Mode of action of pituitary growth hormone on target cells worksheet,diet pills that really work videos,are pre workout energy drinks bad for you uk - Tips For You

19.12.2015, admin  
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The secretions of endocrine glands are called hormones.Animals have two kinds of glands that are exocrine glands and endocrine glands.
Hormones are produced in a meager amount and as a result the blood contains trace amounts of hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers which are produced and secreted into the blood stream by the endocrine cells.
Hormones show high degree of target specificity and certain tissues respond unusually to a particular hormone, but the same hormone is unable to evoke any response in other tissues.
Hormones are not species specific as it is extracted from animals are to be effective in man. Hormones do not belong to any special group of chemical and they belong to three groups, that is, amines, steroids and proteins.
Steroids: Steroid Hormones are made up of lipids and are secreted by glands derived from coelomic mesothelium.
The endocrine system is made up of ductless glands called endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones into the bloodstream or in the extracellular fluid.
A hormone is a chemical substance made and secreted by one cell that travels through the circulatory system or the extracellular fluid to affect the activities of cells in another part of the body or another nearby cell.
The nervous system modifies the stimulation of endocrine glands and their negative feedback mechanisms. These hormones consist of chains of amino acids that vary in size from 3 amino acids (TRH) to 191 amino acids (GH). Thyroid hormones that go to the mitochondria increase the rate of ATP production in the cell. Ex: Preganglionic sympathetic nervous system (SNS) fibers stimulate the adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamines. This hormone signals the collecting ducts of the kidneys to reabsorb more water and constrict blood vessels, which leads to higher blood pressure and thus counters the blood pressure drop caused by dehydration. Stimulates the myoepithelial cells of the breasts to contract which releases milk from breasts when nursing.


The releasing and inhibiting hormones made by the hypothalamus reach the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland DIRECTLY by a special set of blood vessels called the hypophyseal portal system. The hypothalamus makes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin in the cell bodies of neurons and then the hormones are transported down the axons which extend into the posterior pituitary gland. Click here for an animation on the relationship of the hypothalamus to the anterior and posterior pituitary glands and on the relationship of the hormones made in the hypothalamus (ADH, oxytocin, releasing hormones, and inhibiting hormones) to the anterior and posterior pituitary glands.
Neurohypophysis – posterior lobe (neural tissue) receives, stores, and releases hormones (oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone) made in the hypothalamus and transported to the posterior pituitary via axons.
IGF-I stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), resulting in bone growth. Travels to the adrenal gland (target cells) where it stimulates the release of corticosteroids (such as cortisol) in the adrenal cortex. Click here for an animation that will help you to understand how GnRH, FSH, and LH are involved in the female reproductive cycle.
Travels to the mammary glands (target cells) and stimulates the development of mammary glands to produce milk. Click here for an animation that describes how the hypothalamus releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) which then acts on other organs to have its effects. In males it stimulates muscle contractions in the prostate gland to release semen during sexual activity.
Click here for an animation that provides an example of positive and negative feedback control of the reproductive hormones. Calcitonin decreases the concentration of calcium in the blood where most of it is stored in the bones; it stimulates osteoblast activity and inhibits osteoclast activity, resulting in new bone matrix formation. Click here for an animation that describes the structure of the thyroid gland, how thyroid hormones are made, the functions of calcitonin and thyroid hormones, and the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism.
Click here for an animation that describes the structure of the parathyroid glands, the function of parathyroid hormones, and the effects of hypo- and hyperparathyroidism. Norepinpehrine is similar to epinephrine, but it is less effective in the conversion of glycogen to glucose.


Up-regulation (receptors) occurs with insulin after 4 weeks of exercise to increase its sensitivity (diabetic importance).
Reduced plasma volume leads to release of aldosterone which increases Na+ and H2O reabsorption by the kidneys and renal tubes. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) is released from the posterior pituitary when dehydration is sensed by osmoreceptors, and water is then reabsorbed by the kidneys. Example : Hormones secreted by parathyroid, islets of Langerhans, alimentary canal, adenohypophysis or anterior lobe of pituitary, etc,. The hormone binds to a G protein-linked receptor on the cell membrane; t he hormone acts as a first messenger. The binding of the hormone to the G protein-linked receptor activates a second messenger such as cAMP. Steroid hormones and thyroid hormones pass directly through the cell membrane of target cells. If they bind to receptors in the cytoplasm, the hormone-receptor complex then enters the nucleus.
Endocrine glands have no ducts to carry its secretions and it is also called dectless glands.A  Hormones diffuse into the blood and it is carried by the blood stream to different parts of the body. If the human taste buds have such sensitivity to sugar, it would be able to detect a pinch of sugar dissolved in a large amount of water. It acts very specifically one certain part and such organs or parts are called as Target organs. The interaction of receptor molecules and hormone makes a physiological activity in the target cell. Though various hormones come into contact with the cells, only the cells that contain receptor molecules specific for the hormone are affected by the hormone.



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