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Conclusions: Combination therapy reversed the trajectory of involuntary weight loss and increased lean mass in cachectic COPD patients.
Funding Support: Supported by a grant from the Pulmonary Education and Research Foundation.
Note: Parts of the findings of this study were presented at the European Respiratory Society Annual Meeting in Amsterdam in 2011.
Recent consensus guidelines have refined the definition of cachexia, a manifestation of the end-stage of a number of chronic diseases.1 Involuntary weight loss is central to the definition. Acknowledging the limitations of therapy in a condition in which the underlying mechanisms are unclear, we reasoned that improving appetite and increasing skeletal muscle mass would be important therapeutic targets and that a combination of pharmacologic agents might hold promise.
As a second agent, we chose the anabolic steroid, testosterone, for its anabolic effects on muscle in patients with chronic disease, including those with cachexia.21-25Anabolic steroids, however, yield decline in body fat mass26 that, in itself, may be detrimental in cachectic patients, in whom loss of fat mass is often marked. We hypothesized that combined administration of testosterone and megestrol acetate would be capable of reversing the trajectory of involuntary weight loss in men and women with COPD cachexia through increase in both lean and fat mass.
We performed a prospective, single group longitudinal interventional study with outcome measures planned before, during and after 12 weeks treatment administration. This study received approval from the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute Institutional Review Board; participants provided written informed consent. Male participants received an initial dose of 125 mg of testosterone enanthate (Paddock, Laboratories, Minneapolis, Minnesota) by intramuscular injection weekly. Participants completed a 3-day food record prior to the intervention period and were counseled by a nutritionist to consume a balanced diet and to increase caloric intake.
During treatment, levels are averaged values from samples drawn just prior to the next dose (nadir level) at several visits.
Figure 1 illustrates the individual temporal changes in total body weight in 4 men and 5 women across the 12-week study period.
Figure 3 shows the results of DEXA scans performed before and at the end of participation for the 5 individuals who completed 12 weeks of testosterone + megestrol treatment. This is the first clinical study evaluating the combined effects of testosterone enanthate plus megestrol acetate in COPD cachexia.
In our study, the combination of testosterone and megestrol acetate increased both fat and lean body mass.
A few clinical trials of combined megestrol and anabolic steroid administration have been reported in other conditions, with mixed results. It should be acknowledged that increasing body mass of cachectic patients carries theoretical risks. In summary, COPD cachexia is a poor prognosis condition for which no effective therapy is available. Parts of the findings of this study were presented at the European Respiratory Society Annual Meeting, Amsterdam 2011. The COPD Foundation owns the copyright to all content in the JCOPDF, unless otherwise noted.
The COPD Foundation is a nonprofit, tax-exempt charitable organization under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. From the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. Acknowledgments: The authors thank the nursing staff of 9 West of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center for their dedicated work and the late Dr. Grahic Jump LocationFigure 3.Gonadotropin subunit and bioactive luteinizing hormone measurements in patients with cystinosis. Grahic Jump LocationFigure 1.Serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in patients with cystinosis and in control patients.
Grahic Jump LocationFigure 4.Light microscopic examination of testis specimen from patient 7. Anyone can submit a comment any time after publication, but only those submitted within 4 weeks of an article’s publication will be considered for print publication. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Background: GABA can influence the steroidogenesis in peripheral and central nervoussystems. Objectives: The present study investigates the interactive effect of GABAA receptors and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on serum testosterone level of male rats. Results: Administration of muscimol hydrobromide at both doses to sham exposed rats significantly decreased serum testosterone level as compared to sham exposed animals which received saline. Conclusions: No interactivity is present in modulatory effects of GABAA receptors and ELF-EMFs on serum testosterone of male rats. Testosterone is the major male sex hormone which is primarily synthesized by Leydig cells of the testes and plays a critical role in the function and development of male reproductive system. Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with a mean body weight of 200g were randomly assigned into 10 experimental groups (n=5 each). The magnetic field chamber used in the present study consisted of a 70A—120 cm wooden cage with 30 cm height. About forty minutes after the injection, animals were anesthetized by chloroform, and blood samples were collected by cardiocentesis. Serum Testosterone Level of Exposed and Sham Exposed Rats (Mean and SEM) With Different Treatments (Saline, Low Bicuculline, High Bicuculline, Low Muscimol Hydrobromide,and High Muscimol Hydrobromide). In the present study, the plausible interaction between GABAA receptors function and ELF-EMF on serum testosterone levels of rats has been investigated.GABA may affect testosterone level by both peripheral and central pathways. This study was financially supported by the Vice-chancellery of Research of Shiraz University.
