Easy ways to make money while going to college,making money after 70,how to make more money neobux hack,how to make money online at home uk gov - Review

Published 10.05.2015 | Author : admin | Category : How To Make Money On The Internet

HelenPlease go to get your bodyfat measured more accurately, the calculations here are very inaccurate and the advice even worse! First of all - don't worry you can make changes to improve on this and you are young so you do not have a long life time of habits to contend with.
I would not go on a "diet " per say, you need to make permanent changes to see permanent results - which is why diets fail time and time again.
I would advise you to start by drinking 3 litres a water - this a lone will help you feel fuller and eat less - often we confuse thirst for hunger.
Courtney GraleyAssuming heavy work out 5-6 x per week, that brings you to a total of around 2800-3000 calories per day. JamesNot to mention both competed in the golden era where steroids were openly discussed and used to their full extents. RobynIt says that my body fat is 26% but I know that's not right because my stomach is flat and part of my obliques are visible.
PhillupIt just means you have a big ass where with women it goes to legs, stomach, and ass. JennyI currently weigh 130 and I did the calculations above I have 29.58% of body fat how much weight do i need to lose?? Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. Methods for accurately reproducing and eventually printing maps in sufficient quantities to enable cartographical knowledge to a€?penetrate very deepa€™ are in fact a feature only of modern times.
It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the earth's landmass with data from ancient texts.
Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales.
The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Although cuneiform maps may not be forerunners from which later Western maps originate, they share characteristics with other cartographic traditions in their graphic imaging of territorial, social, and cosmological space. Where once such maps would not have been admitted within a general history of cartography, a new view of the meaning of the map can embrace them. By no means do all ancient Near Eastern maps display metrological finesse or even the use of measurement, though some characteristically do, such as the agrarian field and urban plot cadastral surveys. The maps of cities with their waterways and surrounding physical landscape combine cartography of sacred space, seen in the temple plans, with that of economic space, seen in the field surveys. The Babylonian world map is an attempt to encompass the totality of the eartha€™s surface iconographically: land, ocean, mountain, swamp, and distant uncharted a€?regionsa€? This said, it represents more of an understanding of what the world is from the viewpoint of historical imagination than an image of its topography against a measured framework. The diversity of cultures that have sought to preserve their maps, putting them on clay, papyrus, parchment, and other writing media, points to a near universality of making maps in human culture. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) .
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period.
To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path. Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator.
Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side. Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist.
We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust.
The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator.
Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions.
Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands.
European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below.
It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top. During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records.
It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world. But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib.
Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came.
From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole.
The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established.
In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe.
Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess.
Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence. In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity.
Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking.
Although many books have been written about the psychology of violence (as I learned during my days directing a program for court-referred perpetrators), Dr.
The same dynamic of denial applies to entire nationsa€”and goes far toward explaining why the a€?nicesta€? and most restrained people sometimes pick up a gun.
Listening to the Rhino deals not just with outwardly expressed violence, however, but with confronting and transforming archetypal violence (as imaged by the dream figure of the Rhino) manifesting from within the psyche. Following up on Jung's advice to translate emotions into images, Dallett writes about how a symptom or an illness, whether somatic or psychogenic (or both), represents an attempt at incarnation imparted by a spiritual force badly in need of translation from a literal source of suffering into an actively lived symbolic work.
Active imagination furnishes a primary Jungian tool for this kind of deep work, but as Dallett reminds the reader, Marie-Louise von Franz always insisted on the importance of completing at least these four steps: setting the ego aside, tending the images, reacting to the images, and putting the results to work in life (italics added).
This belief may well be a candidate for what Dallett identifies in another context as a pathological identification with spirit: what Jung identified as inflation. In the chapter a€?Sedating the Savage,a€? Dallett presents many examples of how psychotropic medication represses unpleasant emotions while supporting artificial idealized states of happiness and surface contentment. While the matter of healing is a major theme of this book, the other is violence, and Dalletta€™s point here is that when violence is repressed it puts the individual and collective into grave peril. Dallett returns our attention to the potency of active imagination as a tool to activate the psychea€™s potential for literal physical healing as well as psychological wholeness. On the cover is a picture of a rhinoceros with two birds perched on its back, a classic example of a mutually beneficial biological symbiosis. Jungians are often the last bulwark in todaya€™s field of mental health practitioners, who remember the unavoidable reality and necessity of darkness and violence. We must develop an ego that is strong enough to contain the violent side of human nature, Dallett suggests, in order to live up to a€?what Jung saw as the millennial task (of) carrying the divine opposites of good and evil within the individuala€? (p.87).
