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Paul Lunde, in his article a€?Pillars of Hercules, Sea of Darknessa€?, writes that for the Latin Middle Ages, the Atlantic was Mare Tenebrosum; for the Arabs, Bahr al-Zulamat.
This name - and its analogue, a€?The Dark Sea,a€? Bahr al-Muzlim - sufficiently indicates medieval mana€™s fear and ignorance of the Atlantic Ocean. The Arabs used other names also, such as the scholarly Uqiyanus, directly transliterated from the Greek word okeanos, and even, in later sources from the western Islamic world, Bahr al-Atlasi [The Sea of the Atlas Mountains] - an exact rendering of the word Atlantic.
The most frequent Arabic name for the Atlantic was al-Bahr al-Muhit, the Circumambient, or All-Encompassing, Ocean. The ancient belief that nothing lay beyond the Pillars of Hercules became a tremendous psychological barrier. It is a generally accepted opinion that this sea - the Atlantic - is the source of all the other seas. The Historical Annals, which presumably gave a much more detailed account of this and other voyages, is lost. The voyages of the mugharrirun and Khashkhash were private undertakings, apparently motivated by curiosity and bravado. We know little for sure about how he supported himself during such extensive travels within and beyond the lands of Islam.
The information we have gathered here is the fruit of long years of research and painful efforts of our voyages and journeys across the East and the West, and of the various nations that lie beyond the regions of Islam. The geographical sections, which are among the most interesting to modern readers, are either accounts of his own very far-flung travels or, where there are gaps in his personal experience, accounts gleaned from sources he considered reliable. Al-Jahiz claims that the Indus, the river of Sind, comes from the Nile and adduces the presence of crocodiles in the Indus as proof.
Al-Masa€™udi claims he visited China, yet he actually depended very much on previous accounts to write his section on China and what he learned from contemporaries like Abu Zayd.
Al-Masa€™udi supplies a lot of theoretical information about world geography in Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, which derives from earlier Greek works that he studied in Baghdad and Damascus. This concept of sea division is similar to the Chinese division of five great seas in Zhou Qufeia€™s Land beyond the Passes examined in Hyunhee Parka€™s Mapping the Chinese and Islamic Worlds, although the actual divisions and standards differ from each other.
In the Sea of Rum [the Mediterranean] near the island of Iqritish [Crete], planks of ships of Indian teak, which were perforated and stitched together with fibers of the coconut tree, were found. This discovery near Crete of the planks of a boat from the Indian Ocean surprised geographers of the 10th century, who correctly knew that the Indian Ocean was not linked to the Mediterranean.
Ahmad Shboul notes that al-Masa€™udi is distinguished above his contemporaries for the extent of his interest in and coverage of the non-Islamic lands and peoples of his day. His normal inquiries of travelers and extensive reading of previous writers were supplemented in the case of India with his personal experiences in the western part of the subcontinent. He described previous rulers in China, underlined the importance of the revolt by Huang Chao in the late Tang dynasty, and mentioned, though less detailed than for India, Chinese beliefs.
Al-Masa€™udi was also very well informed about Byzantine affairs, even internal political events and the unfolding of palace coups. One example of Al-Masa€™udia€™s influence on Muslim knowledge of the Byzantine world is that we can trace the use of the name Istanbul (in place of Constantinople) to his writings of the year 947, centuries before the eventual Ottoman use of this term. Al-Masa€?udi also made great efforts to find out as much as possible about remote areas of the world. There is a certain amount about Africa, but there he is more concerned with the geography and natural history, such as exports of panther skins, the habits of the rhinoceros and the course of the Nile, than he is with the customs of the people. More surprising is the lack of information on North Africa and Spain, which at that time was Muslim. In general his surviving works reveal an intensely curious mind, a universalist eagerly acquiring as extensive a background of the entire world as possible.
Theories of pre-Columbus Arab arrival to the Americas state that medieval Arab explorers (from Spain and Africa) may have reached the Americas (and possibly made contact with the indigenous peoples of the Americas) at some point before Christopher Columbusa€™ first voyage to the Americas in 1492.
Numerous evidence suggests that Arabs from Spain and West Africa arrived to the Americas at least five centuries before Columbus.
