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31.08.2015, admin  
Category: Body Supplement

Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a naturally occurring hormone that is essential to human growth and the development of bodily structures. If testosterone is the primary hormone for building strength, growth hormone is perhaps most important for body composition – burning fat for energy and ensuring that protein is transported to muscle cells for synthesis. During childhood a shortage of HGH leads to the condition of dwarfism, in which individuals grow to only about three feet in height.
Growth hormone secretion peaks in adolescence when accelerated growth occurs and then declines with age.
Two of the biggest factors that play a role in the release of this hormone are sleep and exercise. Moderate repetitions (10) and short rest periods (1 minute) produce higher GH concentrations than fewer repetitions and longer rest periods. Studies examining exogenous GH therapy in elderly adults with declining GH levels have yielded mixed results.
Given the mixed results and the high cost of subcutaneous injection of human recombinant GH therapy, a more natural approach to maintaining youthful health and vigor is to employ lifestyle choices that optimize the endogenous production of GH.
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Hormones, such as human growth hormone and testosterone, play a large role in the muscle hypertrophy and strength gained resulting from resistance exercise.
The endocrine system helps provide stability to the body’s internal environment through the release of hormones. Amine hormones are derived from amino acids, while peptide hormones are structured by peptide bonds between multiple amino acids. Steroid hormones are not water-soluble and therefore must be bound to plasma proteins to be transported to their target tissue. The major function of hormones is to alter the rates of specific cellular reactions of specific target cells. Steroid hormones do not bind to the membrane of the target tissue, but instead pass through it and then bind to a specific cytoplasmic steroid receptor in the cell, which then migrates to the nucleus. Control of hormone secretion must be rapid in order to meet the demands of changing bodily functions.
It is well documented that the secretion of anabolic steroids results from resistance training, yet it is not clear why women exhibit similar responses to training (compared to men) in the absence of increased testosterone levels (Taylor et al., 2000). As part of the experimental design, the subjects were first familiarized with the exercise protocol, and their 10-repetition maximum was determined for the various exercises included in the protocol.
These findings demonstrated that both WT and NWT women have an acute rise in GH levels following resistance exercise, however, the WT women were able to sustain the increased GH levels for a longer period of time. The researches suggest that women should be encouraged to engage in resistance exercise, since there may be an influential effect of growth hormone response in women attempting to develop strength and power. Kevin RitscheDepartment of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina?Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina, USADepartment of Exercise Physiology, Winston?Salem State University, Winston?Salem, North Carolina, USABradly C. AbstractThe effect of acute (24?h) sleep deprivation on exercise?induced growth hormone (GH) and insulin?like growth factor?1 (IGF?1) was examined. Human growth hormone (GH) is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland, which is heavily regulated by growth hormone?releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SMS). Sleep deprivation can alter hypothalamus and pituitary function, which de?synchronizes GH release timing (Van Cauter et al. Exercise is a proven stimulus of GH release and an acute bout of exercise stimulates a significant GH pulse (Sutton and Lazarus 1976; Bunt et al. To our knowledge, no one has examined the effects of acute (24?h) sleep deprivation on exercise?induced GH release using short?term, high?intensity exercise.
Individuals who met the inclusion criteria completed a brief familiarization session on an electronically braked cycle ergometer (Lode Excalibur Sport, Lode BV, Gronignen, The Netherlands). Subjects completed one baseline 24?h laboratory session where their acute exercise response was measured following a night of sufficient rest and compared to the identical exercise?induced response following a 24?h sleep deprivation session (Fig.
During the first randomized laboratory session, subjects had their body composition assessed via whole body dual?energy X?ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan (Lunar?Prodigy Advance Plus, GE) at 0900 h.
Upon catheter insertion at 0600 h, subjects rested passively in a chair while flow meters and gas analyzers were calibrated for collection of metabolic measurements using open circuit spirometery [(TrueOne® metabolic measurement system from ParvoMedics (Sandy, UT). Blood was collected by a trained technician through a catheter inserted into an arm vein in the antecubital space.
Growth hormone from all time points were determined in duplicate using a human GH enzyme?linked immunosorbant assay (MP Biomedicals, Solon, OH). Sleep (self?reported average amount of sleep per night) patterns prior to and during each session were examined using a paired?sample t?test. Mean GH area under the curve (AUC) was calculated using the trapezoidal integration method. HGH (also termed as Somatotrophin) is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) in response to exercise, sleep, stress, and low plasma glucose. Conversely, an overabundance of HGH can lead to gigantism and heights of over eight feet are possible. Although the body still synthesizes nearly the same amount of GH, the amount released from the pituitary falls steadily with advancing age. When you pump out sets of 10 reps with short rest periods,  your muscles generate a waste product called lactate that produces  a telltale discomfort. Targeted nutrients including CDP-choline, arginine, ornithine, glycine, glutamine, and niacin (vitamin B3) can help support endogenous GH secretion, assist muscle growth and recovery from exercise, and promote healthy sleep.
