Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition strength and sprint performance,5 easy yoga exercises,testosterone cream increase facial hair - Test Out

25.11.2015, admin  
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Creatine has become one of the most popular and best selling sport supplements and with good reason - it works.
Recently a number of new formulations of creatine have come onto the market which all claim to be better than the traditional creatine monohydrate used in all the studies. CEE manufacturers claim that this has two effects, firstly that it causes higher muscle creatine levels compared to creatine monohydrate and that this helps creatine non responders who don't benefit from traditional creatine. As I explain in Griffiths' Sport Supplement Review the muscle water retention caused by creatine acts as an anabolic signal and is one of the ways in which creatine works. One study which compared CEE with creatine monohydrate (CRT) randomized 30 young men to receive either CEE, CRT or placebo.
On days 0, 6, 27 and 48 muscle and serum creatine was measured together with body composition, body water and muscle strength. Also CEE produced much higher blood levels of the creatine breakdown product creatinine which suggests that a large part of the CEE was being broken down in the stomach. With regards to total, intracellular and extracellular body water there was no statistical difference between CEE and CRT but extra cellular water increases were actually largest for CEE. In conclusion CEE has no proven benefit over creatine monohydrate and given it is more expensive and has a less proven safety profile than monohydrate I recommend you save your money.
Now, it’s possible, it only works on women and or, only works with this particular SSRI and or only works with MDD. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been optimised for the analysis of the creatine content and possible organic contaminants in 33 samples of creatine supplements from the market.
Creatine is one of the few dietary supplements that have a very solid scientific support for its efficacy in increasing strength, explosive performance and muscle mass. There are several theories on how to take creatine; some say you should load and then lower the dose to maintenance, while others say you can get good results by a constant low dosage regimen without loading. Below is a side bar from a lengthy article I recently wrote on the latest studies covering the many potential benefits of creatine.
Hundreds of studies to date have shown that creatine monohydrate is an amazingly non-toxic and safe supplement with numerous benefits.
Although creatine monohydrate is clearly safe for healthy people with a very low side-effects profile using up to 10 grams per day, are there specific groups who should not use it?
Yes, literally, and could save other children from a lifetime of ill health easily avoided.
A simple but often unappreciated issue regarding creatine monohydrate is the benefit to pre dissolving it fully, which will greatly improve any stomach upset for those who experience it and may improve absorption for some users. This simple vid I did showing pre mixing creatine a good idea, has gotten more traffic and discussion than any vid I have done, and still shows up regularly. Yes, I may have over stated the importance of it in the vid, but, the fact is, creatine must be solubilized before it will get absorbed. People who get stomach problems from creatine have been told to pre solubilize their creatine for decades. I can say, thousands of people have reported the stomach issues and bloating they experienced were gone once they pre solubilized their creatine. Clearly, some of the creatine not dissolved in the glass will be made soluble and absorbed and I should have been clearer about that in the vid, but it’s well established in human digestion that compounds with poor solubility are often poorly absorbed.
The present study examined the acute effects of a nutritional supplement intended to improve adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations on vertical jump height, isometric strength of the leg extensors, leg extension endurance, and forearm flexion endurance.
Twenty-four healthy men (mean age A± SD = 23 A± 4 yrs, stature = 181 A± 7 cm, and body mass = 82 A± 12 kg) volunteered to complete a familiarization trial plus 2 randomly-ordered experimental trials separated by a 7-day washout period. These findings indicated no improvements in the measured variables as a result of ingesting this nutritional supplement.
BackgroundNutritional supplements are commonly used by recreational and competitive athletes as ergogenic aids to improve their physique and performance capabilities.
MethodsParticipantsTwenty-four healthy men (mean age A± SD = 23 A± 4 yrs, stature = 181 A± 7 cm, and body mass = 82 A± 12 kg) volunteered for this investigation.
Forearm flexion enduranceDuring the familiarization trial, maximal bilateral strength of the forearm flexors was assessed with a standard one repetition maximum (1RM) procedure [12] in order to establish the same relative submaximal load for each subject for the TR and PL endurance tests. DiscussionIn the present study we found that the oral ATP supplement, which was intended to improve performance, did not improve vertical jump height, isometric strength of the leg extensors, leg extension endurance, or forearm flexion endurance. In my book Griffiths's Sport Supplement Review I give creatine a five star rating for effectiveness, the highest rating possible.
Esterification is a process used by pharmaceutical companies to increase the bioavailability of prescription drugs with low bioavailability. Secondly that CEE causes less muscle water retention than creatine monohydrate and so reduces the bloated look that some creatine users can experience. So reducing water retention isn't a good idea, but anyway does CEE really cause less water retention and is it really better at raising muscle creatine levels than standard creatine monohydrate? The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels. So the question in not whether it is effective, but rather how to supplement it to reap maximal effectiveness? Further studies directly examining possible side effects, both prospective and long-term retrospective (up to five years), have failed to find any serious side effects of creatine supplementation (65-69) on various markers studied, such as renal function, hepatic function, and others. As creatine monohydrate supplementation may cause a transient increase in creatinine levels in some individuals, it may act as a false indicator of renal dysfunction. Many companies put creatine in their pre workout supplements, and many people add creatine their home made pre workout drinks, but should they?


