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Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a naturally occurring hormone that is essential to human growth and the development of bodily structures. If testosterone is the primary hormone for building strength, growth hormone is perhaps most important for body composition – burning fat for energy and ensuring that protein is transported to muscle cells for synthesis.
During childhood a shortage of HGH leads to the condition of dwarfism, in which individuals grow to only about three feet in height. Growth hormone secretion peaks in adolescence when accelerated growth occurs and then declines with age.
Two of the biggest factors that play a role in the release of this hormone are sleep and exercise. Moderate repetitions (10) and short rest periods (1 minute) produce higher GH concentrations than fewer repetitions and longer rest periods. Studies examining exogenous GH therapy in elderly adults with declining GH levels have yielded mixed results. Given the mixed results and the high cost of subcutaneous injection of human recombinant GH therapy, a more natural approach to maintaining youthful health and vigor is to employ lifestyle choices that optimize the endogenous production of GH. We are a group of bodybuilding enthusiast and this is our effort to have all the details about bodybuilding at a single website. Growth hormone is used clinically to treat children's growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. In its role as an anabolic agent, HGH has been used by competitors in sports since the 1970s, and it has been banned by the IOC and NCAA. Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin) and growth hormone 2, are localized in the q22-24 region of chromosome 17 and are closely related to human chorionic somatomammotropin (also known as placental lactogen) genes. The major isoform of the human growth hormone is a protein of 191 amino acids and a molecular weight of 22,124 daltons.
Peptides released by neurosecretory nuclei of the hypothalamus (Growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin) into the portal venous blood surrounding the pituitary are the major controllers of GH secretion by the somatotropes. In addition to control by endogenous and stimulus processes, a number of foreign compounds (xenobiotics such as drugs and endocrine disruptors) are known to influence GH secretion and function. HGH is synthesized and secreted from the anterior pituitary gland in a pulsatile manner throughout the day; surges of secretion occur at 3- to 5-hour intervals.
A number of factors are known to affect HGH secretion, such as age, gender, diet, exercise, stress, and other hormones.
Effects of growth hormone on the tissues of the body can generally be described as anabolic (building up).
GH also stimulates production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, formerly known as somatomedin C), a hormone homologous to proinsulin. The most common disease of GH excess is a pituitary tumor composed of somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary. Adults with GHD present with non-specific problems including truncal obesity with a relative decrease in muscle mass and, in many instances, decreased energy and quality of life. Diagnosis of GH deficiency involves a multiple-step diagnostic process, usually culminating in GH stimulation tests to see if the patient's pituitary gland will release a pulse of GH when provoked by various stimuli. Treatment with exogenous GH is indicated only in limited circumstances, and needs regular monitoring due to the frequency and severity of side-effects. GH can be used to treat conditions that produce short stature but are not related to deficiencies in GH.
GH treatment improves muscle strength and slightly reduces body fat in Prader-Willi syndrome, which are significant concerns beyond the need to increase height. Claims for GH as an anti-aging treatment date back to 1990 when the New England Journal of Medicine published a study wherein GH was used to treat 12 men over 60.
A Stanford University School of Medicine survey of clinical studies on the subject published in early 2007 showed that the application of GH on healthy elderly patients increased muscle by about 2 kg and decreased body fat by the same amount.
There is theoretical concern that HGH treatment may increase the risks of diabetes, especially in those with other predispositions treated with higher doses. Regular application of extra GH may show several negative side-effects such as joint swelling, joint pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and an increased risk of diabetes.
The identification, purification and later synthesis of growth hormone is associated with Choh Hao Li.
Prior to its production by recombinant DNA technology, growth hormone used to treat deficiencies was extracted from the pituitary glands of cadavers. In 1985, unusual cases of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease were found in individuals that had received cadaver-derived HGH ten to fifteen years previously. In 1985, biosynthetic human growth hormone replaced pituitary-derived human growth hormone for therapeutic use in the U.S. As of 2005, recombinant growth hormones available in the United States (and their manufacturers) included Nutropin (Genentech), Humatrope (Lilly), Genotropin (Pfizer), Norditropin (Novo), and Saizen (Merck Serono).