Financial Disclosure: All the authors can confirm that there is no financial or other relationship that would cause a conflict of interest. HCG therapy is undertaken, we have no other initial marker to use in deciding whether or not this therapy will be effective.
We conducted the first clinical trial seeking to determine whether combination therapy with an appetite stimulant and an anabolic steroid would have beneficial effects on body composition for patients with COPD cachexia.
Though the interventions were apparently well tolerated, participant drop-out rate was high. Effect of megestrol acetate and testosterone on body composition and hormonal responses in COPD cachexia. In order to examine this hypothesis, we conducted a 12-week pilot study, in which we examined changes in body weight and body composition following combined administration of testosterone and megestrol acetate to patients with COPD cachexia.
Specifically, women were carefully examined for signs of virilization and men had a PSA level drawn after 6 and 12 weeks. Table 1 shows serum testosterone levels before and during the treatment with testosterone plus megestrol. This 12-week pilot study revealed that weekly injection of testosterone enanthate plus daily oral megestrol acetate administration in underweight men and women with involuntary weight loss and severe COPD yielded increased body weight. Though rational treatment for a syndrome such as cachexia should ideally be based on an understanding of the underlying mechanisms, aiming to address as wide a spectrum of the disease manifestations as possible seems a reasonable approach.
The participant group so recruited may include those whose disease is not severe and whose habitual state may be to have low body weight (or low muscle mass). This is in marked contrast with studies in which megestrol acetate was administered alone and no lean mass increase was observed.


For example, in a previous study of megestrol administration to underweight COPD patients,12 , the accrual of fat mass was accompanied by a trend for reduction in 6 minute walk distance. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of combination therapy of testosterone and megestrol acetate. Quality of life and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate: correlation between cytokine levels and nutritional status, appetite in geriatric patients with wasting syndrome. Phase II trial of megestrol in the supportive care of patients receiving dose-intensive chemotherapy. Effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on food intake, body composition, and resting energy expenditure in patients with advanced, nonhormone-sensitive cancer: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Effect of infliximab on local and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study.
Gahl, MD, PhD, Chief, Human Genetics Branch, Building 10, Room 9S-242, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.
One month after publication, editors review all posted comments and select some for publication in the Letters section of the print version of Annals.
Groups 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 were exposed to ELF-EMF for 30 days 8hrs per day; while, the remaining groups (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9) were sham exposed animals. Administration of bicuculline methiodide without exposure to ELF-EMF, had no significant effect on testosterone level as compared to group 1.
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is well known as an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system; however, it has been demonstrated that some endocrine organs such as somatotrophs of the anterior pituitary (1-3) and pancreatic islet cells (4-6) can also locally synthesize GABA and GABA receptors are present in these areas.
Groups 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 were exposed to 50 Hz, 0.5 mT ELF-EMF for 30 days 8 hrs per day while the remaining groups (1,3,5,7,9) were sham exposed animals. Three coils of electrically insulated 1mm copper wire with 200 turns each were wound around the outer surface at equal distance.The coils were connected in parallel and sealed with adhesive bandage. For multiple comparisons among different groups, one-way ANOVA method, and Tukey's multiple comparison test as the post hoc were used. Although a slight increase was observed in rats treated with high dose bicuculline, administration of this agent without exposure to ELF-EMF, had no significant effect on testosterone level as compared to group 1 (Figure 1). Adult Leydig cells possess GABA synthetic enzyme, as well as GABAA and GABAB receptors, which indicates that GABA may have a role in regulation of the functions of Leydig cells including testosterone production (8). An autocrine role for pituitary GABA: activation of GABA-B receptors and regulation of growth hormone levels. Molecular and physiological evidence for functional gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-C receptors in growth hormone-secreting cells. The influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid on hormone release by the mouse and rat endocrine pancreas.