To contain the worst kinds of violence, Dallett suggests that we find a way to give expression to our destructive impulses without causing too much harm. The gist of Dalletta€™s argument, however, points towards incorporating more of the almost lost Jungian technique of Active Imagination. The Rhino did not simply show up to heal the dreamer, but to inform her that she was to serve him.
In Pat Britta€™s own words a€?During my early association with The Rhino, I could tell he wanted something of me, but I did not know what. In the alchemical laboratory of human life we are also mirrors for transformations on a larger scale, the transformation of the spirit in nature. Dallett reminds us that one-sidedness is one of our greatest dangers, be it the lopsided, misunderstood spirituality that denies the spiritual reality of violence or the overly rational slant of todaya€™s scientific community. We read in some detail here about the work of Jungian analysis, with special emphasis on active imagination, a method for bringing unknown parts of oneself into awareness and into connection with onea€™s everyday personality. Seamlessly, the book then turns to two major topics of special concern in todaya€™s world: the nature of violence and the use of psychotropic drugs.
While this discussion of violence focuses on the psychic sources of explosive violence, another section, on the use of psychotropic drugs, looks at contemporary uses of prescription drugs to damp down or cover up difficult, painful, unwelcome emotions (and violence). What we have in this small book is the fruit of a penetrating mind nourished by long experience of the psyche, and now offering us the essence of that experience, fueled by passionate concern over issues of todaya€™s world.
Why is there so much violence around us - shootings in colleges, bullying in schoolyards, violent movies in theatres, graffiti in public spaces, news on television?
Janet Dallett is a Jungian analyst in her seventies, now living in Port Townsend, Washington. Britt had hundreds of Rhino dreams in the course of her nine-year analysis with Dallettt, which always focused on the meaning of his latest appearance. Britt truly grasped the Rhino, writing poetry about him, painting his picture, and even casting him in bronze so he could stand in her front hall, and her damaged heart healed.
Dallett attributes Britta€™s healing to her commitment to the Rhino, a voice for what Jung calls the Self, the God within. We are doing to the wild part of our psyche what we have done to the wild parts of the earth. The movie cast Hardy as a Romulan clone of Captain Picard (Patrick Stewart) called "Praetor Shinzon." He builds a warship and leads a team of alien Reman in an uprising against their masters. While the movie Nemesis is seriously flawed, I always thought Tom Hardy's performance was exceptional. Bruce Wayne spent thousands of dollars on his Batman batsuit, but you can have one for less.
While it's not the most movie accurate suit you've ever seen, it's definitely one of the cheapest and easiest ways to get the Batman look you're going for.
While you may not think it's impressive now, watch a video of him attending the midnight premiere of The Dark Knight Rises in his costume: Youtube "Scranton Batman" With the voice and the attitude, he really sells it. After the Colorado shooting, you'll never get into an AMC theater without taking off your mask. As long as you have the suit, why not follow these tips to turn your car into a life-size "Tumbler" Batmobile?
What if 2001, the dramatic and somber film about the future of mankind was a summer blockbuster made in 2012? An avid movie buff, Christopher Nolan put the cast and crew of The Dark Knight in a four-day boot camp of eight films whose tone he wanted to emulate.
I missed the screen of Star Trek: The Next Generation Monday so I could see The Dark Knight Rises.
Check out the surprising look of NBC's Munsters reboot 'Mockingbird Lane.' The show will be very different from the sit-com. Christian Bale, who played Batman in the Nolan films recently visited victims of the movie theater shooting.
Before filming, Nolan had the cast watch: Heat (1995), Cat People (1942), Citizen Kane (1941), King Kong (1933), Batman Begins (2005), Black Sunday (1977), A Clockwork Orange (1971), and Stalag 17 (1953). Christopher Nolan's film The Dark Knight Rises is analyzed a thousand ways and there have been hundreds of interviews by the cast and crew. The scenes with the prison pit were filmed in Jaipur Rajasthan, India near the Pakistan border.