While increases in testosterone levels are attributed to the hypertrophy and strength gained in men, it is still unclear how women are able to respond similarly to resistance training in the absence of increased testosterone.
Hormones are substances secreted from a tissue (mainly endocrine glands) that exert a biologic response on itself or other cells, and affect almost all aspects of human function. The protein binding complicates the activity of steroid hormones, delaying the time to stimulate a biological response.
This is accomplished by altering the rate of intracellular protein synthesis, changing the rate of enzyme activity, modifying plasma membrane transport, and by inducing secretory activity (Robergs and Roberts, 1997). However, the ability for a target tissue to respond to a hormone depends on the presence of specific receptors in or on the tissue. Once there, it enters the nucleus and initiates the nuclear and cytosolic events required for the synthesis of specific proteins. Hormone secretion is usually pulsatile in nature and constant hormone release rarely exists. In a recent study by Taylor and colleagues, investigators examined the differences in growth hormone (GH) response to acute bouts of resistance exercise in weight-trained (WT) and non-weight-trained women (NWT).
Women assigned to the WT group had at least one-year of consistent weight training experience, while the NWT women had no regular weight training experience for at least six-months prior to the beginning of the study.

The exercise protocol consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions for seven different exercises (bench press, leg press, seated shoulder press, leg extension, lat pulldown, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown) with one-minute rest periods between sets and exercises. The exercise protocol used in this study provided sufficient stimulus to cause GH levels to increase in both groups.
However, further investigations are necessary to fully describe the relationship between hormonal responses and resistance-training in women.
Main functional responses to exercise and glandular tissues and hormones involved in acute adaptation in men and women (from Robergs and Roberts, 1997). In addition, GH output is mediated by ghrelin (GHS) and insulin?like growth factor?1 (IGF?1). The two studies that have examined the effects of exercise?induced GH release during complete (24?h) sleep deprivation and exercise?induced GH release during partial sleep deprivation have yielded inconsistent results largely due to methodological differences involving protocols that only partially disturbed the sleep?wake cycle (Mougin et al. On average, subjects reported participating in high?intensity activity 1 day per week and spent 4–6 h per week participating in recreational physical activity and reported minimal occupational physical work. Equipment used to collect metabolic measures using standard open circuit spirometry (TrueOne® metabolic measurement system from ParvoMedics [(Sandy, UT)] during exercise was fitted during this familiarization session, but no gases were collected. All scans were performed in fan beam mode using the thick scan mode (recommended by GE for research purposes; scan time was approximately 20 min).
No caffeine or alcohol was allowed for the 48 h preceding laboratory studies through the completion of the 24?h session. After 20 min of passive rest, subjects were fitted with their headgear and mouth pieces to breath through to initiate gas collection while they continued to rest for another 25 min to insure accurate resting metabolic rate (RMR) data collection postcatheter insertion. Catheter patency was maintained by displacing the blood in the catheter with isotonic saline at regular intervals. Samples were collected over 3?h that included ~30 min of resting metabolic rate (RMR) data collection and blood draws that occur every 15 min on average, with more frequent sampling around the 13?min exercise session. Fifteen second breath?by?breath averages of oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide (VCO2), metabolic equivalents (METS), respiratory rate (RR), ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were calculated from open circuit spirometery for 30 min prior to exercise through the end of exercise (Q?30 to Q15; 0630 h–0715 h). First, mean power (MP), peak power (PP), minimum power (MinP), time to peak power (TTPP), fatigue index (FI), and total work completed (TW) were calculated from each of the sprint exercise tests.
Growth hormone is often called the “master hormone”, because it is released by the anterior pituitary gland (often called the “master gland”).
In people of all ages, GH boosts protein production, promotes the utilization of fat, interferes with the action of insulin, and raises blood sugar levels. Being that growth hormone declines so rapidly with age, it is even more imperative that we aren’t inhibiting what little growth hormone we’re able to produce.
When we cut our sleep short, we blunt the effect of growth hormone, thus also limiting our recovery and muscle growth ability.
