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According to the Organic Consumers Association (OCA), a non-profit grassroots organization campaigning for health, and the exploration of crucial issues of food safety, industrial agriculture, and genetic engineering, Kraft has admitted to using milk from rBST and rBGH (recombinant bovine growth hormones) supplemented cow herds. These genetically modified bovine growth hormones were developed by Monsanto and are now marketed by Eli Lilly. Bovine somatotropin or BST, and bovine growth hormone, or BGH, are hormones that naturally occur in cattle. All 27 countries of the European Union, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia have banned artificial growth hormone’s use in milk for human consumption. Taylor crafted the FDA’s GMO friendly policy while serving as the FDA’s Deputy commissioner. Monsanto initiated propaganda campaigns in 14 states to restrict dairies from labeling their products rBGH-free. As far back as 1996, the Cancer Prevention Coalition released a study that concluded milk from cows injected with recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH) increases risks of breast and colon cancers in humans.
According to Sustainable Table, a nonprofit organization designed to help consumers understand the problems with our food supply, before Monsanto’s artificial growth hormone was released, the FDA relied solely on a study done by Monsanto in which rBGH was tested for 90 days on 30 rats. Addressing the Spiritual Dysfunction in the Liberty Movement 0 New Truth Doc Christ Alone Movie (FULL DOC) 0 Bill Gates Reproducing Nazi Biological Warfare Experiments 0 Soros Wants Judge To Seal Secrets Revealed By Ex-Girlfriend 0 Utah – Achilles’ Heel of the Surveillance State 0 Video: Baby’s Got a Gun 0 Feds want to track your DNA like a license plate 0 Meet George P. Just over a quarter of strength athletes who use anabolic steroids also use growth hormone, write psychiatrists at Harvard Medical School in the American Journal on Addictions. The American psychiatrists wanted to gather more precise data, so they took their research sample from bodybuilders, power lifters and athletes from other circles where steroids use is common. So about eighty percent of GH users are addicted to steroids, according to the American psychiatrists.
Growth hormone is probably effective, the researchers discovered: the growth hormone users had more lean body mass than those who used steroids only. In a study of performance-enhancing substance use among 231 experienced young male weightlifters, we found that 27 (12%) reported illicit use of human growth hormone (HGH) or its bioactive derivative, insulin-like growth factor-1.
Confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence supporting a second order factor solution for four subscales and a total IPAQ score. The total IPAQ score is a useful measure for evaluating ease of use and preference for injection pens in clinical trials among patient dyads receiving hGH.
IntroductionHuman growth hormone (hGH) is produced and excreted by the anterior pituitary gland to help fuel growth during childhood and to maintain tissues and organs throughout life[1].
Study methodsInstrument developmentThe IPAQ was developed through a scientifically rigorous, systematic process[11]. Psychometric evaluation studyOne-hundred-thirty six parenta€“child dyads were recruited from 20 study sites across the United States into a Phase 3 trial to evaluate a new GenotropinA® disposable injection pen (a€?new disposable pena€?). ResultsDyad characteristicsA total of 136 dyads were included in the psychometric analysis. 3Percentage based on the number of dyads who changed the dose (Na€‰=a€‰107) or used the needle guard (Na€‰=a€‰111). 3Percentage based on the number of dyads who changed the dose (Na€‰=a€‰26) or used the needle guard (Na€‰=a€‰107).
Factor analysis and scoring algorithmCFA was conducted to substantiate a second order model, based on the conceptual framework for the IPAQ.
Using recombinant (a cell or organism in which genetic recombination has occurred) DNA technology, the hormones have been synthesized to create artificial growth hormones rBST and rBGH.
Monsanto first developed the technology and marketed it as “Posilac”, which is now owned by Elanco Animal Health, a division of Eli Lilly. It was Taylor who wrote the FDA’s guidelines on recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH), banning dairies from labeling their milk “rBGH Free“, despite opposition from scientists, farmers and consumers.
The study was never published, and the FDA claimed the results showed no significant problems. Interestingly, the psychiatrists believe that growth hormone users are more often addicted to steroids or drugs than steroids users who don’t use growth hormone.
