 22 mothers were randomly assigned to take either 5 mg of Vitamin K daily with a meal, or placebo. On the other hand, almost every research study has shown that giving the Vitamin K shot works nearly 100% of the time at protecting infants from late VKDB.
As always, please read the Evidence Based Birth disclaimer and do not make any health care decisions without talking with your care provider first.
In 2014, researchers published a case report about an infant who had a severe allergic reaction to the shot and went into shock. Both Denmark and the Netherlands have national registries where they track these rare infants with gallbladder problems. The infant survived, but researchers were unable to figure out why the newborn had this type of reaction. This gave researchers a unique chance to look at late VKDB in breastfed infants with gallbladder problems who received either daily or weekly oral Vitamin K, or the shot (Van Hasselt et al.
The main reason that they stopped using the oral Vitamin K was because it was no longer available on the market. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis. They noted that this was the first case ever reported in which an infant went into an allergic shock from Vitamin K, when the shot has been given all over the world for many decades (Koklu et al. But the Vitamin K had a dramatic effect on breast milk levels of Vitamin K, increasing it 70 times compared to placebo. If the weekly or daily oral Vitamin K regimen is used, it is important to remember that when this fat-soluble vitamin is given on an empty stomach, it may not be absorbed as well as Vitamin K1 that is mixed into formula (Cornelissen, Kollee et al.
Giving the mothers 5 mg of Vitamin K daily also increased the baby’s Vitamin K levels by 6-10 times, and blood markers of Vitamin K deficiency were lower in the 5 mg group. Any injection can lead to site irritation and redness, but this is rare and it almost never leads to any intervention. Injections can also cause pain, which can be minimized by nursing the baby during the shot. In a large Japanese study with more than 3,000 mother-infant pairs, researchers tested a maternal dose of 15 mg of Vitamin K2 by mouth once a day. So if parents give their breast fed infants oral Vitamin K, it is important that they give it with a feeding, and make sure that it is not spit up.
Low-dose vitamin K2 (MK-4) supplementation for 12 months improves bone metabolism and prevents forearm bone loss in postmenopausal Japanese women. They found that this dose resulted in low infant Vitamin K levels in only 0.11% of the treatment group.
It is important to note that the infants also received oral Vitamin K, twice during the first week of life (Nishiguchi, Saga et al. 1996). What is the take-away point on giving Vitamin K to the mother? Well, so far, the studies that have been done looked at babies in which both the babies AND their mothers received supplements.
It appears that when the mother takes 5 mg of Vitamin K per day, that this is very effective in raising levels of Vitamin K in breast milk, and probably raises Vitamin K levels in the baby. But so far, researchers have not tested the effects of maternal Vitamin intake on rates of actual Vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants. Time-dependent effects of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women.
Low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation improved extra-hepatic vitamin K status, but had no effect on thrombin generation in healthy subjects.
Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Comparison of antitumor activity of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 on human tumor cells by two (MTT and SRB) cell viability assays. Effects of sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) and 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3) treatment on human tumor cell growth in vitro.
Potential therapeutic application of the association of vitamins C and K3 in cancer treatment.
The association of vitamins C and K3 kills cancer cells mainly by autoschizis, a novel form of cell death.



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