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Acknowledgments: The authors thank the nurses and physicians of the emergency department and inpatient cardiovascular units, the technical staff of the laboratories, and Drs. Grahic Jump LocationFigure 3.Relative lymphocyte percentages and rapid creatine kinase-MB levels. Anyone can submit a comment any time after publication, but only those submitted within 4 weeks of an article’s publication will be considered for print publication.
The specific activity of three characteristic enzymes, adenylate deaminase, adenylate kinase, and creatine kinase, in the skeletal muscles and heart of a variety of vertebrate land animals, including the human, are surveyed. ReferencesBarsacchi R, Ranieri-Raggi M, Bergamini C, Raggi A (1979) Adenylate metabolism in the heart; regulatory properties of rabbit cardiac adenylate deaminase. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser.
A freelance writer and blogger since 2007, Shamala Pulugurtha's work has appeared in magazines such as the "Guide to Health and Healing" and prominent websites like Brain Blogger and NAMI California.
CK plays a major role in the production of energy in the body, making it necessary for the proper functioning of most tissue and organs. Elevated levels of CK in the blood may indicate a variety of conditions ranging from heart disease, muscular dystrophy, nerve damage to thyroid disorders and kidney malfunction. Your doctor may order a creatine kinase test to screen you for any of the conditions that commonly lead to increased CK levels in the blood. Incremental Value of the Leukocyte Differential and the Rapid Creatine Kinase-MB Isoenzyme for the Early Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction.
Gibbons, MD, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905. One month after publication, editors review all posted comments and select some for publication in the Letters section of the print version of Annals.
Data from this study and available studies in the literature suggest that adenosine monophosphate deaminase in land vertebrates is quite high in white skeletal muscle, usually somewhat lower in red muscle, and 15-to 500-fold lower in cardiac muscle. Biochem J 182:361–366Bausch-Jurken MT, Mahnke-Zizelman DK, Sabina RL (1991) Characterization of the human AMP deaminase multigene family. Pulugurtha has a postgraduate degree in medical microbiology from Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India and has completed course work in psychology and health education.
An enzyme involved in the synthesis and use of energy-providing molecules, it's predominantly found in the cells of the heart, skeletal muscles and brain. CK facilitates the process of energy transduction in muscles and other tissues by catalyzing the formation of energy molecules known as adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. MedlinePlus suggests that it is important to inform the doctor about any medications that you might be taking including ampicillin, amphotericin B, aspirin and alcohol.
Adenosine monophosphate deaminase is active primarily under ischemic or hypoxic conditions which occur frequently in white muscle, only occasionally in red muscle, and ought never occur in heart muscle, and this may therefore account for observed enzyme levels. Int J Pur Pyr Res 2:33Coffee CJ, Solano C (1977) Rat muscle 5?-adenylic acid aminohydrolase.