In al-Masa€™udia€™s map of the world, there is a large area in the ocean, southwest of Africa, which he referred to as Ard Majhoola [Arabic for a€?the unknown territorya€?].
There are some scholars such as Professor Ivan Van Sertima and Shaykh Abdallah Hakim Quick, and articles in various Muslim publications beginning in 1996, who assert the pre-Columbian presence of Muslim Africans in the Americas. It is one thing to read about towering figures in the ancient Muslim world like Al-Idrisi (#219), Al-Biruni (#214.3), Al-Masa€™udi and many, many others whose contributions laid the foundations of the modern sciences of history, geography, cartography, and sea navigation.
To read about the existence of West Africa Muslim scholars and monarchs like Mansa Musa and Abubakari II, is titillating. These references and more all point to what the non-expert activist dismissed as a€?wish-fulfillmenta€?. The list of distinguished Non-Muslim African American scholars who have written on the subject is long, stemming from as far back as the 1920s. Professor Ivan Van Sertima is an internationally acclaimed historian, linguist, and anthropologist.
These scholarly, ground-breaking works, focusing upon African Muslim (as opposed to European Viking) pre-Columbia exploration of North America, include those written by what is believed to be the first Western author to write on the subject, Harvard Professor Leo Weiner (Africa and the Discovery of America, 1920-22). These works compliment references in the writings of Christopher Columbus, Balboa, and other European explorers, to those very same Muslim African explorers (specifically The Mandinka a€“the people of Kunta Kinte, ancestor of Alex Haley, author of Roots, and The Autobiography of Malcolm X) who were already present in the Caribbean and North America, before the bearers of the Cross arrived (e.g. Lunde, Paul, Caroline Stone, Kegan Paul, Masa€™udi, The Meadows of Gold, The Abbasids, translation, London and New York, 1989. He asked another Pfizer chemist, Willard Welch, to synthesize some previously unexplored tametraline derivatives.
Welch then prepared stereoisomers of this compound, which were tested in vivo by animal behavioral scientist Albert Weissman. Both phrases meant a€?The Sea of Darkness,a€? and anyone who has looked west from the northern coast of Portugal and seen the heavy cloudbanks lying across the horizon will admit the name is well-suited to the Atlantic.
Writing almost 1400 years after Aristotle, and perfectly aware that the earth is spherical, al-Masa€™udi could still compare it to an egg floating in water. They tell marvelous stories of it, which we have related in our work entitled The Historical Annals, where we speak of what was seen there by men who entered it at the risk of their lives and from which some have returned safe and sound.
If he went north, he may well have plundered the coasts of Portugal, France or even England.
The author of this work compares himself to a man, who having found pearls of all kinds and colours and gathers them together into a necklace of and makes them into an ornament that its possessor guards with great care.
I do not know where he could have found such an argument, but he puts the theory forward un his book, Of the Great Cities and Marvels of the Earth. The eighty-five sources that he lists at the beginning of his book include Ibn Khurradadhbiha€™s Book of Routes and Realms.


It begins with traditional Greek theories about the shape of the earth and the division of the lands and seas.
Whatever form it took, systemized information about sea divisions was crucial to geographers who sought to understand the shape of the world, and they were able to receive information about the seas from those who actually sailed in the vast ocean to reach their destinations. They were of ships that had been wrecked and tossed about by the waves from the waters of the seas. This could only explain how the individual planks flowed into the Mediterranean, al-Masa€™udi concludes. Other authors, even Christians writing in Arabic in the Caliphate, had less to say about the Byzantine Empire than al-Masa€™udi. He demonstrates a deep understanding of historical change, tracing current conditions to the unfolding of events over generations and centuries. Again, while he may have read such earlier Arabic authors as Ibn Khurradad, Ibn al-Faqih, Ibn Rusta and Ibn Fadlan, al-Masa€™udi presented most of his material based on his personal observations and contacts made while travelling.
He recorded the effect of westward migration upon the Byzantines, especially the invading Bulgars. This was clearly not easy, but he managed to glean a certain amount about the Slavs, for example, small numbers of whom traded regularly in Baghdad, as well as the other peoples of Central and Eastern Europe.
