Dietary supplement use in the us,supplements for skinny guys bodybuilding 2014,whey protein after workout or before - PDF Books

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There are a number of delicious foods you can eat for the sake of your health -- but still, all too often, we hear complaints that healthful food just doesn't taste good. It's also a good source of fiber and calcium, among other nutrients, and a very good source of iron, with 2.4 milligrams in just one tablespoon. Many people assume Vitamin C is only required in tiny amounts; just enough to prevent scurvy. Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis and maintenance of collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body. Vitamin C helps protect the skin by promoting the production and migration of fibroblasts that support normal wound healing.
Increased VitaminC uptake by vascular smooth muscle cells increases the synthesis and maturation of Type I (aka Type 1) collagen.? Type I collagen accounts for about 90% of the body’s total collagen content. High concentrations of VitaminC stimulate synthesis of Type IV collagen, which has important filtration characteristics in the kidney, the blood-brain barrier, and the arterial lining?.
Vitamin?C stimulates the formation of the cells that incorporate calcium into bone tissue (osteoblasts). VitaminC inhibits the development of cells that dissolve calcium out of bone tissues (osteoclasts). Collagen cross-linking, required to form the dense matrix for optimal bone strength, requires Vitamin?C. Among its many positive effects on the body, vitamin C is a strong supporter of healthy immune function.
Vitamin C inhibits various forms of T-lymphocyte death. T-lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell.
Cunningham-Rundles S, “Effects of nutritional status on immunological function” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982 35(5 Suppl):1202-1210. De la Fuente M, et al, “Immune function in aged women is improved by ingestion of vitamins C and E” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1998 76(4):373-380. Jeng K, et al, “Supplementation with vitamins C and E enhances cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy adults” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996 64(6):960-965.
Campbell J, et al, “Ascorbic acid is a potent inhibitor of various forms of T cell apoptosis” Cellular Immunology 1999 194(1):1-5. Kennes B, et al, “Effect of vitamin C supplements on cell-mediated immunity in old people” Gerontology 1983 29(5):305-310. Prinz W, et al, “The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on some parameters of the human immunological defence system” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1977 47(3):248-257. Feigen G, et al, “Enhancement of antibody production and protection against systemic anaphylaxis by large doses of vitamin C” Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 1982 38(2):313-333. High quality vitamin C supplements use gentler, less-acidic types of vitamin C to help prevent this gastric upset.  These supplements typically include sodium ascorbate, ascorbic acid with bioflavonoids, ascorbyl palmitate, calcium ascorbate, or mineral forms of ascorbate. Active transport of vitamin C relies on sodium-dependent vitamin C co-transporters (SVCTs) to carry each vitamin C molecule through special doorways into the bloodstream, cell or tissue.  SVCTs can only carry one molecule of vitamin C through one door at a time.
This system works efficiently for a healthy person taking small doses of vitamin C, but when you take high doses of vitamin C, the absorption is severely restricted by the number of SVCTs and the number of open doors. This forced exit occurs because the most common forms of vitamin C are water soluble – meaning the vitamin C dissolves in water, and cannot be stored by the body for later use.  So when a large dose of water soluble vitamin C is taken and there are not enough SVCTs or open doors, all of the unabsorbed vitamin C is sent to the colon.
Steve Hickey, PhD and Hillary Roberts, Phd, pharmacology professors and graduates of the University of Manchester in Britain, are challenging the established Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin C, which is 75 and 90 milligrams for males and females respectively.
The half life of any substance is the time it takes for half of the substance to be removed from the body. Hickey has called for the IM and NIH to retract the current RDA or provide scientific justification for their recommendation.
The US Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin C is higher for Guinea Pigs than it is for humans! If we use the same logic the US Government uses on guinea pigs, our vitamin C intake should be between 820 mg and 2,000 mg. There’s not a single drug — prescription or over-the-counter — that can claim that level of safety. According to an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association3, 106,000 patients died in hospitals in 1994 from drug reactions. In contrast, high-dose vitamin? C has been widely used since the late 1940’s without a confirmed report of any dosage level that will result in serious adverse effects.
Hayashi T, et al, “Fatal water intoxication in a schizophrenic patient–an autopsy case” J Clin Forensic Med. Furthermore, your body secretes a highly alkaline substance right where your small intestine starts, just past the stomach.
The peer-reviewed Orthomolecular Medicine News Service is a non-profit and non-commercial informational resource.
Scientists believe that the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid began in the kidney of amphibians and was transferred to the liver of mammals like the goat. Our single-dose packaging protects the product from additional oxygen and moisture, which keeps your product fresh.
We source ingredients from all over the world so we can use high-potency, non-GMO ingredients from natural sources whenever possible. When you drive your car you may have the mandatory liability insurance (your diet meets the government recommended daily allowance) however you may feel like you need a bit more coverage and protection.