The amount of CK in the blood depends upon gender, activity level and ethnicity but normally ranges from 22 to 198 activity units per liter of serum, according to the Muscular Dystrophy Association. CK-MB is found in heart, while the skeletal muscles and heart are the main sites for the subtype CK-MM, says Dr. The common North American toad, Bufo americanus, provides a striking exception to the rule with cardiac adenosine monophosphate deaminase as high as in mammalian skeletal muscle, whereas its skeletal muscle level of adenosine monophosphate deaminase is several times lower.
The presence of both a relative lymphocytopenia and an elevated rapid creatine kinase-MB level had a sensitivity of 44%, a specificity of 99.7%, and a positive predictive value of 97% (95% CI, 80% to 99%).
The exceptional levels in the toad are not due to a change in substrate binding and are not accompanied by comparable change in the level of adenylate or creatine kinase. J Biol Chem 252:1606–1612Costanzo JP, Lee RE Jr, Wright MF (1991) Effect of cooling rate on the survival of frozen wood frogs, Rana sylvatica. Nor do they signal any major change in isozyme composition, since a human muscle adenosine monophosphate deaminase-specific antiserum reacts with toad muscle adenosine monophosphate deaminase, but not with toad heart adenosine monophosphate deaminase. They do not represent any general anuran evolutionary strategy, since the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and the giant tropic toad (Bufo marinus) have the usual vertebrate pattern of adenosine monophosphate deaminase distribution.
Lower skeletal muscle activities in anurans may simply represent the contribution of tonic muscle fiber bundles containing low levels of adenosine monophosphate deaminase, but the explanation for the extremely high adenosine monophosphate deaminase levels in heart ventricular muscle is not apparent. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1745–1762Fishbein WN, Davis JI, Nagarajan K, Winkert JW, Foellmer JW (1980a) Immunologic distinction of human muscle adenylate deaminase from the isozyme(s) in human peripheral blood cells: implications for myoadenylate deaminase deficiency. Arch Biochem Biophys 205:360–364Fishbein WN, Davis JI, Winkert JW, Fishbein JD (1980b) Indicator enzyme assays. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104:462–466Fishbein WN, Davis JI, Foellmer JW (1983) Kinetic and immunologic evidence for a complete gene block in myoadenylate deaminase deficiency.
FASEB J 6:A963Gleeson TT (1991) Patterns of metabolic recovery from exercise in amphibians and reptiles. J Exp Biol 160:187–207Hoffman J, Katz U (1991) Tissue osmolytes and body fluid compartments in the toad Bufo viridis under simulated terrestrial conditions. J Comp Physiol B 161:433–439Jenkins RL, McDaniel HG, Atkins L (1991) Changes in AMP deaminase activities in the hearts of diabetic rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1077:379–384Kaletha K, Bogdanowicz S, Raffin J-P (1987) Regulatory properties of pigeon heart muscle AMP deaminase. Biochimie 69:117–123Kaletha K, Skladanowski A (1979) Regulatory properties of rat heart AMP deaminase.
Biochim Biophys Acta 568:80–90Kaletha K, Skladanowski A (1984) Regulatory properties of 14 day embryo and adult hen heart AMP-deaminase. Int J Biochem 16:75–81Kaletha K, Skladanowski A, Bogdanowicz S, Zydowo M (1979) Purification and some regulatory properties of human heart adenylate deaminase.
Int J Biochem 10:925–929Kaletha K, Thebault M, Raffin J-P (1991) Comparative studies on heart and skeletal muscle AMP-deaminase from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Handbook of physiology, sect 10, Am Physiol Soc, Bethesda, pp 189–236Layne JR Jr, First MC (1991) Resumption of physiological functions in the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) after freezing.

Int J Sports Med 11 (Suppl 2):S37-S46Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Biochem J 249:695–703Mendiola P, De Costa J, Lozano MT, Agulleiro B (1991) Histochemical determination of muscle fiber types in locomotor muscle of anuran amphibians. J Biol Chem 265:11482–11486Ogasawara N, Goto H, Yamada Y, Watanabe T (1978) Distribution of AMP deaminase isozymes in rat tissues. Eur J Biochem 87:297–304Ogasawara N, Goto H, Yamada Y, Watanabe T, Asano T (1982) AMP deaminase isozymes in human tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta 714:298–306Ogasawara N, Goto H, Yamada Y, Nishigaki I, Itoh T, Hasegawa I, Park KS (1987) Deficiency of AMP deaminase in erythrocytes. Hum Gen 75:15–18Purzycka-Preis J, Wrzolkowa T, Pawlak-Byczkowska E, Zydowo M (1975) Developmental changes of AMP-deaminase activity in chick heart muscle. Int J Biochem 6:885–887Purzycka-Preis J, Zydowo MM (1987) Regulatory effect of pig heart phospholipids on heart muscle AMP-deaminase. Int J Biochem 19:565–568Raffin JP, Leray C (1980) Comparative study on AMP deaminase in gill, muscle and blood of fish. Comp Biochem Physiol 67B: 533–540Renaud JM, (1991) Seasonal variation in muscle fatigue in the sartorius muscle of the frog Rana pipiens.
Can J Zool 69:1712–1715Ronca-Testoni S, Ronca G (1974) Muscle 5?-adenylic acid aminohydrolase.
J Biol Chem 249:7723–7728Sabina RL, Fishbein WN, Pezeshkpour G, Clarke PRH, Holmes EW (1992) Molecular analysis of the myoadenylate deaminase deficiencies. Neurology 42:170–179Sabina RL, Ogasawara N, Holmes EW (1989a) Expression of three stage-specific transcripts of AMP deaminase during myogenesis. Mol Cell Biol 9:2244–2246Sabina RL, Swain JL, Holmes EW (1989b) Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency.
In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds) The metabolic basis of inherited disease, 6th edn.
McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1077–1084Skladanowski AC, Zydowo MM (1988) Two forms of AMP deaminase in bovine heart. Acta Biochim Polon 35:29–37Skladanowski A, Kaletha K, Zydowo M (1981) Hydro-and thermodynamic properties of bovine heart AMP-deaminase. Int J Biochem 13:865–869Stankiewicz A, Spychala J (1979) Comparative studies on muscle AMP-deaminase.
Regulation by monovalent cations, ATP and orthophosphate of the enzyme from hen, frog, and pikeperch muscle.

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