The psychiatrists are convinced that steroids are addictive, and even managed to get an entry to this effect added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders a few years ago. Many psychiatrists, and especially psychiatrists who work with real addicts, think it’s rubbish. All of these 27 men also reported use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and 22 (81%) met criteria for current or past AAS dependence. The IPAQ was subsequently tested in 136 parenta€“child dyads in a Phase 3, 2-month, open-label, multicenter trial for a new GenotropinA® disposable pen. These factor analysis results support the conceptual framework developed from previous qualitative research in patient dyads using the reusable pen. The psychometric properties of the individual subscales, mainly the lower internal consistency reliability of some of the subscales and the predictive validity findings, do not support the use of subscale scores alone as a primary endpoint. In recent decades, recombinant hGH has been used to treat short stature or growth failure in children, including the following: 1) growth hormone deficiency, 2) born small for gestational age, 3) Prader-Willi syndrome, 4) Turner syndrome, 5) chronic renal insufficiency, and 6) idiopathic short stature. First, four focus groups with parenta€“child dyads were conducted to identify key issues and concerns about use of injection pens to administer hGH, as well as to learn the language that dyads use to describe the attributes of injection pens. The trial was an open-label, non-comparative, single-arm, multi-center study with a duration of treatment of 2a€‰months. This included one dyad that completed the assessments for Visit 3 outside of the specified time window. Items 2a€‰g (a€?changing the dose when the doctor changes the prescriptiona€? and 2a€‰h (a€?using the needle guarda€?) followed a skip pattern, where subjects who did not have a dose change or did not use the needle guard skipped these items. This model, based on qualitative data from the development of the IPAQ, shows individual items (injection pen attributes) fitting into 4 subscales (preparing the pen, setting the dose, injecting the medicine and maintaining the pen) and the 4 subscales fit under a total ease of use domain. Both are a genetically engineered variations on the naturally occurring hormones in cattle.
These days anyone with a pulse can get access to anabolic steroids and tons of people are using them. In 2006 British researchers estimated that of all steroids users in local fitness centres about a quarter were using growth hormone, and that use of the substance was on the increase. The table also shows that the chance of becoming addicted to substances – steroids but also recreational drugs – was a factor 5.6 higher among growth hormone users than among natural athletes. Factor analysis was performed to inform the development of a scoring algorithm, and reliability and validity of the IPAQ were evaluated using the data from this two months study.

However, the IPAQ subscales did not consistently meet acceptable internal consistency reliability for some group level comparisons. Most children receive injections daily and treatment usually is carried out over several years, until the child achieves an acceptable adult height or maximum growth[2].In order to achieve optimal therapeutic results, adherence to long-term, continuous hGH administration is essential[3]. All subjects, based on the child member of the dyad, met the following inclusion criteria: 1) age a‰?8a€‰years and a‰¤18a€‰years, 2) currently on treatment with GenotropinA® Pen a‰?3a€‰months, 3) compliant with current GenotropinA® Pen treatment, 4) able to understand English, and 5) have a negative urine pregnancy test at screening, if of childbearing potential.
Findings from the CFA suggest that Item 2a€‰k (a€?Handing the injection pen while preparing and injecting the medicinea€?) belongs in the subscale for injecting the medicine, rather than the subscale for maintaining the injection pen, as in the conceptual model based on dyad interviews. Cronbacha€™s alphas for the total IPAQ score for both pens were 0.85, exceeding acceptable levels of reliability for group comparisons.
Ease of use is recognized by parents, physicians and nurses as a key feature in device acceptance[3] with potential to improve adherence. Following this, one-on-one cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with eight parenta€“child dyads with previous experience using a pre-specified injection pen to ensure that items in the working draft questionnaire were easy to complete, well understood and relevant to their experience. As such, Item 2a€‰k was included in the a€?injecting the medicinea€? subscale.CFA of the IPAQ showed evidence of a second order factor model (Tables5 and6).
The doses that the growth hormone and IGF-1 users said they mostly used were 15-20 IE or 50-75 micrograms per week.
Injection devices, such as pre-filled syringes and manual injector pens, have been developed to make the process of preparing and administering hGH easier and more convenient.
Findings obtained from each step in the item generation and selection process were reviewed by the research team, including two psychometricians and two clinicians (one endocrinologist), >and provided recommendations to ensure face validity.
Adult members of the dyad needed to: 1) provide written informed consent and 2) be able to read English and understand English. For eight of the thirteen IPAQ items, greater than 50% of dyads scored at the ceiling (a€?very easya€?). So it was a small study, and the subjects were not representative of strength athletes in general.
In addition, a translation expert reviewed the draft questionnaire and provided feedback about words or phrases that may be structurally or culturally problematic when translated into different languages. In addition, dyads needed to be willing and able to comply with scheduled visits, treatment plan, and other study procedures. Several steps must be completed in order to prepare the pen and to inject the hGH, including inserting a cartridge, mixing the medicine, inserting a needle, getting rid of air bubbles, using the needle guard, choosing or dialing the dose and finally injecting hGH.