You can also have full auto coverage + Bodily Injury and Property Damage + Medical Payments (your diet exceeds the recommended daily allowance, you exercise frequently, and you supplement your diet with vitamins).
In our ever-growing population, our food often doesn’t contain the right level of nutrients that one would expect to find in fresh fruit and vegetables.
For example, vitamin C is critical in the production of collagen, which makes up most of our bodies tissues, ligaments, and bone structure.
I encourage you to do your own research and learn about the ongoing studies related to supplementing your diet with essential nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, and so forth.   I would also recommend you consult your primary healthcare physician before starting any type of exercise program or supplementation regimen. Ultimately it is down to the individual to decide whether or not they need to take vitamin supplements; however, if you are willing to pay for additional car insurance to protect your vehicle, shouldn’t you spend a bit more to protect your body? Felipe Gonzales is a blogger, Social Media Strategist, Graphic Designer, Web Designer, and all around jack of all trades. Today’s dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, proteins, enzymes, and many other products.
Homeopathic individualized medicines versus fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression: double-blind, randomized non-inferiority trial.
The aromatic flavorings can transform a dish without adding calories or fat (for the most part). After all, this Vitamin C-deficiency disease spawned the chemical name ascorbate for Vitamin C.
Vitamin C promotes assimilation of calcium into the bone, protects against leaching of calcium out of the bones, and fights the oxidative stress that works against assimilation.
However, no other antioxidant can perform the many additional physiological and biological roles that vitamin C fills.
Phagocytes are a type of white blood cell that envelop pathogens and other dangerous particles. Some pathogenic viruses and bacteria create neuraminidase, an enzyme that keeps them from being trapped in mucus, one of the body’s natural lines of defense. Vitamin C and hydrogen peroxide can kill microorganisms and can dissolve the protective capsules of some bacteria, such as pneumococci. Cyclic GMP plays a central role in the regulation of many physiologic responses, including the modulation of immune responses. Studies on normal and chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils” Acta Vitaminologica et Enzymologica 1982 4(1-2):163-168. If there aren’t enough SVCTs to carry all of the vitamin C into the blood, or all of the doors are closed, the vitamin C that was not absorbed is forced to exit the body. Vitamin C’s half life is quite short, about 30 minutes in blood plasma, a fact that the IM and NIH failed to recognize. Hickey and Roberts decided to perform an experiment to measure the blood plasma levels of liposomal vitamin C, which was published in the Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. Hickey and Roberts have shaken the foundation and confidence of the IM and NIH for failing to investigate the use of high-dose vitamin C properly. Hickey and Roberts confronted the IM and NIH with their own data however they claim the saturation point is reached at a certain concentration of ascorbic acid in blood plasma. As well, there are few other nutritive supplements that can even approach the safety of any amount of vitamin C. If you can eat three oranges, if you can drink a carbonated cola, or if you can add vinegar on your fish fry or on your salad, there is little to worry about. This neutralizes stomach acid and automatically keeps the rest of your gut from being acidic. A typical 155 pound goat is capable of producing over 13,000 milligrams of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) daily. It has long been considered that all animals with the exceptions of guinea pigs, monkeys, and humans can produce their own vitamin C.
This biological trait disappeared from the guinea pig, flying mammals, the monkey, and man (Chatterjee et all 1975). The step from the aquatic to the terrestial mode of life was a profound change involving a tremendous range of adaptations under strong selection pressure (Chatterjee et all 1975). Each Lypo-Spheric™ product is formulated with one goal in mind: to provide you with effective doses of nutrients without the use of binders, fillers, artificial colors or artificial flavors. Within minutes of taking a Lypo-Spheric™ product, millions of liposomes will start to move from your bloodstream and into your cells – intact, and ready to work. We now guarantee that our Lypo-Spheric™ Vitamin C, Lypo-Spheric™ R-ALA and Lypo-Spheric™ GSH are 100% non-GMO.
Vitamin supplements are not a replacement for a well balanced diet, but it acts as an insurance policy. People buy supplemental insurance for the same reason they buy vitamin supplements, to feel protected. Many people could benefit from taking a vitamin supplement whether that be a multivitamin or individual vitamins. Collagen is important to maintain skin elasticity (youthful skin), as well as help prevent bruising.
LivOn Labs produces Lypo-Spheric™ supplements including vitamin C and other essential antioxidants. Dietary supplements are available in a variety of forms: traditional tablets, capsules, and powders, in addition to drinks and energy bars.
Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, UNIFESP (Federal University of SA?o Paulo, Brazil), Av Rouxinol, 1041 cj. But many of the roots and seeds and leaves and flowers pack surprising additional health benefits of their own. Thanks to presumed estrogen-like properties, anise may increase milk flow in breastfeeding mothers, treat menstrual symptoms and boost libido, according to WebMD.