This is slightly surprising, since the large number of African slaves in Baghdad would have made gathering information relatively simple. He does say a little about Galicia, but clearly al-Andalus did not interest Baghdad as much as Baghdad interested al-Andalus. The geographical range of his material and the reach of his ever inquiring spirit is truly impressive.
In any case, each of my works contains information omitted in the book that preceded it, information which could not be ignored and knowledge of which is of the greatest importance and a genuine need.
Proponents of these theories use as evidence, reports of expeditions and voyages conducted by Arab navigators and adventurers who allegedly reached the Americas from the late ninth century onwards.
Arab sailors in the 10th century sailed westward from the Spanish port of Delba [Palos] into the Ocean of Darkness and Fog. The oral traditions, scholarly writings, and academic research of experts ranging from centuries ago in the ancient world, to the present are offered as an argument. On the contrary, ancient Arabic language maps, Native American tribes with African names and words clearly embedded in their languages, statues, diaries, artifacts, etc. They include not only Muslim African Americans like Clyde Ahmad Winters (who wrote a series of brilliant articles in the magazine Al-Ittihad in the late 1970s, including a€?Islam in Early North and South Americaa€?, and a€?The Influence of Mande Languages on Americaa€?,) and Shaykh Abdallah Hakim Quick (who is a widely respected and accomplished historian with a doctorate in West African studies, and author of Deeper Roots), but also scholars from the African continent - Dr. Weiner heads a list of historians and social scientists who were neither African nor African Americans (including Basil Davidson, Robert Silverburg, Cyrus Gordon (Before Columbus, 1971), Legrand H. Warren, founder of Physicians Healthy Weight Clinic in North Hampton and Dover, has been helping patients lose weight and keep it off for 10 years.A  Warren switched from family medicine to obesity medicine when she decided to treat the root cause rather than the symptoms of so many preventable diseases. It was ill-omened: for Christians, the word tenebrosum suggested evil and evoked the Prince of Darkness. Two of these, The Green Sea and The Circumambient Ocean, appear in the passage just quoted from the famous 10th century Arab historian and geographer al-Masa€™udi, whose works are full of fascinating geographical information. The Babylonians, and perhaps the Sumerians before them, envisaged the inhabited portion of the world as an upturned boat, a gufa, floating in the sea.
The Arab historian Ibn Khaldun, writing 400 years after al-Masa€™udi and almost 1900 years after Aristotle, compared the inhabited portion of the world to a grape floating in a saucer of water. Thus, a man from Cordoba named Khashkhash got together a number of young men from the same city and they set sail on the ocean in ships they had fitted out.
But the story occurs in the context of a discussion of the All-Encompassing Sea, not the coasts of northern Europe, which were relatively well-known to the Arab geographers. Medieval historians focused their attention on the ruler and his court, and to a certain extent on the a€?urban elite.a€? The doings of private citizens, particularly of the humbler classes, are only incidentally mentioned by Arab historians of the Middle Ages - or indeed, by their Christian counterparts. As both a historian and geographer al-Masa€™udi presents China in the context of the entire world known to him in his Muruj al-dhahab wa-mdadin al-jawhar [Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems]. It is an excellent work, but since the author never sailed, nor indeed traveled sufficiently to be acquainted with the kingdoms and cities, he did not know that the Indus in Sind has perfectly well-known sources.
Like Ibn Khurradadhbih, he states that China was one of the seven ancient nations that existed before Islam and claims that its people descended from Noah.
A general account of the seas based on Greek tradition ends with the Abyssinian Sea, that is, the Indian Ocean.
Muslim geographers always began their accounts with the descriptions of seas and islands, and they often updated these discussions based on new information from contemporary sailors of the Indian Ocean. This [type of ship] exists only in the Abyssinian sea [the Indian Ocean] because all of the ships of the Sea of Rum and the west [emending Arab to gharb] are nailed, while the ships of the Abyssinian sea are not fastened with iron nails, because the sea water dissolves the iron, so the nails become thin and weak in the sea. The seas did not connect to each other until the Suez Canal was constructed in the late 19th century.