When Nolan and David developed Batman Begins and The Dark Knight they plotted action beats they needed and where they would be in the movie.
Instead of using the feline inspired style of the 90s film Batman Returns, they used a more aggressive street fighting style. In the beginning of Dark Knight Rises Gotham City's crime rate is at a all-time low thanks to the "Dent Act." Named after the late District Attorney Harvey Dent (Aaron Eckhart), the city has been victorious against crime. On both Batman Begins and The Dark Knight Christopher Nolan and production designer Nathan Crowley said they wouldn't do the Batplane.
Tom Hardy did as much of his own fight choreography as he could, but he had a challenge with the fight scenes with Batman in costume.
New York City was an important shoot for The Dark Knight Rises based on the city's history and the comic book parallels with Gotham City. I think that’s a decent estimate, but it’s hard to determine how rigorous you are working out. The body fat % calculator says that I am 36% body and need to lose around 20lbs (I weigh 169) to see any abs. You can be a sumo wrestler who is over 300 pounds and be a gifted athlete (fit), perhaps healthy as a horse, but also incredibly obese at the same time. I'm not worried about that other than my ass is flatish and all my fat is stored in my stomach. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals.
A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. But the trans-local culture did not penetrate very deep The high culture owed this peculiar combination of wide expanse and superficiality to the nature of communications in the preindustrial world, in combination with scarcity and political factors. Ancient a€?educated mena€? covered huge distances in both place and time to debate scientific questions about geography. In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store.
When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time. Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch.
It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic. In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Cuneiform texts provide several varieties of evidence for the ancient Mesopotamian efforts to express order by describing, delimiting, and measuring the heaven and earth of their experience, producing house, temple, plot, and field plans, city maps, and, with respect to the celestial landscape, diagrammatic depictions of stars. The historiography of maps and cartography has emerged from criticisms similar in nature to those made against the modernist or presentist historiography of science, namely, that in reifying science or sciences such as cartography, false evolutionary histories are liable to be constructed. Concern for orientation is attested in a number of maps, but not always in the same way, although with a tendency toward an oblique orientation northwest to southeast. The cities of Nippur and Babylon had a religious and cosmological function as well as a political and economic one. It offers a selective account of the relationship of Babylon to other places, including those that were at the furthest reach of knowledge. Cognitive psychologists claim that we come into our physical world mentally equipped to perceive and describe space and spatial relationships. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C. Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological.
It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period.
Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one.
A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years.
There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man.
The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps.
The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest.
In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328).


The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass.
According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense. We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ.
That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c.
That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents.
The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps.
We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general.
Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed.
While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions.
By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. Dallett's clearly and concisely written book offers thoughtful and sometimes surprising reflections, case anecdotes, and scholarly musings on violence as a spiritual problem. It is easy for introverts in particular to skip the final step, but doing so severs inner from outer, contemplation from action. James Hillman has presented a similar critique, which can be summed up by the dictum: Silence the symptom and lose the soul. It is tiresome to be reminded that Jung believed active imagination to be the sine qua non of coming to terms with the unconscious. Oxpeckers or a€?tick birdsa€? sit on top of the rhino eating insects and noisily warn of approaching danger. It contains big ideas that deserve to be pondered and digested many times and reading this book is an excellent way to re-engage this material. Dallett reminds us that the etymology of the word a€?violencea€? suggests a close relationship between violence and God. Dallett makes a convincing case that our culturea€™s addiction to love, peace and happiness in effect creates senseless violence and that we must learn and find a way to teach our children, that the terrible side of life is not going anywhere. Dallett reminds us that, once a respectful and responsible attitude towards the unconscious psyche has been developed, the meditative dialogue of Active Imagination is the technique for the on-going and life- long task of engaging emerging images. Dallett grounds her reflections by allowing us a glimpse into the lives of two former patients, Pat and Teresa and she shows us the difference in attitude of these two women towards powerful inner animal dream figures.
Britt had this dream, but because she took the image seriously and engaged it for decades to come.