Ascorbate literally means “against scurvy.” Were this its only function, tiny amounts of Vitamin C would be sufficient for most people on the planet. Its strong, connective, elongated fibrils are found in skin, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, the intestines, and the discs between spinal vertebrae. Increased neutrophil function and clinical improvement after oral ascorbate in 2 patients with chronic granulomatous disease” South African Medical Journal 1979 56(12):476-480. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of abnormal neutrophil motility by ascorbate” South African Medical Journal 1979 56(11):429-433. Ascorbic acid in normal mast cells and macrophages and neoplastic mast cells” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1965 119:52-56. Potentiation of in Vitro and in vivo lymphocyte responses” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research.
NIH researchers established the RDA for vitamin C by conducting a test 12 hours or 24 half life’s after consumption. They have repeatedly challenged the RDA for vitamin C on studies using only 15 healthy subjects and single dosages. They later published a paper in early 2004  showing they had achieved three times greater concentration of vitamin C in the blood circulation than previously thought possible using high-dose vitamin C [Annals Internal Medicine, April 6, 140: 533-37,2004].
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient and important for your diet since humans are one of the few mammals that does not produce or store vitamin C. That means from 1965 – 1994, over 3 million people died in hospitals because of prescription drugs!
He is one of the leading vitamin C experts in the world and frequently lectures about the proper role of vitamin C and antioxidants in the treatment of a host of medical conditions and diseases to medical professionals all over the globe. As I liked to tell my university students, now there is something for you to answer when your parents ask what you learned in school today. Aside from intravenous sodium ascorbate, the vast majority of research showing that vitamin C is effective in prevention and treatment of disease has used plain ascorbic acid. As a comparison, the recommended dietary allowance for humans of vitamin C proposed and used by nutritionists, is 90 milligrams.
Scientist have extensively studied the human genome and identified the defective gene for the synthesis of the active enzyme protein, L-gulonolactone oxidase or GLO (Stone 1979). Other notable animals that do not synthesize vitamin C are insects, invertebrates, and fishes. This would explain why under stress goats were able to produce a higher level of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) than when unstressed (Stone 1979). The research on vitamin C is plentiful, a simple Google search of vitamin c studies brings up over 30,000,000 results (that’s 30 million!).
From promoting longevity to fighting pain and more, here are 26 of the healthiest herbs and spices of all time, as nominated by HuffPost Wellness Editor, Dr.
Due to the short half life of vitamin C, many studies make the conclusion that high-dose supplemental vitamin C is ineffective. Their results indicate that, following oral intakes, high blood plasma levels can be achieved with liposomal vitamin C formulations. They also contend that the RDA is intended to set a level of nutrient consumption that would prevent disease, specifically Scurvy, among the vast majority of the population. Lately it has (again) been open season on vitamin C, especially if taken as cheap ascorbic acid. It is a commercial antioxidant, but cannot be utilized by the body as an essential nutrient.
The stomach is designed to handle strong acid, and nutrients are not destroyed by this strong stomach acid. As a biological defense mechanism, during times of stress ascorbic acid would be created in massive amounts. The Dietary Supplement Label All products called a dietary supplement have a Supplement Facts panel that lists the contents, amount of ctive ingredients per serving, and other added ingredients (like fillers, binders, and flavorings).
There is a need for large-scale longitudinal data on treatment utilization and outcomes, stress, emotion, and pain. NIH researchers continue to maintain that no more than 200 milligrams of oral vitamin C is required for human health and that a diet which includes the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables would provide adequate vitamin C.
Linus Pauling, the world’s most qualified advocate of vitamin C, urged people to take pure ascorbic acid powder or crystals.
If you encounter a powder that is substantially less potent than that, it may contain fillers.


The absence of GLO in the human liver blocks the conversion of glucose into ascorbic acid leading to an illness known as Scurvy (Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism).
The need for ascorbic acid may be very small for these species therefore they may supplement via their diet to maintain the proper levels of ascorbic acid. The manufacturer suggests the meal, but you or your health care provider might choose that a different amount is more appropriate for you.Dietary Supplements EffectivenessShould you don’t eat a nutritious variety of foods, some supplements might help you get adequate amounts of essential nutrients.
Hickey and Roberts state that due to its rapid deterioration, a very high dose of vitamin C would not achieve the same concentration in the blood serum over time as several administered doses. Although they can produce some vitamin C, domestic dogs and cats make much less than wild animals.
When facing significant health stresses, C-making animals can dramatically increase ascorbic acid production by as much as 13 times normal levels. However, supplements can’t take the place of all of the foods that are important to a healthy diet. Randomized long-term trial of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type-1 diabetes. The National Cancer Institute has abandoned their 5-a-day recommendation in favor of a 9-a-day servings of fruits and vegetables once they realized five servings did not provide the proper dietary intake of vitamin C and other essential vitamins in the prevention of cancer or heart disease. This could explain why wild animals tend to remain vibrantly healthy until they succumb to old age. Scientific evidence shows that some dietary health supplements are beneficial for overall health and for managing some health conditions.
