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01.10.2013, admin  
Category: Testosterone Supplements For Men

Meet Whitney—a 42-year-old wife and a mother living on the North Shore.  Her favorite pastimes include performing in musical theater, actively participating in her child’s PTA, volunteering with various local charity organizations and mentoring her 7-year-old daughter’s busy round of school, homework and sports. Ever since she was in the second grade, Whitney remembers having a problem with excess weight.
A quick glance at your local pharmacy or grocery shelves will show the myriad of weight loss products with nothing short of miraculous claims. Throughout much of the 20th century, the answer to that question has been fraught with contention. In 1976, however, Congress passed the Proxmire Amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938, an amendment named for   Senator William Proxmire (D-Wis.) The amendment struck down the FDA’s plan to regulate daily allowances, combinations or the potency of the ingredients in supplements. However, before the act could be implemented, a large grass roots campaign supported by the supplement industry compelled Congress to pass the Dietary Supplement Act of 1992, placing a one-year moratorium on the provisions of NLEA. Spearheaded by Republican Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah and Democratic Senator Tom Harkin of Iowa, DSHEA (pronounced “duh-shay”) declared that dietary supplements were a separate category in its own right, although it fell under the larger umbrella of “food.” As a separate category, dietary supplements did not have to abide by the regulatory requirements of other foods and drugs. With no oversight on claims of efficacy and restricted oversight on safety, the supplement industry grew explosively from sales of $17 billion in 2000 to approximately $34 billion in 2015. But ever since the advent of DSHEA, the FDA’s ability to “assure the safety, efficacy, and security” of dietary supplements was mostly sidelined. At times, even banned pharmaceuticals, such as the appetite suppressant sibutramine (known to increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes) and the laxative phenolphthalein (linked to increased risk of cancer) have made their way into weight loss supplements. Despite the multiple lawsuits, MacKay defended the industry’s practices and stated that many manufacturers have responded to consumer concerns by inviting third parties—such as Underwriters Laboratories and United States Pharmacopeia—to certify product safety. But because DSHEA has placed such a high burden of proof on the FDA, enforcement of DSHEA would not prevent dangerous supplements from hitting the market. What the FDA is allowed to do, according to DSHEA, is to conduct post-market surveillance of products. Behind all of the packaging, behind the fantastical claims, what exactly are inside weight loss supplements? Many of the supplements on the pharmacy shelves contain an amalgamation of a variety of ingredients allowed under the Proxmire Amendment. Till goes on to describe how a team of researchers from the Weight Control at Diabetes Research Center at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island developed the National Weight Control Registry which evaluates the diets and habits of individuals who have successfully lost and kept off at least 30 pounds of excess weight for at least one year. It’s no surprise that the medical community has touted the benefits of diet and exercise for years.  To address the burgeoning obesity epidemic, the American Board of Obesity Medicine was founded in 2011, and there are now 1,182 certified obesity medicine specialists practicing in the United States. One of the patients Oldson counsels is Whitney, who began working with the doctor a year and a half ago.

Whitney takes great pride in never having tried a weight loss supplement and admits that she never will.
Photo at top: Over the counter weight loss supplements line the shelves at pharmacies, grocieries and many other stores.
She was a size ten by high school and her weight soared to her record of 330 pounds when she was pregnant with her daughter. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly 71 percent of adult Americans hit the scales at either overweight or obese in 2014.
A Consumer Reports survey last year found that nearly 25 percent of 3,000 Americans surveyed had tried a weight loss supplement. Although it was certainly a setback, the FDA regrouped and declared that supplements should fall under the category of “food additives.” That would have allowed the administration to employ stricter oversight over supplements, and declare certain supplements to be unsafe.
During that moratorium, Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994, which remains the law of the land to this day. Any dietary supplement that was already on the market by 1994 did not need FDA approval before marketing and did not need to be proven safe or efficacious prior to sale.
Although DSHEA calls for companies to prove that new dietary ingredients are safe for human consumption, many companies bypass the process. According to the FDA’s recall and market withdrawals webpage, four distinct weight loss products in the past year alone were found to have either phenolphthalein or sibutramine. According to DSHEA, if the FDA has a concern with a certain product, the agency has to scientifically prove in a court of law that the product is unsafe. But according to a report from the Office of the Inspector General, only 1 percent of all adverse events from supplements are actually reported to the FDA. According to Meyers, the team at the FDA that is responsible for overseeing the supplement industry consists of only 24 people and has a budget of less than $5 million annually. Most commonly, these supplements consist of green tea, caffeine from coffee beans, and a dried powdered fruit called garcinia cambogia, which multiple studies have shown has little to no anti-obesogenic effect compared to placebo. Physicians must undergo extensive training where they learn how to help patients lose weight based on scientific principles.
Lisa Oldson is an obesity medicine specialist in Evanston who provides scientifically-grounded weight loss strategies to her patients. Since starting her sessions with Oldson, Whitney said that she harbors a holistic approach to the process of weight loss—emphasizing the small everyday victories of lifestyle modification, rather than obsessing over the numbers on the weight scale.
Her weight challenges pushed her to the brink of despair—even to the point of battling with bulimia.

With excess weight rising to epidemic proportions, the ever-burgeoning weight loss industry has become a lucrative market. And the side effects from weight loss supplements are frightening—thousands come to emergency rooms complaining of chest pain, palpitations, and fast heart rate all triggered by over the counter weight loss supplements.
Manufacturers are peddling concoctions of caffeine, herbs and sometimes, in cases where there have been recalls, even banned pharmaceuticals.
Others thought they were foods, and still others thought that they were a separate category in their own right.
The FDA came close to achieving a major victory when Congress passed the Nutritional Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of 1990, which would have allowed the FDA to review and authorize the health claims made by dietary supplements. For newly discovered dietary ingredients, manufacturers have to prove the product’s safety to the FDA, but do not have to prove the product’s efficacy. Ever since 1990, Senators Hatch and Harkin have been the supplement industry’s largest beneficiaries.
By the time the FDA compiles its scientific argument, the supplement in question has already hit the market and could theoretically harm countless consumers even before the FDA had a chance to step in. Although the FDA encourages the public to report any side effects to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Event Reporting System (CAERS), a large number of adverse events simply go undetected. It is this team that has the gargantuan task to monitor a supplement industry worth an estimated $34 billion dollars in annual sales. Like so many millions of other Americans, Whitney turned to the weight loss industry to find relief.
In 2013, 29 people in Hawaii succumbed to severe acute hepatitis and fulminant liver failure after taking a supplement called Oxy-Elite Pro, sparking an investigation by the CDC that eventually led to that product’s recall. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initially argued that dietary supplements were “drugs” and therefore had to be regulated as such. Essentially, the FDA has little to no oversight over any of the health claims being made, so long as the supplement manufacturer does not claim that the product cures a disease. The administration therefore wanted to regulate the potency and the combination of the ingredients in supplements, just as they would do for other drugs.

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