A total of 29-items were included in the draft IPAQ: 1) fourteen items evaluating ease of use for a single injection pen, 2) fourteen items comparing ease of use between injection pens, and 3) one item evaluating preference for an injection pen. Dyads using other hGH injection devices other than the current reusable GenotropinA® Pen were excluded.Written informed consent was obtained for subjects prior to screening. Depending on the age of the child, either the parent, the child, or both participate in preparing the injection pen and administering the medication.
The conceptual framework was established (Figure1) based on the results of the focus group and cognitive debrief activities. As such, patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measures developed to assess these injection devices should include feedback from both parents and children to better reflect how these devices are used in practice.Another reason for obtaining parenta€“child opinions together is based on findings from the literature suggesting variability in perceptions of disease impact between parent and child in health-related quality of life (HRQL)[4a€“8]. Next, subjects and caregivers were instructed in the proper use of the new disposable pen and were asked to use the new pen for two months.
A telephone follow-up contact (Visit 2) occurred at day 7 to assess safety and address any subject questions. If you want better results faster and are taking steroids for the sole purpose of looking better that’s fine with me. However, a recent review of the literature suggests that levels of parenta€“child agreement may be influenced by the relevance of a domain to a disease and to the consequent parental involvement to care for the child[8], not merely by the objectivity of the domain.
That is, parenta€“child agreement may be higher when the parent is more involved in caring for the child in a domain that is more influenced by disease. Instructions on questionnaire completion were provided to all dyads by trained personnel.Clinical and patient-reported outcome measuresThe IPAQ is a 29-item instrument that can be used to measure preference for an injection device from the perspective of the subject.
For example, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, in which physical function is impacted, parents may need to provide more assistance with physical activities and may be more aware of their childa€™s physical functioning, resulting in stronger agreement on domains that measure the physical impact of disease.
Section I is designed to measure ease of use attributes (13 items) and a€?overall ease of usea€? (1 item) of a single pen. Although little research has been conducted to evaluate the parent-child dyad relationship in developing PRO questionnaires or in responding to PRO questionnaires, a qualitative analysis of parenta€“child dyad approach by Ungar and colleagues[10] suggests that a dyadic approach could be helpful to children in enabling them to answer questionnaire items as accurately as possible. Items in Section I are rated on 5 point scale from a€?very easya€? to a€?very difficulta€?. When responding to HRQL questionnaires together, parents were a valuable resource to their children (ages 8a€“15a€‰years) and helped them overcome problems with recall or comprehension that they may have had with the questionnaire. Section II compares the ease of use of two pens and contains the same ease of use attributes (13 items) and overall ease of use (1 item) as Section I. It was noted that child participants would look to their parents to corroborate answers, help remember events and clarify the meaning of questions, words or phrases.
The questionnaire was designed to be administered to parenta€“child dyads, where dyads together are asked to complete a single copy of the questionnaires. Responsiveness analyses were not conducted because subjects did not evaluate the same injection pen using the IPAQ at two time points during this trial, which is required for this type of analysis. This is due to the fact that upper body muscles have more androgen receptors than other muscles and respond better to resistance training. Analyses were conducted: 1) using data from dyads that completed the IPAQ for at least one time point and 2) separately for the individual injection pens.
This is why new steroid users see their shoulder, traps and back explode very fast in the first few steroid cycles.
Item analysis for Section II of the IPAQ examining item scores by injection pen preference was also conducted.Factor structure and scoringConfirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the hypothesized structure of the IPAQ based on the conceptual framework developed through dyad interviews.
Both sexes have these 2 hormones running through their veins but in different concentrations. A CFA was conducted to fit a 4-factor model where each item was associated with one pre-defined factor. What happens with the introduction of exogenous testosterone in our bodies, is that aromatization continues to do it’s job. Overall model fit statistics were examined, as well as standardized regression coefficients (factor loadings) for each item.

A portion of the enormous amount of testosterone entering the body gets converted to estrogen and one can end up with considerable levels of estrogen in his body. Distributional characteristics of the subscales were assessed, including means, floor and ceiling effects, and ranges.
The subscale to subscale correlations also were assessed.ReliabilityCronbacha€™s alpha was used to assess internal consistency of subscales generated by the CFA and total score for the IPAQ. During the first few steroid cycles and user goes through, diet and sleep staying in check, he will experience very quick muscle growth.