People who have a lot of problems with hiatal hernias or reflux can actually regurgitate enough acid over a period of months where they damage and scar the throat. Patients are recruited from web sites for patient advocacy and health enhancement programs. Therefore this long-term study was undertaken to assess the efficacy, safety and acceptability of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetic patients.
Methods: In this 2-year randomized clinical parallel design study, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled and divided in 2 groups.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not determine whether dietary supplements are ffective before they are marketed.Dietary Supplements Safety and RiskMany supplements contain ingredients that can have strong effects within the body.
Group I (n=12) received usual care (ie, diet, exercise, and insulin), and group II (n=12) received 500 mL camel milk in addition to diet, exercise, and insulin. Always be alert to the potential of unexpected side effects, especially when taking a new product. Supplements are most likely to cause side effects or harm when individuals take them instead of prescribed medicines or when individuals take many supplements mixed with. Some supplements can boost the risk of bleeding or, if an individual takes them before or after surgery, they are able to affect the person’s response to anesthesia. Dietary supplements may also interact with certain prescription medications in ways that might cause problems.
As a result, you may be getting good of these ingredients than you think, and more might not be better. Taking more than you need is always more costly and can also raise your chance of experiencing side effects.
For example, getting an excessive amount of vitamin A can cause headaches and liver damage, reduce bone strength, and cause birth defects.
Previous studies have found that between 30% and 60% of pediatric neurology patients have used CAM at some point in their lives. A supplement’s safety depends on many things, such as its chemical makeup, how it works in the body, how it is prepared, and the dose used. Your health care provider can help you determine which supplements, if any, might be valuable for you.Keep a record of the supplements you take in one place, just as you should be doing for all your medicines. Whereas, the effect of vitamin C on conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumor cells has been documented, the mechanism of vitamin C induced increase in tumor cell response to PDT is unclear.
Note the particular product name, the dose you take, how often you take it, and the reasons you use each one. You can also bring the products you use with you when you see your health care provider.Dietary supplementsFederal Regulation of Dietary SupplementsDietary supplements are products intended to supplement the diet. They are not drugs and, therefore, aren’t intended to treat, diagnose, mitigate, prevent, or cure diseases.
In this report we demonstrate the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 significantly increases its apoptotic activity in tumor cells. While the supplement company is responsible for having evidence that their products are safe and the label claims are truthful and not misleading, they do not have to provide that evidence to the FDA before the product is marketed.Dietary supplement labels may carry certain kinds of health-related claims. Interestingly, we observed that the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 only and not its addition to a prior photo-exposed mixture to MC540 is critical for its enhanced sensitivity. Manufacturers are permitted to say, for example, that the dietary supplement addresses a nutrient deficiency, supports health, or perhaps is linked to a particular body function (like immunity or heart health).
Such a claim must be followed by the words, “This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These findings provide impetus to the approach in developing ROS generating small molecule compounds with potent apoptosis inducing activity. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.”Manufacturers must follow certain good manufacturing practices to ensure the identity, purity, strength, and composition of their products. These data could have implications in the use of vitamin C in photo-sensitizer-mediated reactions with the view to favorably tailoring the cancer cell milieu for efficient apoptotic execution.
If the FDA finds a product to be unsafe or else unfit for human consumption, it may take enforcement action to get rid of the product from the marketplace or use the manufacturer to voluntarily can remember the product.Also, once a dietary supplement is on the market, the FDA monitors info on the product’s label and package insert to make sure that information about the supplement’s content is accurate and that any claims made for the merchandise are truthful and not misleading.
Many patients are still not discussing their CAM use with their doctors and are using CAM alongside their conventional medicines, thereby increasing the likelihood for potential interactions. One limitation of this study is that our ability to determine between-site differences is limited by the difference in sample size. Electrodermal measures as clinical markers: Jing-point electrical impedance in adolescent women with chronic pelvic pain. Consequently, skin electrical measures at Jing points are commonly obtained and interpreted for diagnostic purposes. Denise Adams, University of Alberta, 1047 RTF Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada. The objective of this study is to determine whether electrodermal measures at Jing-points are associated with clinical outcomes in adolescents with chronic pelvic pain in a randomized, sham-controlled acupuncture trial.
Methods: We recruited 18 adolescent women aged 13 to 22 years of age suffering from chronic pelvic pain and laparoscopically diagnosed with Stage I-III endometriosis. Using a Hibiki-7 device, normalized electrical impedance values were obtained at all 24 Jing-points for each treatment session.
