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You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. There was more and more evidences that vitamin D deficiency is associated with prevalent myocardial dysfunction, death due to hear failure, and sudden cardiac death. When the link between vitamin D deficiency and heart diseases was proved, further studies would determine whether correction of vitamin D deficiency could prevent cardiovascular diseases.
The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study, which just published in March 2012, stated that vitamin D3 (or 25[OH] D) can reduce cardiovascular mortality. Base on these categories, a follow-up procedure (median 7.7 years) was performed in order to know whether vitamin D levels may associate with cardiovascular mortality or not.
Scientists concluded that 25(OH) D levels were dose-dependently associated with a robust reduction in cardiovascular mortality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. American Heart Association, Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Jan 2008. European Journal of Heart Failure,Vitamin D status and outcomes in heart failure patients, May 2011. Calcification is a normal process of calcium accumulation for bone and cartilage formation. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, a conditionally essential nutrient, which means, it can be produced in your body in sufficient amounts when your skin is exposed to sun light for a certain period of time, but when it is not, you need to get additional amount from food or supplements [1].
Vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol in plant foods and vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol in animal foods and human skin are inactive forms of vitamin D. Ultraviolet (UV-B) rays from the sun convert dehydrocholesterol in the skin into vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).
Vitamin D can be mainly found in oily fish and liver and in smaller amounts in meat and dairy. The most commonly measured form of vitamin D in the blood is calcidiol (25OHD), which reflects the recent production of the vitamin in your body and the vitamin intake, but not the body vitamin stores [1]. Vitamin D deficiency can cause hypocalcemia with numbness and tingling in the fingers, toes and around the mouth (paresthesia), lightheadedness, excessive bleeding, leg cramps or muscle twitching, constipation, seizures or abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia). Vitamin D deficiency results in poor mineralization of bones causing rickets in children, and osteomalacia (soft bones) and osteoporosis (when calcium is also deficient) in adults. Diagnosis. Vitamin D deficiency is estimated from the level of calcidiol (25OHD) in the blood. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) in usual doses (400 IU) are considered equally effective, but in large doses, vitamin D3 is more effective [1]. Vitamin D is included in some multivitamin and calcium supplements and in prenatal vitamins.
Vitamin D is POSSIBLY INEFFECTIVE in prevention of breast cancer, high blood pressure, improving muscle strength in older adults, preventing bone loss after kidney transplantation [2].


Vitamin D is POSSIBLY INEFFECTIVE in prevention or treatment of eczema, heart disease, high cholesterol [18]. Vitamin D supplements may increase the risk of high blood pressure during pregnancy (preeclampsia) [18]. Long-term side effects (complications) of vitamin D in high doses can include kidney stones, bone loss, accumulation of calcium in the arteries (arteriosclerosis), heart, kidneys and other organs and increase the risk of urinary tract infections, respiratory infections [1,18,22]. In individuals with tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, histoplasmosis and lymphoma, even usual doses of vitamin D supplements increase the risk of hypercalcemia [1,22]. Vitamin D increases the absorption of aluminum from aluminum antacids, possibly resulting in excessive aluminum levels in the body, especially in people with kidney disease.
When taken together, vitamin D may decrease the effectiveness of atorvastatin, clarithromycin, cyclosporine, diltiazem, lovastatin, estrogens, indinavir, triazolam, verapamil, or increase side effects of calcipotriene, digoxin. Vitamin D taken along with diuretics (chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, metolazone, chlorthalidone) may cause hypercalcemia. Vitamin D can raise the level of magnesium in people who have low magnesium and low vitamin D levels.
Zeratsky K, What is vitamin D toxicity, and should I worry about it since I take supplements? The information on this site is for educational purposes only and should not be considered diagnostic or medical advice.
Furthermore, low levels of vitamin D are known to nearly double the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. This study also investigated the optimal vitamin D3 level is protective in subjects with metabolic syndrome.
During follow-up procedure, 462 deaths were recorded, 267 (57.8%) of which had cardiovascular diseases in origin. Many people can make all they need by getting outside for 5 to 10 minutes a day without sunscreen.
They are converted into calcidiol (25OHD) in your liver and, finally, mainly in your kidneys, into calcitriol (1-25OHD), which is the only active form of vitamin D in the human body [1].
When blood calcium levels are low, vitamin D, stimulated by the parathyroid hormone (PTH), promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the small intestine and bones. Exposure of the face, arms, legs or back (without sunscreen) to sun for 5-30 minutes between 10 AM and 3 PM twice a week (less than 42° latitude from March to October, and less than 34° year through) results in the production of sufficient amount of vitamin D in the body in healthy people [1,8]. Cloudy weather or being in shade reduces UV exposure to about 50% [1]. To increase the concentration of vitamin D in the breast milk to meet the infants needs, mothers would need to take supplements in large doses, but for now this is generally not recommended [11,12]. In the US, Canada and some other countries, milk and, often, soy milk, margarine, ready-to-eat cereals, rice and orange juice are fortified with vitamin D (D2 or D3).
Calcitriol (1-25OHD) levels decrease only in severe deficiency so they are not a good indicator of the body vitamin D status [1].


Symptoms include deformed, fragile bones, teeth defects, muscle pain and weakness and bone pain. According to Mayo Clinic, intramuscular injections of vitamin D in doses up to 300,000 IU 3 times a year are probably safe [18]. Intramuscular injections in doses up to 60,000 IU monthly for 3 months are probably safe [18]. High amounts of vitamin D from foods, or sun exposure do not cause hypervitaminosis D [21]. A numerous recent studies suggested that if you do not get enough vitamin D, it will affect your heart health. Low vitamin D inhibits cholesterol processing in diabetics- building up too much cholesterol in blood vessel, hence increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke.
The result shows a 75% reduction of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in those with optimal 25(OH) D levels, compared with severe deficiency all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
However, you should keep the exposure short because the rays that stimulate vitamin D production may also cause sunburn and skin cancer. When blood calcium levels are high, vitamin D stimulates calcium incorporation into the bones and teeth and thus strengthen them. UV light does not penetrate windows so indoor exposure to sun through windows does not result in vitamin D production in the skin [1]. Plant foods (fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, cereals) do not naturally contain vitamin D. If you intend to use vitamin D supplements during pregnancy or breastfeeding, speak with your doctor. Scientists also observed a 85% reduction of sudden death in those with optimal 25(OH) D levels contrasted with severe deficiency. Food is the best way to get vitamins, but for vitamin D, just only a few foods - salmon, tuna, sardines, milk, and fortified cereals- can give you more vitamin D.
Prolonged exposure to sun, visiting sunbathing saloons or using UV lamps for the purpose of increasing vitamin D is NOT recommended, since they can increase the risk of skin cancer, but it does not lead to vitamin D toxicity [7].
However, vitamin D status was not significantly associated with fatal myocardial infarction.



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