The first analysis evaluated the relationship between preference for an injection pen at Visit 3 and subscale scores for the reusable injection pen at Visit 1. The skin may not adapt quickly enough to this change therefore causing permanent stretch marks. Injection pen preference was categorized as a€?prefer reusable pena€? and a€?prefer new disposable pen or no preferencea€?. Normally they appear in the upper lats (on the sides), on the sides of the pectorals and sometimes on biceps. The regression model was: injection pen preferencea€‰=a€‰score for preparing the pena€‰+a€‰score for setting the dosea€‰+a€‰score for injecting the medicinea€‰+a€‰score for maintaining the pena€‰+a€‰agea€‰+a€‰gender. The second analysis evaluated the relationship between preference for an injection pen at Visit 3 and subscale scores for the new disposable pen at Visit 3.
Injection pen preference was categorized as a€?prefer new disposable pena€? and a€?prefer reusable pen or no preferencea€?. Injection pen preference was categorized as a€?prefer reusable pen or no preferencea€? or a€?prefer new disposable pena€? and ease of use items were categorized as a€?reusable pen easier to use or no differencea€? or a€?new disposable pen easier to usea€?. Others have stellar work ethic, good training programs, perfect diet, good lifestyle and sleep habits.
Some have 10-15 years of training experience under their.Fitting only one of the criteria above might be proof of anabolic steroid usage, but when you have three or four then you can make a case. Visit 1 ratings were used for dyads who preferred reusable pen and were compared with Visit 3 ratings for those who preferred new disposable pen.
Item responses were grouped into two categories: a€?very easya€? and a€?not very easya€?, which includes all other response options (a€?somewhat easya€?, a€?neither easy nor difficulta€?, a€?somewhat difficulta€? and a€?very difficulta€?). Thanks for the challenge, it was fun to use my brain on a random Thursday evening…Reply George Ashkar says June 27, 2013 at 2:37 pm Acne and stretchmarks not a sign of steroids.
Though tactically I have been training for nearly two years with a fixed program and diet no supplements.. AND so to speak precisely my gains in this span have been somewhat very hard, but satisfying in terms of strength endurance Etc.. I will not stop because people hate big menReply Matt says August 21, 2013 at 4:33 pm I agree, I am 215 pounds mostly muscle, my max on bench is 405. All this stuff you feel your compelled to inform us with, do you think we don’t know this.
Getting huge is a special talent, it’s just spending more than others, to choose to, in the name of vanity. I have no qualm with people devoting time to getting large muscles, that’s your choice. I have a big belly, stretch marks, my legs are skinny but my top is thick, always had man boobs and acne on my back except I AM NOT MUSCULAR.So if i get in shape, everyone will think im on roids because of this dumb article made with bro science. Thats the problem, this article is not an original in that it is just another bro-science fool singing the same un qualified song.My family, except me, were born with good genetics as they are very muscular but they also share the genetics of the items you wrote like myself. You made some valid points,but they are not conclusive,and you also made that clear in your own wording. Roid abuse can cause serious physiological ramifications,to-wit,testicular atrophy,gynecomastia,damaged liver,to name a few. I have worked out since the age of 7,have been to prison for a lengthy time period and diligently work out while in there. But nah I get a lot of acne outbreaks naturally and I have had many stretch marks as well as abnormally fast muscle gains. Another thing I’ve noticed is my pumps are naturally a lot more intense then the average lifter. Like my shoulders blow up like bowling balls and veins and shreds show up all over them along with my arm’s and chest.
Or at least natural meaning not on steroids… because now days what exactly is natural?
There really is no such thing as natural unless you meet a jacked dude out in the Amazon jungle.Btw you failed to mention rapid Hair loss. I know someone who took steroids for 2-3 months and was practically bald by the time he stopped.
The problem is people care too much about what others are doing and not enough about themselves.
Want it bad enough and not getting it, then take some steroids (with the knowledge that they only work in combination with an already impeccable diet and training). Of course all of these factors depend on what you goal is.If you want to look like Dwayne Johnson or God forbid Jay Cutler.
Because most likely even if you took a tone of steroids you wouldnt even look nearly as close to what they look like. There are people who took steroids most of there life and don’t even look as big as Dwayne. How could any intelligent person make that many assumptions about comments made on a topic like this. You need to research these facts.You know what 5lbs of fat loss and 5lbs of muscle gain in your arms, upper back and shoulders looks like? No one wants to believe it, but ask yourself this: why does hugh Jackman never look like he does in the movie when you see a picture of him in the street 6 months after he finishes the film?

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