Phase II: CAM research networks in Canada and the US will notify CAM providers of this study, so they may alert patients. Left-right asymmetry and measures for statistical dispersion (standard deviation and Gini coefficient) of Jing-point impedance values were calculated. Parents or legal guardians may self-identify and reply on behalf of patients under 18 year of age if they meet the criteria for Phase I. With a generalized estimating equation method, we evaluated the association between the electrodermal-derived measures and clinical outcomes while accounting for treatment designation and time. Phase III: The methods for phase II were utilized but CAM associations and training organizations were substituted for CAM research networks. The majority of the cases involved the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve quality of life. Preliminary analyses indicate that, over time, subjects in the active acupuncture arm were more likely to have reduced left-right asymmetry and statistical dispersion of Jing-point measures compared to subjects in the sham-control arm. Further analyses with multivariable models will be performed to assess whether this difference is statistically significant for each electrodermal measure. The chiropractic care of children with otitis media: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation and meta-synthesis. Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 N Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063.
Key words were otitis media and related words (ie, acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, ear infections, etc) AND chiropractic. A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with a meta-synthesis of the literature with a focus on chiropractic management and the application of a whole systems research (WSR) evaluation. Results: Our systematic review revealed 20 articles consisting of 6 case reports, 5 case series, 1 retrospective cohort, 2 prospective cohorts, 2 reviews of the literature, 2 commentaries, 1 survey study and 1 prospective, parallel-group, observer-blinded, randomized feasibility study. Due to the lack of higher-level research design, a meta-analysis of the literature was not possible.
This included the use of otoscopy and tympanogram to provide objective pretreatment and comparative outcome measures. Eighty-nine percent of respondents reported treating pediatric patients; patients under the age of 17 made up 12% of chiropractic and 20% of both naturopathic and osteopathic patients.
Activator, Gonstead, Toftness, Chiropractic Biophysics, and Diversified Techniques were utilized with an emphasis on the upper cervical spine (the C1 or C2 vertebral bodies).
Approximately two-thirds of both osteopaths and naturopaths disagree or strongly disagree that immunizations are safe compared to one-third of chiropractors. One paper described utilization of cranial technique, 2 papers described a dietary intervention, and 2 papers utilized soft-tissue massage to augment spinal manipulative therapy. Fifteen studies were amenable to the WSR evaluation resulting in a score of 7.06 from a maximum of 11. The immunizations of most concern to the 3 professions included MMR, varicella, influenza, DPTP, and hepatitis. The most common reasons for concern were related to safety, including that vaccines may contain dangerous ingredients, may produce side effects, and may be linked to future problems such as neurological damage. Conclusion: This systematic review highlights the need for more higher-level research designs in addition to incorporating new methodologies (ie, whole systems research) reflective of the holistic and vitalistic clinical and theoretical framework of chiropractic. The chiropractic care of children with enuresis: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation. Significantly more naturopaths advised parents against vaccinations (27%), compared to 10% of chiropractors, and 12% of osteopaths (P=.0002).
Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 North Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063.
There was no significant difference between groups for those advising parents in favor of vaccinations (15% C, 14% N, 6% O) (P=.1143).
Key words were enuresis, nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting as well as related words AND chiropractic.
A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with an evaluation using WSR evaluation.
Results: Our systematic review revealed 7 articles meeting the eligibility criteria for review.
Four of the 7 papers involve case reports describing the care of children aged 8 to 14 years with primary complaints of nocturnal enuresis. Spinal manipulative therapy involved the use of Toggle recoil, Sacro-Occipital Technique, Activator Methods, Gonstead Technique, and Diversified Technique to address primarily segmental dysfunctions in the lumbosacral spine. We conducted a systematic review to assess the nature and severity of adverse events associated with pediatric acupuncture.
A large prospective cohort study (N=171) demonstrated improvement in wet nights per week from baseline following 2 weeks of care. In a randomized clinical trial, within-group comparison of pretreatment and comparative rates of enuresis subjects demonstrated an improvement. However, the study was fraught with research design issues such as randomization and biostatistics.
Six of the 7 studies were amenable to WSR evaluation and resulted in a scoring of 7.33 from a maximum possible score of 11 points. One reviewer screened all articles, while the second reviewed all excluded articles to ensure that no article was inappropriately excluded.
Full articles of potentially relevant references were retrieved and assessed by two independent reviewers. The use of Whole Systems Research provides promise in contributing to evidence-based practice and reflects the holistic and vitalistic chiropractic approach to patient care. Results: Seven thousand, two hundred sixty-two potentially relevant articles were identified.
Eleven of these studies included adults as the majority of patients; for these studies the age of the patient experiencing the adverse event was never reported.
Most of the adverse events that have been identified in children were mild and included pain, bruising, and worsening of symptoms. The few adverse events rated as moderate or serious included one pneumothorax, 2 infections, and 2 cases of complications from needles left in the body. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Life University (Atlanta, Georgia). A 26-item questionnaire was sent to 9000 subscribers of an online newsletter from Midwifery Today Magazine. The first domain identified demographics (midwife credentials, age, years in practice, and place of practice).