It is a potentially dangerous, primitive animal that has visited the dreams and fantasies of Ms. Dallett makes the analogy to the alchemical work, which Jung had translated into psychological terminology. At first I thought his message was personal a€“ urging me to view life as whole, not with the limited eye of my rational ego. Our collective ego is still trying to maintain its autonomy in relation to the larger mysteries while the power of the feminine in her own totality is pressing into consciousness.
This discussion is unusually clear and thorough, giving a readable and rounded picture of this form of psychological worka€”both its potentiality for healing and its dangers.
And why are we so fascinated by violence that crime, killing, and war are often at the top of the news? I hear him pronounce: a€?If a thing is worth doing it is worth doing easily!a€? By this he means, according to Britt, that if a thing is worth doing it is worth taking the time to get to know it, so the thing can show you how it wants to be done. When connected to your inner program something beyond the ego comes to your aid, but when you try to go against your destiny you hit a wall. Later she realized he wanted to reach a wider audience; he wanted to speak for life, all life, animals, plants and the earth itself. We North Americans have naively idealized the Christian virtues of kindness and self-sacrifice, dangerously repressing our so-called negative emotions. We are sedating the suffering of body and soul with psychoactive drugs, unaware that pain is a reaction against something that needs to change.
This seemingly obscure appearance has the Internet is buzzing since someone pointed out how much Waits' voice and mannerisms resemble Heath Ledger's performance as the Joker in The Dark Knight.
Parnassus together, it's not that much of a stretch to imagine Waits giving Ledger the idea. Tom Hardy is a big actor now, but in 2002 he starred in the Star Trek flop called Star Trek: Nemesis. He was so excited to get the role that the audition tape he sent in was just him dancing around "butt naked" in a hotel room.
While Hardy's acting skills were ignored in Star Trek: Nemesis his acting was finally recognized and celebrated in The Dark Knight Rises.
I mean, I liked it in the sense that it was the only Spiderman movie adaptation ever, but there were things that really bothered me.
This, to me, is akin to the people complaining about how dark the Batman movies are compared to the sixties TV show. I think Andrew Garfield is a rare actor like Christian Bale or Christopher Reeve who can play both the hero and the alter ego equally well - he's a fantastic Spiderman, as well as a great Peter Parker. I didn't think the Lizard wasn't as compelling a villain as he could have been, and some cliches have still crept into the script.
I Roommate - When Bender and Fry decide to start looking for apartments, they encounter a series of bizarre and often horrific places to live. Hell is Other Robots - When Bender gets religion, his conversation to goodness is short-lived, and he's condemned to an eternity in Robot Hell. A Big Piece of Garbage - An enormous ball of garbage from the twentieth century is headed straight for New York in this episode, and Professor Farnsworth puts on an Internet video to explain where it came from. Attack of the Killer App - When Fry and Bender hold a bet to see who can get the most followers from their new eyePhones, they agree that the loser has to dive into a pool of goat filth. In The Dark Knight Rises they wrote the story and characters and let the action develop naturally.
Christopher Nolan expected her to perform all the fights herself without using a stunt double.
Hathaway impressed everyone by putting in some long and intense hours of training throughout the entire shoot.
Except that act was based on a lie of Dent's supposed heroism and the evil still lingered beneath the surface. The designers began removing parts of the full head mask to make a simplified minimalist look.
But the logistics of shooting there were so complicated, that the producers and managers spent eight full months preparing for the twelve-day shoot. I'm a good size except I have lots of lower belly fat that keeps me from a flat toned stomach. Due to my body shape, is it possible to actually see abs prior to a 25% body fat percentage? Female fitness models are in the range of 21-24%, and ripped athletes in the 14-20% bracket. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment.
Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals.
They communicated in the same a€?learned languagea€?a€” Greek a€” and discussed a€?the same body of ideasa€?. The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material. Only Senefeldera€™s invention of lithography in 1796, and the innovative use of it for the mass printing of graphics, including in color, In the century that followed, allowed maps to be printed and distributed in quantity.
Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist. A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes.
Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive.