He also described the geography of many lands beyond the Caliphate, as well as the customs and religious beliefs of many peoples. He perceived the significance of interstate relations and of the interaction of Muslims and Hindus in the various states of the subcontinent. He surveyed the vast areas inhabited by Turkic peoples, commenting on the extensive authority of the Khaqan previously, though no longer in al-Masa€™udia€™s time. He has some knowledge of other peoples of eastern and western Europe, even far away Britain. Thus I have reviewed every century, together with the events and deeds which have marked it, up until the present.
They returned after a long absence with fabulous treasures from a strange and curious land or unknown territory. The truth is that there is such a constantly growing, extensive body of cultural, archaeological, anthropological, and linguistic evidence of Western and Northern African Muslim pre-Columbian American (and Caribbean) presence, that those who study the evidence and continue to deny the obvious, may reveal themselves to be rooted in old, racist, European renditions of American history.
Both Idrisi and Masa€™udi wrote of Muslim African trans-Atlantic excursions to the Western world.
Sulayman Nyang, the Gambian-born Howard University Professor of African Studies , as well as Kofi Wangara, and others .
Arch Gen Psychiatry -- Early Coadministration of Clonazepam With Sertraline for Panic Disorder, July 2001, Goddard et al. Excess body fat can result in high blood pressure, heart disease, type II diabetes, osteoarthritis, depression, stroke and certain cancers.A  She struggled with her own weight after her pregnancies, trying over-the-counter supplements and popular diets. This old Sumerian word was used to describe the round-bottomed reed boats used in the marshes of southern Iraq, where they are still known by the same name. We know as much as we do about the efforts of Prince Henry the Navigator to find the sea-route to the Indies because these expeditions were sponsored by the Crown, and the same is true of the four voyages of Columbus.


Thus having been well traveled throughout both the a€?Abbasid empire and India during his lifetime, al-Masa€™udi acquired a variety of sources that he used to compile his encyclopedic historical and geographical masterpiece. In contrast, al-Masa€™udi supplies richer and more detailed description than Ibn khurradadhbih does, providing detailed geographical facts and a genealogy of the imperial family (which is unreliable, however, because it provides names that are difficult to trace in contemporary Chinese sources).
Al-Masa€™udi portrays the Indian Ocean as one mass of water comprising seven connected seas. So people [of the Abyssinian sea] used stitching with fibers instead of the nails, and [the ships are] coated with grease and lime. Yet, as we now know, Abu Zayd and al-Masa€™udia€™s suggested route is unimaginable because small dhow planks could never have floated all the way from the Sea of China to the Pacific Ocean, through the straight of the Bering Sea and into the Arctic Ocean, down Norwegian Sea near Scandinavia, and then through the Strait of Gibraltar at Spain in order to finally enter the Mediterranean Sea. He conveyed the great diversity of Turkic peoples, including the distinction between sedentary and nomadic Turks.
He knows less of West Africa, though he names such contemporary states as Zagawa, Kawkaw and Ghana. Furthermore, there is to be found at the beginning of this book a description of the seas and continents, of lands inhabited and uninhabited, of the lives of foreign kings, their histories and those of all the different peoples. It is a literary prize awarded every two years a€?for a work of excellence in literature and the humanities relating to the cultural heritage of Africa and the African diaspora.a€? Van Sertimaa€™s later compilation, African Presence in Early America, is considered a definitive work on the subject. Weight management was hardly taught when she attended Tufts University School of Medicine in the 1990s.
Documents, logs and maps were placed in royal archives and were available to the historians of the time, whereas knowledge of the mugharrirun and Khashkhash has come down to us only because of the chance interest of al-Idrisi and al-Masa€™udi.
Each of these seas has its own name and features; the seventh of these lying at the easternmost end is the Sea of China.
This proves, and God knows better, the connection of the seas, and that the sea near China and the country of Slid [Korea] goes all round the country of the Turks, and reaches the sea of the west [the Mediterranean?] through some straits of the encircling ocean. He noted their independent attitude, the absence of a strong central authority among them, and their paganism. If God gives me life, if He extends my days and grants me the favor of continuing in this world, I will follow this book with another, which will contain information and facts on all kinds of interesting subjects.