The second domain queried participants regarding their formal and postgraduate training on the subject of chiropractic. The third domain attempted to identify their experience (ie, positive or negative experience) with chiropractic personally and professionally as it pertains to pregnancy and infant care. The fourth domain asked their opinion about the safety of chiropractic care for pregnant and pediatric patients. The fifth domain surveyed their knowledge regarding the scope of practice of chiropractic for pregnant and pediatric patients. The respondent ranged in age from 41 to 50 years with practice experience ranging from 6 to 10 years.
With respect to their training on chiropractic, 31% (n=57) reported receiving formal education (ie, during midwifery education) on the subject of chiropractic. Fifty-five of the 157 who did not indicated receiving some education on chiropractic through continuing education seminars. With respect to the midwife responders’ experience with chiropractic, 95% (n=176) admitted to making a professional referral to a chiropractor with 73% (n=137) having referred an infant to a chiropractor. Ninety-two percent (n=171) reported being chiropractic patients with another 58% (n=124) presenting their child for chiropractic care.
Over 90% indicated experiencing a positive experience as patients and with their child’s care.
All of the respondents perceived chiropractic was safe for pregnant patients, while only 97% considered chiropractic safe for children. An overwhelming majority of the responders (98%) indicated that chiropractors work with birth professionals, while 92% indicated that they were knowledgeable about the role of chiropractic in prenatal care. Lastly, 75% indicated interest in learning more about chiropractic, with 86% wanting more evidence-based practice chiropractic. From the 809 articles reviewed, 18 articles met the full inclusion criteria and proceeded to data extraction.
Identified adverse events include local pain or soreness, swelling, mild fevers, and skin rashes.
Thus far, the majority of adverse events reported have been mild with few moderate or serious adverse events occurring in pediatric patients.


Total weight and body composition changes in response to weight reduction diets of varied protein content in midlife women. Age-related changes in body composition for women include loss of lean mass and gains in total weight, fat mass and central fat deposition.
There is growing evidence that diets with low-to-moderate carbohydrate and fat content and increased levels of high-quality protein are effective for weight loss. Greater subjective satiety is reported by subjects following test meals containing whey protein compared to other protein sources. The beneficial effects of whey protein on satiety, thermogenesis, and lean body mass protection suggest that whey may be a preferred protein source for weight loss treatment. The specific aims of this study are to assess weight loss in subjects receiving energy-reduced dietary regimens and to evaluate parameters of weight and body mass change between the 3 treatment groups. Study Design: We are conducting a randomized, controlled pilot feeding study to evaluate the effect of different dietary protein sources on weight loss. Endpoint measures include body weight and body composition data obtained at baseline and at 8 weeks for dietary treatment.
The HP diet and the WP diet produced greater total fat loss and less total lean tissue loss than the CD. Conclusions: Preliminary data shows that across treatment groups, the high-protein diets conserved lean tissue and promoted reduction of fat tissue.
Trials investigating TCM must be conducted with increased methodological rigor to be of value in evaluations.
The single included study suggesting that acupuncture may be safe and efficacious in CFS is limited in applicability by the use of sham acupuncture as the control. Integration and interface between naturopaths and conventional rural care: empirical findings from a grass-roots research project.
The worsening epidemic of DM in the United States, along with the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and IGT, render the identification of promising interventions for these states a matter of some urgency. Jon Adams, University of Queensland, School of Population Health ,University of Qld, Herston, Queensland, 4006, Australia. While lifestyle interventions based on dietary pattern and physical activity can delay or prevent the onset of diabetes and reduce cardiovascular risk, adherence at the population level is severely limiting.
Pharmacotherapy offers promise for diabetes prevention, but with associated high costs, unacceptability to many patients, and potential toxicity. In this context, the potential role of chromium (Cr), an insulin cofactor, in IGT is of great interest.
Proposed, therefore, is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial conducted at the Yale Prevention Research Center to investigate the effects of daily Cr for 6 months at 2 dose levels on serum measures of glucose tolerance and on endothelial function in adults with IGT, IFG, and IR. The study is powered to detect a clinically meaningful effect of Cr supplementation at either dose on glucose control, and to compare the two doses for equivalence. The study will investigate effects of Cr on both measures of glucose tolerance (glucose, insulin, OGTT) and brachial artery endothelial function, thus combining serum measures with a physiologic test of Cr effects on the vasculature. The proposed study will generate much needed data regarding the efficacy of Cr in those at risk for type 2 diabetes and offers the promise of guiding practice, as well as directing future study. By contributing to knowledge related to potential diabetes prevention strategies, this study addresses one of the more pressing public health issues in the United States today. Risk to human subjects in this study is a minor increment over minimal due to the administration of nitroglycerin as a control in BARS testing. Secondary outcomes: (4) It will show improved well-being, as measured by elevated melatonin and DHEA.
