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16.05.2016, admin  
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Risks for cardiovascular disease include elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, obesity, and diabetes. Elevated homocysteine levels are also identified as an independent risk factor for coronary disease. Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid based on methionine that is normally present in blood. Elevated homocysteine levels are believed to promote thrombogenesis, impair endothelial vasomotor function, promote lipid peroxidation, and induce vascular smooth muscle proliferation. Evidence from retrospective, cross-sectional, and prospective studies links elevated homocysteine levels with heart disease and stroke.Vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin B6 take part in homocysteine metabolism. In the presence of insufficient vitamin B12, homocysteine levels can rise because of inadequate function of methionine synthase [6]. Is a result of several randomized controlled trials indicate that mixtures of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplements without or with vitamin B6 decrease homocysteine levels in individuals with vascular disease or diabetes and in young adult women.

An insufficiency in vitamin B12 causes an amount of homocysteine in the blood [6] and might decrease amounts of substances needed to metabolize neurotransmitters.
Observational research has shown positive associations between elevated homocysteine levels and the incidence of both Alzheimer’s and dementia. Despite evidence that vitamin B12 lowers homocysteine levels and correlations between low vitamin B12 levels and cognitive decline, studies have not shown that vitamin B12 comes with an independent effect on cognition. In a single randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 195 subjects aged 70 years or older without any or moderate cognitive impairment received 1,000 mcg vitamin B12, 1,000 mcg vitamin B12 plus 400 mcg folate, or placebo for 24 weeks. Following a mean of 1.24 months, B-vitamin supplementation did not affect mean cognitive vary from baseline compared with placebo.
However, inside a subset of women with low baseline dietary intake of B vitamins, supplementation significantly slowed the speed of cognitive decline. Another study found similar leads to 142 individuals at risk of dementia who received supplements of two mg folic acid and 1 mg vitamin B12 for 3 months.The authors of two Cochrane reviews and an organized review of randomized trials from the effects of B vitamins on cognitive function figured insufficient evidence can be obtained to show whether vitamin B12 alone or perhaps in combination with vitamin B6 or folate has an effect on cognitive function or dementia.

Additional large numerous studies of vitamin B12 supplementation are essential to assess whether vitamin B12 includes a direct effect on cognitive function and dementia.Energy and enduranceBecause of its role in energy metabolism, vitamin B12 is often promoted as an energy enhancer and an athletic performance and endurance booster.
These claims derive from the fact that correcting the megaloblastic anemia brought on by vitamin B12 deficiency should enhance the associated symptoms of fatigue and weakness.
However, vitamin B12 supplementation seems to have no beneficial impact on performance in the absence of a nutritional deficit.

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