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16.07.2014, admin  
Category: Muscle Magazine

DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) is most known for being a pro-hormone which in the body gets converted to testosterone and estrogen. DHEA is produced mainly by the adrenal cortex, and is rapidly sulfated by sulfotransferases into DHEA-S. DHEA levels decrease approximately 80% between ages 25 and 75 year.[2, 3] This large decline in DHEA spurred research interest in the possibility that aging related DHEA deficiency may play a role in the deterioration of physiological and metabolic functions with aging, and in the development of chronic diseases.
As pro-inflammatory cytokines are known to induce IGF-1 resistance [29], by reducing their production DHEA indirectly may improve the responsiveness to IGF-1.
Lowering of cortisol levels with DHEA supplementation can indirectly provide additional benefits. Several studies have demonstrated that DHEA inhibits the activity of 11beta-HSD1 in fat cells from both rodents and humans [90-92], and thereby it counteracts cortisol’s fat storing effect [73, 74].
While many of the effects of DHEA are mediated via conversion to testosterone and estrogen and activation of the androgen and estrogen receptors, the studies outlined here clearly show that DHEA(S) is biologically active in its own right. DHEA itself acts through specific cell surface receptors to increase eNOS activity and NO production, and contributes to intracellular signaling through activation of several intracellular messengers. Monica Mollica holds a Master Degree in Nutrition from the University of Stockholm and Karolinska Institue, Sweden. She has also done PhD level course work at renowned Baylor University, TX. Many women use red clover hoping that its natural plant estrogens will ease their menopause symptoms.
Despite early concern, recent studies have not shown an increase in uterine cancer when women took red clover for 3 months. Pills and creams made from certain species of wild yam are popular alternatives to hormone therapy for menopause. A few studies have found evidence that the different types of ginseng might help improve quality of life during menopause.
Dong quai has been used in Chinese medicine as treatment for women's health for thousands of years. Soy foods (such as soy nuts and tofu) and phytoestrogen supplements -- estrogen-like compounds found in some plants -- are sometimes used to relieve mild hot flashes. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, “Herbs at a Glance: Black Cohosh,” “St.
It is a long held view that DHEA exerts all its effects via conversion to testosterone and estrogen.
DHEA and its sulfated form DHEA-S is the most abundant steroid (pro)hormone circulating in the blood stream.[1] The sulfated from of DHEA has a longer half-life in the blood and its levels remain stable throughout the day, are not altered significantly by the menstrual cycle.
Cortisol breaks down muscle tissue [58, 59], and suppresses testicular testosterone synthesis via multiple mechanisms.

DHEA also suppresses many of the detrimental effects of cortisol in muscle and fat tissue, and increases IGF-1 sensitivity and IGF-1 levels. Its Metabolism and a Tentative Generalization on the Metabolism of Other Steroid Conjugates in Man.
If you need supplements to fill the gap, take smaller doses with food during the day (no more than 500 mg at a time). Some of the natural compounds in these yams appear similar to estrogen and progesterone, but it's possible they are not active in people.
Some small studies have found that DHEA supplements ease menopause symptoms such as low libido and hot flashes.
When getting a blood test for DHEA, the fraction that is routinely measured is therefore DHEA-S. Notably, cortisol exerts a direct inhibitory action on testosterone producing Leydig cells in the testicles [60]. Thus, it is time to re-evaluate the physiological role of DHEA and appreciate its multifaceted health promoting and potential fat loss actions.
Dillon, Dehydroepiandrosterone activates endothelial cell nitric-oxide synthase by a specific plasma membrane receptor coupled to Galpha(i2,3). Dillon, Dehydroepiandrosterone stimulates nitric oxide release in vascular endothelial cells: evidence for a cell surface receptor. Rotondo, 7beta-hydroxy-epiandrosterone modulation of 15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2, prostaglandin D2 and prostaglandin E2 production from human mononuclear cells. Theorell, The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A in refugees with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Kohrt, Effects of DHEA replacement on bone mineral density and body composition in elderly women and men. Childs, Dehydroepiandrosterone restoration of growth hormone gene expression in aging female rats, in vivo and in vitro: evidence for actions via estrogen receptors. McAllister-Williams, Effects of DHEA administration on episodic memory, cortisol and mood in healthy young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seckl, Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 as a promising therapeutic target.
Walker, Glucocorticoids and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Ronconi, Visceral adipose tissue: emerging role of gluco- and mineralocorticoid hormones in the setting of cardiometabolic alterations. The lymphoid tissue microenvironment exerts regulatory influences over T helper cell function.

Kraeling, Role of leptin in modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and luteinizing hormone secretion in the prepuberal gilt.
Flier, Tissue-specific glucocorticoid reactivating enzyme, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-HSD1)–a promising drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Holloszy, Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial. 25mg for a women for actual HRT is on the high end, but unlikely to do you ant harm either. Several studies have found it helps -- especially with hot flashes -- when compared to placebo (a fake treatment). But so far, studies haven't found that either American or Korean ginseng helps with physical symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes.
One study of dong quai to determine its effects on hot flashes during  menopause found no benefits. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Cortisol also induces leptin resistance [53, 61] and thus may diminish leptin’s stimulatory effects on gonadotropin secretion of LH and FSH [62-64] and consequently diminish the secretion of sex hormones from testicles (testosterone) and the ovary (estrogen). Because dong quai may have some risks, including cancer when taken long-term, check with a doctor before using it. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Thus, by lowering cortisol levels, DHEA indirectly might confer several additional beneficial effects. There is some concern that long-term use or high doses of DHEA may raise the risk of breast cancer. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. So far, though, the research results have been mixed. Despite early concern, recent studies have not shown an increase in uterine cancer when women took red clover for 3 months.

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