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Hormone A chemical messenger produced by a particular gland or cells of the endocrine system.
A general name for the processes which scientists use to produce desired characteristics or substances that are in short supply, such as human growth hormone. Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. Growth hormone is used as a prescription drug in medicine to treat children's growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. In its role as an anabolic agent, HGH has been abused by competitors in sports since the 1970s, and it has been banned by the IOC and NCAA. GH has been studied for use in raising livestock more efficiently in industrial agriculture and several efforts have been made to obtain governmental approval to use GH in livestock production. Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin) and growth hormone 2, are localized in the q22-24 region of chromosome 17 and are closely related to human chorionic somatomammotropin (also known as placental lactogen) genes.
The major isoform of the human growth hormone is a protein of 191 amino acids and a molecular weight of 22,124 daltons.
Secretion of growth hormone (GH) in the pituitary is regulated by the neurosecretory nuclei of the hypothalamus. Somatotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland then synthesize and secrete GH in a pulsatile manner, in response to these stimuli by the hypothalamus.
A number of factors are known to affect GH secretion, such as age, gender, diet, exercise, stress, and other hormones. In addition to control by endogenous and stimulus processes, a number of foreign compounds (xenobiotics such as drugs and endocrine disruptors) are known to influence GH secretion and function.
Effects of growth hormone on the tissues of the body can generally be described as anabolic (building up).
The most common disease of GH excess is a pituitary tumor composed of somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary. Adults with GHD "tend to have a relative increase in fat mass and a relative decrease in muscle mass and, in many instances, decreased energy and quality of life". Diagnosis of GH deficiency involves a multiple-step diagnostic process, usually culminating in GH stimulation tests to see if the patient's pituitary gland will release a pulse of GH when provoked by various stimuli. See sections above for problems caused when the body produces too much GH or too little GH. Treatment with exogenous GH is indicated only in limited circumstances, and needs regular monitoring due to the frequency and severity of side-effects. GH can be used to treat conditions that produce short stature but are not related to deficiencies in GH. One version of rHGH has also been FDA approved for maintaining muscle mass in wasting due to AIDS. The following discussion describes experimental uses of GH, that are legal when the GH is prescribed by a doctor. In recent years in the United States, some doctors have started to prescribe growth hormone in GH-deficient older patients (but not on healthy people) to increase vitality.
Claims for GH as an anti-aging treatment date back to 1990 when the New England Journal of Medicine published a study wherein GH was used to treat 12 men over 60. A Stanford University School of Medicine meta-analysis of clinical studies on the subject published in early 2007 showed that the application of GH on healthy elderly patients increased muscle by about 2 kg and decreased body fat by the same amount. GH has also been used experimentally to treat multiple sclerosis, to enhance weight loss in obesity, as well as in fibromyalgia, heart failure, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and burns. One survey of adults that had been treated with replacement cadaver GH (which has not been used anywhere in the world since 1985) during childhood showed a mildly increased incidence of colon cancer and prostate cancer, but linkage with the GH treatment was not established. Athletes in many sports have used human growth hormone in order to attempt to enhance their athletic performance.
In the United States, it is legal to give a bovine GH to dairy cows to increase milk production, but it is not legal to use GH in raising cows for beef; see articles on Bovine somatotropin, cattle feeding, dairy farming and the beef hormone controversy.
Several companies have attempted to have a version of GH for use in pigs (porcine somatotropin) approved by the FDA but all applications have been withdrawn. The identification, purification and later synthesis of growth hormone is associated with Choh Hao Li.
Prior to its production by recombinant DNA technology, growth hormone used to treat deficiencies was extracted from the pituitary glands of cadavers. In 1985, unusual cases of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease were found in individuals that had received cadaver-derived HGH ten to fifteen years previously.
In 1985, biosynthetic human growth hormone replaced pituitary-derived human growth hormone for therapeutic use in the U.S. As of 2005, recombinant growth hormones available in the United States (and their manufacturers) included Nutropin (Genentech), Humatrope (Lilly), Genotropin (Pfizer), Norditropin (Novo), and Saizen (Merck Serono).