Lactate may trigger GH release, or your body may produce GH and lactate in response to the same stimuli. Fat cannot be released in the presence of high insulin because insulin is a storage hormone. The purpose of this article is to review the function of hormones and a recent study exploring the acute responses of growth hormone to an acute bout of resistance exercise in weight-trained and non-weight-trained women.
They regulate growth, development, and reproduction, and augment the body’s capacity for handling physical and psychological stress. The water-soluble characteristics of amine and peptide hormones make them easily removed from the circulation allowing only a short time (minutes) to exert their function. Amine and peptide hormones exert their action on target cells by binding to specific receptors on the membrane of the target tissue. Several of the main hormones related to exercise and their responses are listed in Table 1. Growth hormone is responsible for increasing protein synthesis and for mediating the release of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which is another potential anabolic factor (Taylor et al., 2000). Blood samples for hormone assays were taken ten and five minutes prior to exercise, and immediately, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after exercise. Exercise variables contributing to GH release include intensity, load, rest interval, and the amount of muscle mass utilized.
GH is secreted in a pulsatile fashion, with the strongest physiologic stimuli being sleep and exercise.
The major secretory GH pulse occurs just after sleep onset and continues to rise during the first 4 h. All subjects provided written informed consent in accordance with the institutional review board at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and Winston?Salem State University. Subjects were instructed to refrain from exercise 48 h prior to their randomized laboratory session.
Forty?five minutes into their passive rest period subjects, completed a 5?min standardized submaximal warm?up that consisted of pedaling on a cycle ergometer at: 60 watts (W) for 4 min, 80 W for 30 sec and 100 W for 30 sec.
A heating pad was placed over the antecubital area in order to minimize peripheral venoconstriction and maximize patency during the postexercise period. Insulin?like growth factor?1 (IGF?1) immediate preexercise and 120 min postexercise onset (~106 min postexercise) was assayed in duplicate using an in vitro enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay (Raybiotech, Norcross, GA).
A paired?sample t?test was used to determine whether there were any differences in physiological data during rest and exercise values between the SLD and SLEEP sessions. Data descriptives were then examined for violations of test assumptions (skewedness) and those variables that were non?normally distributed were examined using the nonparametric Wilcoxin test for 2 related samples in a preliminary analysis of each sprint between sessions (sprint 1 SLD vs.
Between 40 to 50 years of age growth hormone levels are only 50 to 60% of what they were at age 20.
So make sure you are getting enough sleep and you are getting it at similar times everyday. Hormones differ in how they affect their target cells, and can be classified into three categories: amine, peptide, and steroid. For example, an increase in blood glucose levels causes the release of insulin by the pancreas. They hypothesized that women with weight training experience would have a greater GH response to the exercise stimulus than the non-weight-trained women (Taylor et al., 2000).
Since both groups used the same intensity, load, and rest period the differences in response may be explained by the WT women utilizing greater amounts of muscle mass during exercise.
Most GH release occurs during non?rapid?eye movement (NREM) sleep within the slow?wave sleep (SWS) phase with little GH secreted during rapid?eye movement (REM) sleep (Takahashi et al.
In order to control for order effects, a counterbalanced design was used in which half the subjects performed the sleep deprivation session (SLD) first and the other half performed the control sleep session (SLEEP) first.
Each subject was instructed to eat within ~600 kcal of their predetermined daily caloric intake each time they came to the laboratory and to stay consistent with their meals during each subsequent session.
At 0700 h, subjects completed four maximal 30?sec sprints on a cycle ergometer against an electronically applied resistance equivalent to 7.5% of their body weight (kg).

When data was non?normally distributed, a nonparametric Wilcoxin test for two related samples was used to adjust for the skewedness. Growth hormone raises in response to deep sleep, high-intensity exercise, and low insulin levels.
Insulin action causes an increase in glucose uptake, resulting in lowered blood glucose levels. This was done to help minimize the estradiol effect (the most potent naturally occurring estrogen). Additionally, the GH values measured immediately post-exercise and five minutes after were lower for the WT women. It could be assumed that due to greater exposure to resistance training, the WT women had greater amounts of lean body mass, and that training exposure also allowed for a greater relative recruitment of their motor unit pool when exercising (Taylor et al., 2000).
During complete sleep deprivation of 24–36 h, GH release is attenuated and in some cases, absent (Takahashi et al. Considering GH release begins around the onset of sleep, partial sleep deprivation may still provide sufficient rest to elicit a normal nocturnal GH release and thus, limit the alterations observed in subsequent exercise?induced GH release. At 2000 h, subjects were given a standardized ~600 kcal snack that had a macronutrient content of ~45% carbohydrate, ~20% protein and ~35% fat.
