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NORMAL CREATININE LEVELS IN CHILDREN UKsite de rencontre equivalent a badoo Microlmollitre but creatinine that is normal.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a preventable condition, responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in older women. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of osteoprosis in Pakistani pastmenopausal women residing in Rawalpindi. Estimation of urinary deoxypyridinoline has emerged as a specific marker for bone turnover [19]. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PAFMJ is a bi - monthly medical journal of the Pakistan Army Medical and Dental Corps that publishes new medical research, original articles, review articles, editorial opinions and original case reports on a wide variety of topics on importance to biomedical science, clinical practice, public health and medical education.
Most of them were having more than five children and all gave history of breast feeding to their children. At present, most analysis for pyridinium crosslinks of bone matrix collagen are done using urine, primarily due to the fact that concentrations in serum are low.
A recent study by Habiba et al’ done on Pakistani population has also revealed an alarming predisposition to osteoporosis ranging from 55 % to over 90 % in the age range of 45 years to over 70 years in postmenopausal ladies [22].
Direct enzyme linked immunoassay for urinary deoxy-pyridinoline as a specific marker for measuring bone Resorption. Medical records were reviewed for: BW, GA, gender, race, APGAR scores, mechanical ventilation, use of medications, fluid intake, urinary output, protein intake, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and SCr during the first days of life.
Medical records were also reviewed for APGAR scores at 5 and 10 min of age, mechanical ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), daily fluid intake, urinary output, protein intake, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and SCr during the first 6 days of life. Patients who were on the oscillator, and who received dopamine, dobutamine, indomethacin, gentamicin, xanthines (aminophylline, caffeine) and diuretics were also identified.Morning laboratory values were analyzed and hemolyzed samples were excluded. This shows that DPD reference range does not differ in our population from Western ladies though belonging to different ethnic groups [20].


The major predisposing factors for osteoporosis include; genetic predisposition, malnutrition with low dietary calcium intake, sedentary life style and multiple pregnancies with extended lactation, all leading to low bone mineral density at the time of menopause [7,8]. Morning laboratory values were collected during the first week of life between day 2 and 6. A paired t-test (with Bonferroni correction) was used for comparison between different days (2, 3, 4 and 5) and day 6 of life. Serum creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance during the first 9 weeks in preterm infants with a birth weight below 1500 g.
Glomerular filtration rate in the preterm infant: the relation to gestational and postnatal age. Variables known to alter SCr were entered in a logistic regression model using a decrease by 10% of SCr between day 2 and 6 of life as a classifying and dependent variable.Top of pageResultsDuring the study period, 1977 newborn infants were admitted to our NICU. The use of plasma creatinine concentration for estimating glomerular filtration rate in infants, children, and adolescents. A simple estimate of glomerular filtration rate in low birth weight infants during the first year of life: noninvasive assessment of body composition and growth.
Relationship between plasma creatinine concentration and glomerular filtration in preterm newborn infants.
We have also shown that infants' SCr (on the fifth day of life) decreases with advancing GA and BW.The high morbidity of VLBW infants during the first 2 days of life, and exposure to multiple agents that might impair renal function, make it very difficult to establish normal reference values of SCr during the first days of life.
The fifth day of life was chosen to study the relationship between SCr and GA or BW because SCr reached a plateau between the fourth and sixth day of life.
Whereas, creatinine clearance increased from 15 to 30 in infants 31 to 34 week GA at birth. IVF intake and urinary output increased during the first days of life as expected, secondary to fluid restriction during the first few days of life. Another explanation for the decrease in creatinine along with an increase in BUN could be related to an insufficient fluid or caloric intake in our patients or could be related to a progressive decrease in tubular back leak of creatinine (a hypothesis that cannot be tested without measurement of GFR).We have shown in our study that SCr decreases with advancing GA.
Our findings are consistent with previous findings of Bueva et al.14 who have shown that plasma creatinine concentration is significantly higher in preterm infants compared to term infants between the first and second day of life, and that creatinine clearance correlates with GA.


In their study there was no difference in SCr among infants of different GA at birth, but these authors found an inverse correlation between SCr and GA from the third day of life to the fifth week.
During the first week of life the maximum value of SCr was significantly higher in the group of infants <27 weeks GA than infants who were 27 to 28 weeks, 29 to 30 weeks and 31 to 32 weeks. We conducted a retrospective review of our patients' medical records; we did not measure creatinine clearance in order to determine if there is any correlation between creatinine clearance and GA or BW.
Any prenatal exposure to nephrotoxic medications such as prostaglandin inhibitors could have altered the results of our study.
Another limitation to our study is the possibility of the presence of a silent PDA that could have affected renal perfusion and function.15 We excluded patients with PDA who were symptomatic and who had an echocardiogram to confirm the diagnosis. We did not have cardiac echocardiograms carried out routinely to exclude patients with silent PDA. We also excluded patients from our study who were on a high ventilator settings (such as on the oscillator), but we did not exclude patients who were on conventional mechanical ventilation.
Any form of mechanical ventilation that increases intrathoracic pressure may impair venous return and renal perfusion.15 However, in our logistic regression analysis mechanical ventilation or CPAP did not have any statistically significant effect on SCr during the study period. It will be difficult to recruit VLBW infants during their first days of life who are not in respiratory distress and on mechanical ventilation. Prospective, long-term studies are needed to explore the maturation of renal function in premature infants and to determine if there is a delay in renal maturation and function that extends beyond the neonatal period to infancy, childhood and or adulthood. However, in infants younger than 29 weeks GA or smaller than 1000 g at birth there is a delay in the decrease of their SCr that extends beyond the first 6 days of life.



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