To capitalize on the idea that GH might be useful to combat aging, companies selling dietary supplements have websites selling products linked to GH in the advertising text, with medical-sounding names described as "HGH Releasers". The First Step: If you are interested in starting a program, contact us for a free consultation.
All of our Board Certified Medical Physicians and Doctors are knowledgeable specialists in prescribing HGH, Testosterone, Sermorelin, and HCG Weight Loss Diet. Nordatropin Pen System is activated with first usage and can be used for three weeks without any refrigeration, Pen will last 4 weeks with refrigeration after which potency might begin to degrade. Omnitrope Comes with multi-dosage vials which you mix with Bacteriostatic water to activate. Tev Tropin comes with multi-dosage vials which you mix with bacteriostatic water to activate. Hormones are transported throughout the body in the blood stream but they produce a response only in specific target cells.
Genes are taken from human cells and can be put into bacteria, which reproduce very quickly, and so can produce large quantities of a desired substance.Giantism Over-growth of the long bones caused by too much growth hormone being produced in childhood. In the United States, it is only available legally from pharmacies, by prescription from a doctor.
Traditional urine analysis could not detect doping with HGH, so the ban was unenforceable until the early 2000s when blood tests that could distinguish between natural and artificial HGH were starting to be developed.
GH, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin belong to a group of homologous hormones with growth-promoting and lactogenic activity.
The structure includes four helices necessary for functional interaction with the GH receptor.
In particular, a variant of approximately 20 kDa originated by an alternative splicing is present in a rather constant 1:9 ratio, while recently an additional variant of ~ 23-24 kDa has also been reported in post-exercise states at higher proportions. These cells release the peptides Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH or somatostatin) into the hypophyseal portal venous blood surrounding the pituitary.
Like most other protein hormones, GH acts by interacting with a specific receptor on the surface of cells.
These somatotroph adenomas are benign and grow slowly, gradually producing more and more GH. It is extremely rare for such a tumor to occur in childhood, but, when it does, the excessive GH can cause excessive growth, traditionally referred to as pituitary gigantism. In some circumstances, focused radiation or a GH antagonist such as pegvisomant may be employed to shrink the tumor or block function. In children, growth failure and short stature are the major manifestations of GH deficiency, with common causes including genetic conditions and congenital malformations.
GH is used as replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency of either childhood-onset (after completing growth phase) or adult-onset (usually as a result of an acquired pituitary tumor). However, results are not as dramatic when compared to short stature that is solely attributable to deficiency of GH. However, the efficacy and safety of use of GH as anti-aging agent are unknown as this use has not been tested in a double-blinded clinical trial.
While legal, the efficacy and safety of this use for HGH has not been tested in a clinical trial.
At the conclusion of the study, all the men showed statistically significant increases in lean body mass and bone mineral density, while the control group did not.
GH has also been used experimentally in patients with short bowel syndrome to lessen the requirement for intravenous total parenteral nutrition.
This means that the drug has acceptable safety in light of its benefits when used in the approved way. Some recent studies have not been able to support claims that human growth hormone can improve the athletic performance of professional male athletes. Genentech pioneered the first use of recombinant human growth hormone for human therapy in 1981. Based on the assumption that infectious prions causing the disease were transferred along with the cadaver-derived HGH, cadaver-derived HGH was removed from the market. Be sure to enter the four digit security code below before sending us your contact information. Our HRT Doctors have a minimum of 20 years expertise providing legitimate prescription programs for hormone optimization and hormone replacement therapy. The naked truth about Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy is a comprehensive book about Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) by Suzanne Somers.
Gene A short piece of DNA which is responsible for the inheritance of a particular characteristic. Growth hormone is a 191-amino acid, single-chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored, and secreted by somatotropic cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. Blood tests conducted by WADA at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, Greece targeted primarily HGH.