2) and, on average, every 15 min (~Q15) for 180 min, with more frequent sampling just prior to initiating the first exercise sprint and immediately after the 4th exercise sprint a postexercise blood sample was collected. To eliminate interassay variance, all samples from a single subject were assayed within the same plate. Then, a two?way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to determine if differences in performance existed between the SLD and SLEEP sessions (main effect – session) and between the average sprint performance score in each session (main effect – sprint). For example, in bone and muscle cells, the cyclic AMP produced by the action of growth hormone binding activates anabolic reactions so amino acids can be synthesized into tissue proteins. However, the overall GH response to the acute bout of resistance exercise was greater for WT women. This in turn stresses more sarcolemma of muscle, resulting in increases in anabolic hormone levels. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute sleep deprivation on subsequent exercise?induced GH release. Following their snack, subjects fasted throughout the remainder of their session (2000–0900 h).
When the assumption of sphericity was violated, the Greenhouse?Geisser correction was used. Carbohydrates that are low on the glycemic index will be digested slowly, and will provide a slow and steady release of glucose in the body.
The end result of insulin action is the inhibition of its own release as the body reaches its desired homeostasis.
What this means is that when using the pre-exercise GH level as a baseline value for each group, the WT women had a greater overall increase over the duration of the study (pre-exercise to 60 minutes post-exercise) in GH in response to exercise. Thus the authors suggest that the magnitude of hormonal response is related to the amount of muscle tissue stimulated. No differences existed in MP, PP, MinP, TTPP, FI, TWPS, resting GH concentrations, time to reach exercise?induced peak GH concentration (TTP), or free IGF?1 between sessions. Since we anticipated that GH production and storage would continue during a period of sleep deprivation followed by a subsequent bolus of release upon stimulation, we hypothesized that GH release will be augmented in response to short?term, high?intensity exercise following a 24?h period of continuous sleep deprivation. Ambient light and temperature in the laboratory were held constant between 0800 and 2200 h. High-glycemic carbohydrates on the other hand cause a rapid digestion of sugars and a sudden influx of glucose into the bloodstream. Growth hormone response to an acute bout of resistance exercise in weight-trained and non-weight-trained women. During the SLEEP session, subjects were allowed adequate rest in a light?controlled environment (2200–0600 h) and investigators only entered the room briefly (<5 min) to check on the subject. Serum was extracted and pipetted into microcentrifuge tubes and stored at ?80°C until subsequently analyzed.
The body cannot handle such a high amount of glucose in the blood, and so insulin is released to shuttle that glucose into either muscle glycogen, or convert it into fat for energy later if glycogen stores are full. If a subject was unable to remain asleep the entire period, they were asked to remain in bed in darkness until an investigator beckoned them at 0600 h.
Individuals undergoing some form of sleep deprivation, such as doctors, nurses, shift workers and military personnel, offer many of our important societal services. Although there is large interindividual variation in exercise?induced GH release, it is a reproducible measure within subjects (Stokes et al. During the SLD session, subjects were sleep?deprived by only allowing them to rest in wakeful state or pursue intellectual activities between the hours of 2200 to 0600 h. Additionally, athletes and coaches believe that sleep is essential for peak physical performance. They were kept sedentary throughout the session, but were allowed to read, study and watch movies, and researchers maintained social interaction with the subjects throughout the entire sleep?deprived session. Our results indicate that the exercise?induced GH response was significantly augmented in sleep?deprived individuals. There are many situations where sleep is disturbed prior to an athletic event including travel, changes in time zones and anxiety. Multiple studies have shown that shorter bouts of high?intensity exercise can elicit an elevated growth hormone response (Nevill et al.
In these situations, the question arises as to how exercise may be used to neutralize the physiological effects of sleep deprivation in regard to GH. During the sleep?deprived session, the nocturnal peak amplitude and total GH area under the curve (AUC) were dramatically reduced although the total number of GH peaks during the 24?h sampling period was similar between the control and sleep?deprived session.
Not only was nocturnal GH release lower in adapted night shift workers, but 24?h GH pulsatility was more frequent, sporadic and unpredictable throughout waking hours. Peak GH release occurs within ~30–45 min after the initiation of sprint exercise and a single 6?sec sprint can augment GH release (Stokes et al.
Based on these observations, we assume that complete sleep deprivation can attenuate the GH response the morning after and this is likely the result of of the disturbance of the sleep?wake cycle. 2002a), although a slightly longer 30?sec sprint enhances GH release further (Nevill et al.

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