For people who get stomach upset, non responders (approx 30% of users) they may get better responses from fully dissolving, but that’s hypothesis on my part.
It’s also going to be dose dependent (large amounts of CM are more likely to not get solubalized and absorbed, causing stomach issues, etc) while smaller amounts, less so. Back when loading was all the rage, some got killer cramps, the runs, and a bloated stomach from those mega doses, some had no issues. Future studies should examine whether chronic supplementation or a loading period is necessary to observe any ergogenic effects of this supplement. For example, creatine is a widely used nutritional supplement that has been proven in multiple studies to increase skeletal muscle phosphocreatine and free creatine concentrations, which may enhance the ability to sustain high adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover rates during strenuous exercise [1]. None of the participants reported any current or ongoing neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal problems specific to the ankle, knee, or hip joints. Each participant performed a light warm-up of 5 a€“ 10 repetitions at approximately 50% of the estimated 1RM load.
Theoretically, increases in ATP availability should improve human performance, however, lower doses of an oral ATP supplement have not been shown to improve whole blood ATP levels [8]. Study after study has shown that creatine is effective for packing on muscle mass and improving performance. Esterification of creatine decreases its hydrophilicity which CEE manufacturers claim enables CEE to bypass the creatine transporter on the muscle cell surface and be absorbed directly into the cell. CRT caused a statistically significant increase by day 6 while CEE only managed to produce a significant increase by day 27.
Good science dictates I make sure you’re at least aware of that possible limitation until additional studies done.
There’s been a handful of case reports that show very high doses of creatine (and the reports were not always clear as to what form of creatine was used) were associated with kidney dysfunction.(70) Typical for such a simple case report, it’s unclear what other medications were involved or pre-existing medical condition existed. In this vid, I cover the essential issues regarding creatine and where it’s actually produced. As a result creatine supplementation may delay neuromuscular fatigue [2], improve muscle strength and power output [3], and increase muscle size [4]. Each participant completed a pre-exercise health and exercise status questionnaire and signed a written informed consent document.
Following a 1-min rest, the load was increased for a second warm-up set of 3 a€“ 5 repetitions. Although an acute dosage of this nutritional supplement showed no beneficial effects on performance, there were no detrimental effects either.
The heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead) content was also assessed by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, there is a lot of confusion about the myriad for creatine forms that claim to be superior over the gold standard creatine monohydrate – the form that was used in research which proved its efficacy.
In addition, no adverse events were reported during the course of this study, which suggested that acute doses may not be harmful. Among such nutritional supplements are those that are intended to directly increase ATP concentrations.ATP is a purine nucleotide found in every human cell.
Supplements were administered in uniform containers and identifiable only by alphabetic code to both the investigators and the subjects. It is unclear whether the chronic ingestion of this supplement would result in any adverse effects. In accordance with the label recommendations, experimental trials 1 and 2 were performed 1 hour after the consumption of either 6 (body mass < 91 kg) or 8 (body mass a‰? 91 kg) tablets of the TR or PL. This process continued until a failed attempt occurred, and the last successful lift was recorded as the representative 1RM score. There were no other changes reported for repetitions to exhaustion at 70% of 1RM or total resistance training volume. Subsequently, ATP is regarded as the smallest form of energy currency in living organisms [7].
One week after each experimental visit, each subject was asked if they have had any adverse events since the previous visit. Similarly, there were no observed changes for any of the strength measurements in the low-dose group. When ATP is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi), the terminal phosphate bond is broken and energy is liberated to drive biological processes [7]. The experimental supplements used during this investigation were donated.Research designThis study was conducted with a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The total number of repetitions performed throughout the full range of motion was recorded as the representative score.
Oral ATP supplementation did not improve peak power output, total work, or average power output during the two 30-s Wingate tests for either the high- or low-dose groups. For human performance, the energy liberated by ATP hydrolysis for muscle contraction is of paramount importance [8]. During the forearm flexion muscle actions, the participants were required to remain seated without leaning over the arm support.
After 14 days of high-dose oral ATP supplementation, total lifting volume increased by 22%, however, neither muscular strength, anaerobic power, or anaerobic capacity were influenced by the chronic supplementation [8].
Nevertheless, neither study demonstrated any compelling results to suggest that acute doses of orally-administered supplements that are marketed to improve ATP availability actually improve performance. Skeletal muscle concentrations of ATP are relatively limited, thus ATP must be continually resynthesized [9].


The trials were separated by a 7-day washout period and were performed at the same time of day (A± 2 hours).
The participants were also required to keep their arms flat against the arm support while the lateral epicondyles of ulna remained aligned with the axis of rotation of the preacher curl machine. Thus, in theory, any nutritional supplementation that could increase ATP concentrations could also enhance performance during high-intensity exercise [8].Kichenin et al.