In the United States, the only FDA-approved use of GH for livestock is the use of a cow-specific form of GH called bovine somatotropin for increasing milk production in dairy cows. It appears that, in structure, GH is evolutionarily homologous to prolactin and chorionic somatomammotropin. This variant has not been identified, but it has been suggested to coincide with a 22 kDa glycosilated variant of 23 kDa identified in the pituitary gland. In these patients, benefits have variably included reduced fat mass, increased lean mass, increased bone density, improved lipid profile, reduced cardiovascular risk factors, and improved psychosocial well-being. Examples of other causes of shortness often treated with GH are Turner syndrome, chronic renal failure, Pradera€“Willi syndrome, intrauterine growth retardation, and severe idiopathic short stature. At this time, hGH is still considered a very complex hormone, and many of its functions are still unknown. The authors of the study noted that these improvements were the opposite of the changes that would normally occur over a 10- to 20-year aging period.
No other critical factors were affected, such as bone density, cholesterol levels, lipid measurements, maximal oxygen consumption, or any other factor that would indicate increased fitness. Many athletic societies ban the use of GH and will issue sanctions against athletes who are caught using it. Limited supplies of HGH resulted in the restriction of HGH therapy to the treatment of idiopathic short stature.
In the United States, because these products are marketed as dietary supplements it is illegal for them to contain GH, which is a drug.
The posterior lobe secretes several different hormones whereas the anterior lobe just stores and releases one particular hormone. Somatotropin (STH) refers to the growth hormone 1 produced naturally in animals, whereas the term somatropin refers to growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology, and is abbreviated "HGH" in humans. Retailers are permitted to label containers of milk as produced with or without bovine somatotropin. Despite marked structural similarities between growth hormone from different species, only human and Old World monkey growth hormones have significant effects on the human growth hormone receptor. Furthermore, these variants circulate partially bound to a protein (growth hormone-binding protein, GHBP), which is the truncated part of the growth hormone receptor, and an acid-labile subunit (ALS). Eventually, the adenoma may become large enough to cause headaches, impair vision by pressure on the optic nerves, or cause deficiency of other pituitary hormones by displacement. In adults, deficiency is rare, with the most common cause a pituitary adenoma, and others including a continuation of a childhood problem, other structural lesions or trauma, and very rarely idiopathic GHD. Higher ("pharmacologic") doses are required to produce significant acceleration of growth in these conditions, producing blood levels well above normal ("physiologic"). Despite the fact the authors at no time claimed that GH had reversed the aging process itself, their results were misinterpreted as indicating that GH is an effective anti-aging agent.
Researchers also did not discover any gain in muscle strength, which led them to believe that GH merely let the body store more water in the muscles rather than increase muscle growth. Very limited clinical studies of growth hormone derived from an old world monkey, the Rhesus macaque, were conducted by John C. Also, under United States law, products sold as dietary supplements cannot have claims that the supplement treats or prevents any disease or condition, and the advertising material must contain a statement that the health claims are not approved by the FDA.
Liver A large organ in the upper abdomen which manufactures, stores and breaks down substance as required by the body. At this time, HGH is still considered a very complex hormone, and many of its functions are still unknown. Despite the higher doses, side-effects during treatment are rare, and vary little according to the condition being treated. This has led to organizations such as the controversial American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine promoting the use of this hormone as an "anti-aging agent". More rarely, patients can experience joint swelling, joint pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and an increased risk of diabetes. The amino acids present and the order in which they occur vary from one protein to another.Carbohydrate Energy producing organic compounds which are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Examples of food containing carbohydrate are rice, pasta, bread and potatoes Dwarfism A lack of growth hormone in childhood results in a failure of the long bones to grow and in an adult of short stature. There was a significant increase in urinary excretion of aldosterone during both periods of administration of growth hormone. Impairment of the glucose tolerance curve was evident after 10 days of administration of the human growth hormone.



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