It is probable, however, that they entered sailorsa€™ lore along the Atlantic seaboard and joined the tales of other fabulous islands to the west - the Antilles, Brazil, St. This complete description of the Indian Oceana€™s seven seas supplements the missing part of the extant manuscript for the original volume of Accounts of China and India in 851.
Did shipbuilders in the Mediterranean Sea build ships without using nails, consciously or unconsciously imitating dhows? He was very well informed on Rus trade with the Byzantines and on the competence of the Rus in sailing merchant vessels and warships. A present day analogy would be the use of the phrases a€?I am going Downtowna€? or a€?I am going into the Citya€? by those who live near say New York City, Chicago or London respectively.
Without limiting myself to any particular order or method of setting them down, I will include all sorts of useful information and curious tales, just as they spring to mind.
Van Sertima appeared before a Congressional Committee to challenge the a€?Columbus mytha€?.
Although his biographer Ahmad Shboul questions the furthest extent sometimes asserted for al-Masa€™udia€™s travels, even his more conservative estimation is impressive: Al-Masa€™udia€™s travels actually occupied most of his life from at least 915 to very near the end. Lunde and Stone note that al-Masa€™udi in his Tanbih states that the revised edition of Muruj al-dhahab contained 365 chapters.
We may never know the story, but we can understand from the passage how Aba Zayd and al-Masa€™udi understood the geography of the world during their time.
This work will be called The Reunion of the Assemblies, a collection of facts and stories mixed together, to provide a sequel to my earlier writings and to complement my other works. His journeys took him to most of the Persian provinces, Armenia, Azerbaijan and other regions of the Caspian Sea; as well as to Arabia, Syria and Egypt.
A The good news is you can shed pounds while still eating delicious food - without hunger, cravings, or crankiness.A Counter-intuitive as it may sound, the key to losing and maintaining weight is continuing to cook, eat, and enjoy food. He also travelled to the Indus Valley, and other parts of India, especially the western coast; and he voyaged more than once to East Africa. A a€?I dona€™t recommend the so-called a€?sumo dietinga€™ strategy of not eating all day and then overeating at night," Warren says, pointing out that this is how the heavy-weight wrestlers actually gain pounds. Lunde and Stone in the introduction to their English translation state that al-Masa€™udi received much information on China from Abu Zaid al-Sirafi whom he met on the coast of the Persian Gulf.
A a€?Going all day without eating results in low blood sugar, which can induce cravings and a loss of self-control." A The same can happen, though, when sugary, processed foods dominate your intake throughout the day.
In Syria al-Masa€™udi met the renowned Leo of Tripoli who was a Byzantine admiral who converted to Islam. According to a study published last year in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, a diet of high-glycemic index foods made overweight test subjects feel hungrier and have more cravings than subjects ingesting low-glycemic foods. In Egypt he found a copy of a Frankish king list from Clovis to Louis IV that had been written by an Andalusian bishop.
But she also points out that certain foods can improve your sense of fullness - ones with protein, fiber, or high water content (such as melon, and salad). A a€?They trigger neurochemical changes that help us feel happy and full."A That in turn, helps when you do sit down to a beautifully prepared meal.
A a€?Many people find that eating healthfully throughout the day helps them control their appetite and portions,a€? Warren says.
A Not that you need to control the portions of low calorie-dense foods such as greens, broccoli and other vegetables. A If you know from past experience that you cana€™t stop, limit your exposure - only eat chocolate with a friend when youa€™re out, she says - so a€?you can feel happy, guilt free, and in control."A i»?CLICK HERE TO READ DR. Warren as a physician who practices what she preaches, and includes a number of real-life food recommendations. I played tennis, taught swimming, rowed crew in college.A If I ever felt I needed to lose ten pounds, I exercised more.
Thirteen years ago, I wasA skiing with my brother, who had lost a leg to cancer, and this was his firstA time out. Ia€™ll have a Greek yogurt with a teaspoon of peanut butter or a few cocoa-coated almonds mixed in. I prefer substitution to deprivation.When we have ice cream in the freezer, I wrap it in two plastic grocery bags.



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