Glucose-inhibition of glucagon secretion involves activation of GABAA-receptor chloride channels. Neurotransmitters and their receptors in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas: what messages do acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA transmit? Coexistence of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A and type B receptors in testicular interstitial cells. Evidence for a GABAergic system in rodent and human testis: local GABA production and GABA receptors. Participation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the negative feedback mechanisms of the hypothalamohypophyseotesticular complex. Circularly polarized, sinusoidal, 50 Hz magnetic field exposure does not influence plasma testosterone levels of rats.
Coincident nonlinear changes in the endocrine and immune systems due to low-frequency magnetic fields.
Effects of 60 Hz 14 microT magnetic field on the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in mice. Influence of 50 Hz magnetic field on sex hormones and other fertility parameters of adult male rats. 50Hz Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Enhance Protein Carbonyl Groups Content in Cancer Cells: Effects on Proteasomal Systems. Larger randomized placebo-controlled long-term studies with functional outcomes are needed.
Serum cortisol was monitored at weeks 4 and 8 of the intervention and participants took declining doses in the 4 weeks following the 12-week intervention to avoid the possibility of adrenal insufficiency.
Four men and 5 women entered the study protocol; 5 were Caucasian, 3 African-American and 1 Asian. This combination therapy reversed the trajectory of involuntary weight loss and increased both lean mass and fat mass in these cachectic COPD patients.
To date, however, most clinical trials have investigated only a single therapeutic measure.
We were unable to perform an a priori sample size estimate; no estimates of the variability of response in the outcomes studied are available for this participant population (it is hoped that the responses observed in this pilot study will help inform sample size estimates of future studies). Twelve weeks of treatment reversed the trajectory of weight loss and induced significant gains in both lean and fat mass. Anorexia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--association to cachexia and hormonal derangement. Prevalence and characteristics of nutritional depletion in patients with stable COPD eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation.
Prevalence of nutritional depletion in a large out-patient population of patients with COPD. Nutritional support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical review 138: Anabolic-androgenic steroid therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases. Effects of testosterone and resistance training in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Treatment with megestrol acetate and testosterone increases body weight and muscle mass in COPD cachexia.
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting and mechanisms of cachexia associated with inflammation. Ghrelin treatment of cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Changes in body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: do they influence patient-related outcomes? Consensus definition of sarcopenia, cachexia and pre-cachexia: joint document elaborated by Special Interest Groups (SIG) "cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases" and "nutrition in geriatrics". Older men are as responsive as young men to the anabolic effects of graded doses of testosterone on the skeletal muscle.
Testosterone supplementation of megestrol therapy does not enhance lean tissue accrual in men with human immunodeficiency virus-associated weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.
Deep vein thrombosis as a complication of megestrol acetate therapy among nursing home residents. Respiratory function tests; normal values at median altitudes and the prediction of normal results. Kuwabara of the National Eye Institute for performing the light microscopic examinations of the testis.


No patient with cystinosis reached Tanner stage 5 (full pubertal development), whereas 9 of 11 control patients did. Bioactive and immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in three patients with cystinosis who had normal LH levels and in seven patients with elevated LH levels ( ).
Bivariate plot of the serum testosterone level against the follicle-stimulating hormone level.
Serum testosterone levels of rats in different groups, exposed to ELF-EMF were statistically the same.
Of these 9 participants, 2 men and 2 women were hospitalized for COPD exacerbation or pneumonia during the 12-week study and therefore, did not complete all post-intervention measures; one of these participants died 7 days after hospital admission. Free testosterone increases paralleled increases in testosterone levels in both men and women. No apparent adverse effects of therapy were observed though a high dropout rate due to COPD exacerbation was observed. The increase in nadir testosterone levels in the male participants, however, did not achieve statistical significance, perhaps because of the competing effects of megestrol. Lack of a control group is especially of concern because we cannot be sure that the high rate of COPD exacerbations experienced by study participants was not somehow related to the treatment regimen.
Although no treatment-related adverse reactions were evident, drop-out rate due to COPD exacerbation was high in this ill patient group. Seven of 10 patients with cystinosis had elevations in LH or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, suggesting testicular failure. Moreover, serum testosterone of exposed and sham exposed rats in each treatment showed no significant difference.
Participants needed to be capable of attending weekly visits to the research center and could not have had an exacerbation within 4 weeks prior to screening.