The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. Various orders of power are implicit in the expression of these aspects of order in the environment. Some originating point is identified, such as the origins of science in Greece, or of mapmaking in Babylonia, from which a continuous history may be written from a presentist perspective, a tale of a discipline's inexorable progress from its originating moment to the present. Ancient Near Eastern maps may not have invariably been meant as exact or direct replications of territory, but there can be little doubt that they distinctively reflect the conceptual terrain of their social community and culture at large. In the periods of their supremacy each was viewed as the center of the universe, as the meeting ground between heaven and the netherworld. The linguistic act of spatial description is perhaps a proto-mapmaking function of our very desire and attempt to place ourselves in relation to the physical world. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries.
From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties. We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors.
Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor.
In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions. In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged.
Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world.
Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places.
To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society. Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries.
The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections.
Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance.
Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. Also criticized is the widespread habit of using meditation to get rid of (repress) the emotionally charged images flowing from the unconscious.
I would like to see this insightfully expressed logic extended more often to the state of the oppressed struggling on every side and in all corners of the world. The Indoa€“European root of the word a€?violenta€? is wei, which means vital force and one definition of the word God is a€?an immanent vital forcea€? (p.86).
The reader is encouraged to reflect on seemingly counter-intuitive statements, such as a€?violence is the human spirita€™s protest against the enforcement of more goodness than it can stomacha€? (p.92). This suggestion, although fundamentally right, may need more elaboration than this book provides, because the danger of infection by archetypal forces is high and not to be taken lightly.
With reference to Barbara Hannah, Dallett devotes a segment of the book to a much needed review of what Active Imagination is and discriminates what it is not. We are informed on the front page that this book was written with contributions by The Rhino and by Dalletta€™s former patient Pat Britt.
Dallett writes, a€?The Rhino has been the central figure in hundreds of Pata€™s dreams continuing still today.
The alchemists believed that their work was to redeem God or the son of God, whom the alchemists imagined as a a€?fabulous being conforming to the nature of the primordial mothera€? (p. We are encouraged to look at the place within ourselves where we remain a€?fundamentalista€?, where spirit is trapped in a literal, concrete enactment, physical illness or cherished convictions of the nature of reality.
The cover photo of a rhinoceros with two small birds casually perched on its back leads us into a text full of insight into both interior and outer worlds. Only a profound understanding can put forth such subtle and complex ideas in such apparently plain talk. Britt had been so ill with bacterial endocarditis and kidney failure that she was expected to die in her early forties.
However, if something is hard to do you should change your relationship with it, or let it go. We are suppressing the healthy masculinity of normally active children with Ritalin, either because the way we are living is driving our children crazy or because they do not conform to our expectations. Ten years later, Hardy plays the vicious terrorist Bane in the Batman movie The Dark Knight Rises (2012). He saw himself as a "fairly new actor" and put those natural skills aside to play the way others wanted him to. Yet overall, I thought it was a great movie that brought new life to the faltering Spiderman series. The 'Lamborghini Batman' paid $250,000 for a custom Batmobile replica to visit sick kids across the country dressed as Batman. Rutger Hauer was cast in Batman Begins and Nolan has said Blade Runner also inspired the film. Leela and Fry journey to rescue him, and discover Robot Hell is hidden under an abandoned amusement park in New Jersey. Presidents' heads sends Fry, Leela, and the professor back in time to the founding of the country.
But, two days prior to the shoot, American military forces killed al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in Pakistan.
However, the Batcave was a full 360 degree set to allow Nolan freedom to choose camera angles. Try and focus on eating fresh food not processed with no proportion of meat of fish if you include it in your diet being bigger than a packet of cigarettes - and then fill up on vegetables.
If you are concerned you are eating too little, or too much, you may consider getting a BMR test using a metabolic analyzer. I've been watching what I eat and working out but I feel like nothing is getting me the right results and it's almost summer time..
This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. Their debate a€?did not penetrate very deepa€? within the culture, which is why one should draw a sharp distinction between descriptive geography, with its wide application, and mathematical or scientific geography, for which no such application was envisaged or achieved. The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation.
After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns.
They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy.