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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth-hormone-releasing factor (GRF, GHRF), somatoliberin or somatocrinin, is a releasing hormone for growth hormone.
GHRH is released from neurosecretory nerve terminals of these arcuate neurons, and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary gland, where it stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion by stimulating the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor. GHRH stimulates GH production and release by binding to the GHRH Receptor (GHRHR) on cells in the anterior pituitary. The GHRHR is a member of the secretin family of G protein-coupled receptors, and is located on chromosome 7.
The cAMP-dependent pathway is initiated by the binding of GHRH to its receptor, causing receptor conformation that activates Gs alpha subunit of the closely associated G-Protein complex on the intracellular side. In the phospholipase C pathway, GHRH stimulates phospholipase C (PLC) through the ??-complex of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Activation of GHRHRs by GHRH also conveys opening of Na+ channels by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, causing cell depolarization.
Many GHRH analogs remain primarily research chemicals, although some have specific applications. Androgen Receptor Coactivators in Regulation of Growth and Differentiation in Prostate Cancer.
Androgen receptor (AR) is a key factor in regulation of growth and differentiation in normal and malignant prostate. Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) may occur in isolation, or more frequently in combination with additional pituitary hormone deficits with or without associated extrapituitary abnormalities. Effect of Deletion of Ghrelin-O-Acyltransferase on the Pulsatile Release of Growth Hormone in Mice. Xie TY1, Ngo ST1,2,3, Veldhuis JD4, Jeffery PL5, Chopin LK5, Tschop M6, Waters MJ7, Tolle V8, Epelbaum J8, Chen C1, Steyn FJ1,3. Ghrelin, a gut hormone originating from the post-translational cleavage of preproghrelin, is the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a).
Information about Growth hormone-releasing hormone in the free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. HGH (also termed as Somatotrophin) is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) in response to exercise, sleep, stress, and low plasma glucose. Conversely, an overabundance of HGH can lead to gigantism and heights of over eight feet are possible. Although the body still synthesizes nearly the same amount of GH, the amount released from the pituitary falls steadily with advancing age. When you pump out sets of 10 reps with short rest periods,  your muscles generate a waste product called lactate that produces  a telltale discomfort. Targeted nutrients including CDP-choline, arginine, ornithine, glycine, glutamine, and niacin (vitamin B3) can help support endogenous GH secretion, assist muscle growth and recovery from exercise, and promote healthy sleep.
In recent years, replacement therapies with human growth hormones (hGH) have become popular in the battle against aging and weight management. Traditional urine analysis could not detect doping with hGH, so the ban was unenforceable until the early 2000s, when blood tests that could distinguish between natural and artificial hGH were starting to be developed. GH, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin (PRL) are a group of homologous hormones with growth-promoting and lactogenic activity.
The structure includes four helices necessary for functional interaction with the GH receptor.
A percentage of the growth hormone in the circulation is bound to a protein (growth hormone-binding protein, GHBP) which is the truncated part of the growth hormone receptor, and an acid labile subunit (ALS). Thus, GH exerts some of its effects by binding to receptors on target cells, where it activates a second messenger. The liver is a major target organ of GH for this process and is the principal site of IGF-1 production. These somatotroph adenomas are benign and grow slowly, gradually producing more and more GH.
It is extremely rare for such a tumor to occur in childhood, but, when it does, the excessive GH can cause excessive growth, traditionally referred to as pituitary gigantism. In some circumstances, focused radiation or a GH antagonist such as pegvisomant may be employed to shrink the tumor or block function. In children, growth failure and short stature are the major manifestations of GH deficiency, with common causes including genetic conditions and congenital malformations. GH is used as replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency of either childhood-onset (after completing growth phase) or adult-onset (usually as a result of an acquired pituitary tumor). However, results are not as dramatic when compared to short stature that is solely due to deficiency of GH. Typically, growth hormone treatment for conditions unrelated to stature is controversial and experimental.