Seven days prior to the first experimental trial, each participant visited the lab for a familiarization trial to practice the vertical jumps, isometric and isokinetic leg extension muscle actions, and the dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) forearm flexion muscle actions. During the TR and PL trials, each participant performed a warm-up at 50% of the 1RM for 5a€“8 repetitions 2 minutes prior to the endurance test.Statistical analysisFive separate paired-samples t tests were used to compare the CVJ height, isometric PT of the leg extensors, percent decline during the leg extension endurance test, and the repetitions to exhaustion during the forearm flexion endurance test scores for the TR vs. Each participant was instructed to arrive for the experimental trials after a 4-hour fast so that the TR and PL tablets were administered with water on an empty stomach in the laboratory under the supervision of the investigators.
It is possible that a chronic loading period of 14 days or longer is necessary to demonstrate any meaningful ergogenic benefits. After 30 days of supplementation, there was an increase in exportation of ATP from the gut and improved adenosine uptake, ATP synthesis, and ATP transfer by red cells [10].
Sixty minutes after ingestion of either the TR or PL, the experimental trial began with a 5-minute warm-up on a stationary cycle ergometer (Monark 818E, Sweden) with a workload of 50 watts and cadence of 60a€“70 rpm. Therefore, future studies should examine whether a chronic loading period is necessary to observe any ergogenic effects of nutritional supplements that are marketed to improve ATP availability.
Therefore, these findings [10] suggested that it is possible to observe a positive biological response from chronic oral ATP supplementation in rats.
Since our findings suggested that an acute dose of this oral ATP supplement did not improve exercise performance (contrary to the label claim), it is possible that it did not increase ATP availability.
Therefore, one hypothesis as to why the current oral ATP did not improve exercise performance is that the ingredients that were purported to increase ATP availability did not survive the process of digestion and absorption in the human gut [8]. The Just Jumpa„? mat calculated CVJ height (cm) based on the flight time, which was the time that elapsed from the instant the feet left the mat until landing. When appropriate, follow-up analyses included additional lower-order ANOVAs and paired samples t tests.
A limitation of the present study was that we did not extract tissue or blood samples from these subjects, thus, we have no direct evidence to suggest that this supplement altered ATP concentrations. In addition, oral ATP supplementation did not alter bench press strength or endurance, and there were no changes in peak power, average power, or total work during repeated 30-s Wingate tests [8].
To complete the CVJ trials, the participants stood on the mat with the feet shoulder width apart and the hands on the hips. In contrast, the primary benefit of this applied study was that we tested (and ultimately refuted) the label claim that this oral ATP supplement improves performance. There was, however, an increase in bench press training volume observed after 14 days of oral ATP supplementation, which provided tentative evidence that the oral ATP supplementation may be efficacious.
A rapid descending quarter-squat countermovement was allowed prior to the ascending launch, however, no step was taken.
Since, at the time of this study, the oral ATP supplement we tested was available on the market, consumers may find our findings useful for making an informed purchase.
Two separate one-way ANOVAs were used to examine the systematic variation among the 4 CVJ trials for the TR and PL sessions. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of a commercially available nutritional supplementation intended to improve ATP concentrations on vertical jump height, isometric strength of the leg extensors, leg extension endurance, and forearm flexion endurance. All isometric torque assessments were performed at a leg flexion angle of 60A° below the horizontal plane. Participants were asked to produce as much force as possible for 4-s, and strong verbal encouragement was provided. The torque signal from the dynamometer was sampled at 1 KHz with an analog-to-digital converter (DAQcarda„?-6036E, National Instruments, Austin, TX) and custom software (LabVIEW Professional version 7.1, National Instruments, Austin, TX) and stored on a personal computer for off-line analysis. The torque signal was low-pass filtered (zero-phase 4th-order Butterworth filter) with a 10 Hz cutoff, and peak MVC torque (PT) was calculated as the highest average torque value that occurred during any 0.5-s duration within the 4-s MVC plateau. Two separate dependent samples t tests were used to examine whether there was any systematic variability between MVC trials 1 and 2 during the TR and PL sessions. Three to five submaximal trials preceded 50 consecutive maximal concentric isokinetic leg extension muscle actions performed at 180A°s-1 with the right leg. The active range of motion was standardized from 90A° to 180A° of knee flexion and extension, respectively, for each participant. As with the isometric MVCs, the torque signal was sampled at 1 KHz and low-pass filtered (zero-phase 4th-order Butterworth filter) with a 10 Hz cutoff. PT was determined for each of the 50 repetitions during the extension muscle actions as the highest 10-ms average torque value that occurred during each torque curve. Not all subjects were able to complete all 50 repetitions; however, all subjects did complete at least 48 repetitions. The initial PT (IPT) was calculated as the average of the 3 highest PT values that occurred during the first 10 repetitions, whereas the final PT (FPT) represented the average of the 3 lowest PT values that occurred during the final 10 repetitions.



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