Unlike many relaxation therapies, energy healing requires no participation by the patient, a feature that makes it particularly attractive in the hospital setting, where patients are often anxious, depressed, in pain, or sedated. Despite the increasing use of energy healing, few studies have looked at its benefits and even fewer at its underlying mechanisms of action. In this pilot study, we examined the effects of an energy healing modality known as Reiki on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, both of which participate in the stress response and stress-induced pain and disease progression. Subjects rested for 10 min before baseline heart rate and blood pressure were measured and blood was drawn to determine cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA levels, using commercial immunoassay kits.
Subjects then received a 30- to 45-min Reiki or Pretend Reiki session followed immediately by post-session heart rate and blood pressure measurements and at 2h by blood draws. When asked whether they thought they were in the Reiki or Pretend Reiki group, about 70% of the participants reported that they believed that they had received a true Reiki session. This suggests that the beneficial effects of Reiki on physiology, as compared to the Pretend Reiki, cannot be explained solely by the placebo effect.
Issac Amponsah, Faculty of Pharmacy Kwame Nkrumah University of SC, Knust, Kumasi, 233, Ghana. Effects of ultra-low dilutions of sabal serrulata on human prostate cancer growth: mechanistic studies.
Hakima Amri, Georgetown University, Basic Science Bldg, 3900 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007. Finally, serum protein differential expression was carried out using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis.
Effect of mind-body medicine skills on elements of emotional intelligence in medical students. Yet studies have reported that traits such as altruism and empathy tend to decline throughout medical school training. In an effort to foster medical student self-awareness and mindfulness, which may improve their EI, Georgetown University School of Medicine (GUSOM) offers an experiential course to undergraduate medical students in mind-body medicine skills.
The purpose is to expose students to a variety of mind-body approaches including meditation, imagery, as well as group sharing and listening generously for self-awareness and reflection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Mind Body Medicine Skills (MBS) course on perceived stress, mindfulness, and elements of EI including intrapersonal capacities (attention to feelings, mood repair, clarity of feelings) and interpersonal capacities (perspective-taking, empathetic concern, and personal distress in response to distress in others).
The intervention group (n=30) was comprised of first year medical students who self-selected to participate in this elective. The control group (n=36) included students from the first year class who completed the surveys but did not take the MBS course. Four questionnaires were completed at the start and end of the spring semester by all study participants: the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), and a survey of EI developed by Stratton et al (2005) comprised of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index.
ANCOVA was used to compare the MBS and the control groups at the end of the semester, controlling for beginning scores. Patient perspectives of integrative and primary care management of back and neck paina€”qualitative findings from a randomized clinical trial.
These conditions are additionally some of the most common reasons why patients use complementary therapies, often without dialogue with conventional care providers. The focus groups were conducted separately for those in the integrative vs the conventional treatment groups. The interview data were transcribed ad verbatim and analyzed utilizing inductive content analysis technique.
Eliane Angst, UCLA Center for Excellence in Pancreatic Diseases, 675 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095. A significant reduction in cell numbers was seen with quercetin concentrations of ~30 AµM and a maximum effect at ~75 AµM. In MIA PaCa-2 cells a ~65% reduction in cell number was seen with 75 AµM of quercetin after 48 hours. Starved BxPC-3 cells treated with 75 AµM quercetin showed a ~95% reduction in cell number after 48 hours. Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin has a potent growth-inhibitory effect in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Additional experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism of growth inhibition and animal studies are underway. Flovanoids may reveal to be potent anticancer drugs found in our daily food, leading to specific diet recommendations. These can be taken together to qualify as an academic minor in many of the conventional MA or PhD programs, often forming the basis of a thesis or dissertation required for the terminal degree.
In the fall of 2009, the university will launch a doctorate of nursing practice with a focus in integrative health and healing. Georgetown University developed a concentration of CAM within its Masters in Physiology program in 2003. We address the multicultural perspective, comparing data collected in Canada and Europe to those in the United States. The reason for this is that results on the health-promoting effects of spirituality and religiosity cannot easily be transferred from the United States to countries with different cultural and religious backgrounds. Thus, one has to recognize different concepts of spirituality, different attitudes towards its utilization, and objections against the implementation of it in a particular medical system. In Germany, 3 colleagues have founded the Transdisciplinary Working Group on Spirituality and Health, and in Canada the Canadian Research Network on Spirituality and Health has been active for a couple of years. Data and approaches from these different networks will be combined into this symposium.Dr BA?ssing is an associate professor at the University of Witten, Herdeckea€™s Faculty of Medicine, where he directs the research group Spirituality and Health.
The effect of a€?acupuncture for losing weighta€? on the level of blood sugar: a survey on the mechanism. Hoda Azizi, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing, Beijing, 100029, China. Material and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 66 patients were included in case and control groups.