It is a 44[1]-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. This results in stimulation of membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase and increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
Somatostatin is released from neurosecretory nerve terminals of periventricular somatostatin neurons, and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal circulation to the anterior pituitary where it inhibits GH secretion. Printer Friendly Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary 6,718,795,192 visitors served.
Growth hormone is often called the “master hormone”, because it is released by the anterior pituitary gland (often called the “master gland”). In people of all ages, GH boosts protein production, promotes the utilization of fat, interferes with the action of insulin, and raises blood sugar levels. Being that growth hormone declines so rapidly with age, it is even more imperative that we aren’t inhibiting what little growth hormone we’re able to produce. When we cut our sleep short, we blunt the effect of growth hormone, thus also limiting our recovery and muscle growth ability. Lactate may trigger GH release, or your body may produce GH and lactate in response to the same stimuli. Fat cannot be released in the presence of high insulin because insulin is a storage hormone. Reported effects on GH deficient patients (but not on healthy people) include decreased body fat, increased muscle mass, increased bone density, increased energy levels, improved skin tone and texture, increased sexual function and improved immune system function. Blood tests conducted by WADA at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, Greece primarily targeted hGH.
It appears that, in structure, GH is evolutionarily homologous to prolactin and chorionic somatomammotropin.
Through this mechanism GH directly stimulates division and multiplication of chondrocytes of cartilage. Other drugs like ocreotide (somatostatin agonist) and bromocriptine (dopamine agonist) can be used to block GH secretion because both somatostatin and dopamine negatively inhibit GHRH-mediated GH release from the anterior pituitary. In these patients, benefits have variably included reduced fat mass, increased lean mass, increased bone density, improved lipid profile, reduced cardiovascular risk factors, and improved psychosocial well-being.
GH has been used for remission of multiple sclerosis, to reverse the effects of aging in older adults (see below), to enhance weight loss in obesity, as well as fibromyalgia, heart failure, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, burns and bodybuilding or athletic enhancement.
One survey of adults that had been treated with replacement cadaver GH (which has not been used anywhere in the world since 1985) during childhood showed a mildly increased incidence of colon cancer and prostate cancer, but linkage with the GH treatment was not established. Somatostatin and GHRH are secreted in alternation, giving rise to the markedly pulsatile secretion of GH. Between 40 to 50 years of age growth hormone levels are only 50 to 60% of what they were at age 20. So make sure you are getting enough sleep and you are getting it at similar times everyday.
At this time hGH is still considered a very complex hormone and many of its functions are still unknown.
Despite marked structural similarities between growth hormone from different species, only human and primate growth hormones have significant effects in humans. Eventually the adenoma may become large enough to cause headaches, impair vision by pressure on the optic nerves, or cause deficiency of other pituitary hormones by displacement. In adults, deficiency is rare, with the most common cause a pituitary adenoma, and others including a continuation of a childhood problem, other structural lesions or trauma, and very rarely idiopathic GHD. Phosphorylated CREB, together with its coactivators, p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) enhances the transcription of GH by binding to CREs cAMP-response elements in the promoter region of the GH gene. Growth hormone raises in response to deep sleep, high-intensity exercise, and low insulin levels.
IGF-1 also has stimulatory effects on osteoblast and chondrocyte activity to promote bone growth. Carbohydrates that are low on the glycemic index will be digested slowly, and will provide a slow and steady release of glucose in the body.
High-glycemic carbohydrates on the other hand cause a rapid digestion of sugars and a sudden influx of glucose into the bloodstream. The body cannot handle such a high amount of glucose in the blood, and so insulin is released to shuttle that glucose into either muscle glycogen, or convert it into fat for energy later if glycogen stores are full.



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