One participant elected to exit the study at 10 weeks and 1 at 11 weeks; both completed post-intervention measures. As expected, exogenous testosterone administration inhibited both luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone secretion in both men and women. This active weight loss documentation in underweight COPD patients is more consistent with recent definitions of cachexia. It is true, however, that nadir levels underestimate the average testosterone level during a given dosing interval; male participants likely experienced appreciably increased testosterone levels over the course of the treatment period. Further, the length of follow up is not sufficient to ensure that the salutary effects we observed will persist.
Larger long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled trials with evaluation of functional outcomes and metabolic biomarkers seem warranted. These patients also had normal LH and FSH responses after GnRH stimulation, increased LH pulse frequency, and reduced testosterone response after HCG stimulation. About forty minutes after the injection, blood samples were collected and serum testosterone level was assayed using RIA.
A local GABAergic system has been recognized in adult Leydig cells in rodent and human testes (8). All these treatments were performed by IP injections and the volume of injection was kept equal for rats with same weights.
The field was homogenous in a zone with 21 cm distance from the transverse borders and 9 cm from the longitudinal borders.
Serum testosterone level of rats in group 2 (exposed to ELF-EMF and treated with saline) was only slightly lower than sham exposed animals which received saline (group 1). Consistent with these findings, we observed that intraperitoneal administration of muscimol hydrobromide as a GABAA receptor agonist significantly reduced testosterone level. Insulin-like growth factor-1, the predominant mediator of growth hormone’s action on muscle, did not change significantly. We view the high proportion of individuals who experienced an exacerbation during the 12-week study period as evidence of their poor prognosis cachectic condition.
On the other hand, testosterone when administered alone has a lipolytic effect, reducing fat mass.46 This was likely abrogated by the concomitant administration of megestrol acetate. Importantly, we were unable to evaluate more long-term, patient-centered outcomes, such as quality of life, exacerbation frequency and mortality. In comparison, only 3 of 11 control patients had minimally elevated gonadotropin levels, and all 11 had normal testosterone levels. Bicuculline methiodidedid not appreciably affect testosterone level in our study, although a slight increase was observed when high dose of bicuculline was administered (23).
Future studies might evaluate the effect of this combined intervention on other biomarkers and clinical outcomes such as inflammatory and metabolic markers, muscle structure and biochemistry, respiratory function, exercise tolerance and muscle strength.
Finally, though we did not observe untoward effects of this treatment regimen, long-term safety studies would be required before recommending this strategy as a routine treatment option.
These changes appear to be related to the disease cystinosis and not to treated renal failure per se. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are present wherever electric power is used. All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the institutional guidelines of School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University for using laboratory animals in scientific experiments. In the present study, exposure of animals to 50 Hz, 0.5 mT ELF-EMF for 30 days had no appreciable effect on testosterone level as compared to sham exposed animals, although a slight decrease was observed. In fact, long-term treatment with both testosterone therapy50 and megestrol acetate therapy51 has been reported to be associated with risk of adverse effects. The possible health effects of ELF-EMFs on reproduction have been extensively studied; however, the results are often inconsistent and contradictory (11-14).
Interactive effects of ELF-EMFs and GABAA receptors for modulating the testosterone producing function of testicular Leydig cells have not been clarified yet.
At the end of 1 week no significant change was observed in testosterone level;however, this parameter was decreased significantly at the end of the second week as compared to sham exposed rats.
Interestingly a remarkable increase was observed in testosterone level at the end of 4th week as compared to the second week of exposure, although it was still significantly lower than the control group.
The exact mechanism by which ELF-EMFs may affect serum testosterone level has not been clarified yet (18). Some authors have reported a significant increase in serum LH level accompanied by a decrease in testosterone level of rats exposed to ELF-EMFs (17, 18). This indicates that the effect of these ELF-EMFs on testosterone level is more suspected to be peripherally rather than central inhibition of hypophyseal hormones release.We observed no interactive effects in drug A— ELF-EMF, dose A— ELF-EMF or drug A— dose A— ELF-EMF in rats treated with agents acting on GABAA receptors and exposed to ELF-EMF. This supports the speculation that both peripheral and central GABAA receptors do not modulate the effect of ELF-EMF on testosterone level. In conclusion, no interactivity is present in modulatory effects of GABAA receptors and ELF-EMFs on serum testosterone of male rats.



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