Blood sugar was examined just before inserting needles and immediately after withdrawal of needles. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the mechanism of acupuncture in losing weight is significantly related to making an increase in BS. John Balletto, Center for Muscular Therapy, Inc, 545 Pawtucket Avenue, Mailbox 304, Pawtucket, RI 02860-6046. As with business startups that begin informally and successfully mature into larger enterprises, growth brings new organizational challenges, together with greater visibility and opportunity. The maturation of massage as a healthcare profession increases the need for a process to formalize the synthesis of massage therapy knowledge from clinical experience and research—to collect what we know and to make such baseline knowledge widely available to practitioners, consumers, and other healthcare stakeholders. The present paper lays out the motivations and framework for creating massage therapy guidelines that are informed both by research and by clinical experience. It also acts as a report to the massage therapy profession and to other stakeholders about the work of the Best Practices Committee of the Massage Therapy Foundation since 2006. And it has the additional goal of providing a healthcare literature basis for future academic discussions of massage.
The discussion here is based on a definition from the Institute of Medicine and on research into the nature of expertise.
Topics addressed include guideline creation, credentialing of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, definition of competence, and the increasing role of technology (that is, informatics) in managing training and task-necessary competencies. The roles of transparency and a wide and open peer review are emphasized as essential to the usability and credibility of guidelines. Health Canada issues consumer advisories regarding the safety of marketed health products, yet the criteria for issuing advisories have not been evaluated for consistency or objectivity. The Causality Algorithm used by Health Canada was used to rate degree of association between the adverse events (AEs) and the products. The Severity of Adverse Events Scale, developed by the National Cancer Institute, was used to determine the severity of the AEs. Most NHP AWRs were issued based on potential AEs from contamination and adulteration, whereas most of the AWRs for therapeutic drugs were issued due to actual AEs.
Of the 6 NHP AWRs issued for actual AEs, 3 (50%) were unassessable for severity, whereas of the 28 AWRs issued for actual therapeutic drug AEs, 1 (3%) was unassessable for severity. The origin of reports for NHPs tended to be from foreign sources or Health Canada, whereas reports for therapeutic drugs were mostly issued by Health Canada in conjunction with drug manufacturers. The potential of a mistletoe (Viscum album L) extract to alleviate adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy: an in vitro study. Stephan Baumgartner, University of Bern, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, Inselspital, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the effect of a mistletoe extract on PBMC with and without concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and compared viability and replication of normal PBMC with that of a T-cell leukemia cell line. The results motivate further preclinical and clinical investigations of mistletoe extracts as an adjuvant medication in cancer therapy to alleviate side effects of conventional therapy.
Stephan Baumgartner, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, University of Bern, Inselspital, Imhoof-Pavillon, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the potential of a commonly used plant pathogen–system, Arabidopsis thaliana infected with the virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae (pv tomato strain DC3000), regarding its response towards a homeopathic treatment.
Compared to Bion (a common SAR inducer used as positive control), the magnitude of the treatment effect of Biplantol was about 50%. None of the other tested preparations yielded significant effects in the overall evaluation. The purpose of this study was to determine remedy effects on a common quantitative measure of complexity, the correlation dimension (D2), of human sleep electroencephalography (EEG). High Hostile subjects increased complexity at C3 and Pz, but decreased complexity at O2 during stage 3 sleep on CC.
In the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects, CC caused significant increases in complexity at Pz and O1 during stage 3 sleep and at C3, C4, and Pz during stage 4 sleep. CC increased complexity significantly at Cz, C4, and O2 during REM sleep in only the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not the objective measure of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings can distinguish verum homeopathic remedies from placebo in human subjects. NV produced more marked effects on increased shifts in sleep stages, with a growth in effects from night 22 to 23. This study examined the effects of olfactory administration of a polycrest homeopathic remedy Sulphur on heart rate variability (HRV).
The Sulphur was given at dilution factors used for preparing 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies (1 potency per session, with potency order randomized), but for each potency, the test solutions were succussed to different degrees (stirred without shaking, 10, 20, or 100 succussions).
Homeopathic remedies increase spectral electroencephalographic power during sleep in healthy young adults.
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of verum vs placebo homeopathic remedies on spectral qEEG measures of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings. Evaluating a nonlinear dynamical model for human flourishing: Relationship of PANAS positive-to-negative-affect ratio and global health and well-being. The purpose of the present study was to compare global physical health (GPH) and well-being ratings of young adults whose P:N mood ratios fell above vs below the Losada line. Despite higher (MCSD) scores in PF, a small sex and age difference between groups, ANCOVAs controlling for MCSD, sex, and age still showed statistical significance of the above PF vs PL group differences.
Gurjeet Birdee, Osher Research Center Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, Suite 22-A West, Boston, MA 02215.
We identified the prevalence of CAM modalities used and the characteristics of users among the pediatric population.



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