The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. Administrative and economic powers support, or even require, the making of maps, as well as determining overtly the topographies that maps depict. Critical cartographic history, however, has laid aside such ideas, and we no longer look to (in the words of Denis Wood), a€?a hero saga involving such men as Eratosthenes, Ptolemy, Mercator, and the Cassinis, that tracked cartographic progress from humble origins in Mesopotamia to the putative accomplishments of the Greeks and Romansa€?. The maps of buildings and fields focus on the urban and agricultural environment, matters of critical importance to whatever political and economic powers prevailed. The map of the principal temple in Babylon, E-sagil, which was the earthly abode of the national deity Marduk, represents the terrestrial counterpart to the celestial residence of the great god Enlil, designed, figuratively speaking, on the blueprint of the cosmic subterranean sweet watery region of the Apsu.
By extension, we should not doubt that mapmaking too, in all its historical subjectivity, is a universal feature of human culture. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret. The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances.
If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps.
This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. In my men's groups we always knew which men were at greatest risk for another violent incident: those who maintained that their anger was an aberration they had now overcome with penance and good intentions.
An overemphasis on decency and virtue not only darkens the personal and collective shadow, it unconsciously identifies with divine goodness and thereby falls into inflation and self-righteousness. These and other New Age maneuvers are enlisted in the service of propping up the happy persona that conceals the darker dimensions of conflictual psychic life. Yet Dallett goes farther: Psychiatric medication should only be used to contain severe symptoms, she argues, preferably in small doses and even then only temporarily. Most of the examples of violence in this book break forth from the uptight middle class, where swings are removed from parks to prevent lawsuits.
In Jungian thought, the Self, which is the psychological equivalent to the image of God, often breaks into consciousness violently.
Active Imagination is not guided fantasy nor is it art, but, following Hannah, Dallett sees Active Imagination as a creative function. 28), an earthy, fabulous, night creature, like the Rhino, equally life threatening and life giving. We meet the rhino of the title as he first appears in the dreams of a gifted woman whom the author has known for more than 30 years, initially as her Jungian analyst.


Rage, she says, is a natural instinctive response to a threat to the Self; violence is the human spirita€™s protest against the enforcement of more goodness than it can stand. It was one thing to believe Ledger had completely transformed himself with his voice, mannerisms, and posture into something wholly unique. I liked Tobey McGuire as the nerdy Peter Parker, but his whiny voice made him a terrible Spiderman. His dear Uncle Ben is killed by a criminal he could have stopped, leading him to adopt the persona of Spiderman to fight crime.
Which episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation is 'embarrassing?' Where are they filming the Japanese movie Wolverine? I am working on losing 10 lbs but according to this calculator I am over 35% fat and therefore obese.
The Calorie Calculator will find out your weekly calorie need after analyzing your age, gender, height, weight, and the level of activity you undertake usually.
I suspect your lean body mass is a little lower, and your body fat a little higher than you think. That being said, you said you want to be fit, and fitness is usually defined as the ability to perform physical work. Also how can I get rid of a little bit of this fat poich on my lower abdomen so I can acctually have definition but not a six pack? Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. The reasons for this divide include the limited quantity of scientific geographic scholarship, the nature of communications and scarcity, and political factors.
But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion.
Any assumption that maps were widely available in the preindustrial world thus derives from anachronistic thinking based on later developments.
There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents.
Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. The interest of the cuneiform maps lies in their rich articulation of such a feature, uniquely shaped by the particular social norms and forces that emerged and changed within ancient Mesopotamian history. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca. From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II.
There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed.
Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres].
And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world.
It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade.
90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history.
In the light of this observation, the missionary and the terrorist stand revealed as brothers-in-arms.
Making a work of art, breaking a therapeutic impasse, or modifying a relationship are three of many possibilities for new forms of expression that liberate the archetypal power from remaining trapped a€?in mattera€? (in symptom or illness). One can almost hear in popular a€?thinking positivea€? propaganda the voice of the family cheerleader castigating brothers and sisters for being so a€?depressinga€? as to discuss Dad's alcoholic violencea€”or on a national level, the violence inflicted by the precarious rule of empirea€”out in the open. Although the alarm should be raised about overmedicationa€”psychotropics are even being found in public water suppliesa€”I have known people with major psychiatric disorders for whom the advice to go off meds to do a€?psychological worka€? has been disastrous.
Dallett pleads us to acknowledge that the terrible in human life is real and that only by confronting it, by taking it by its horns, do we have a chance of not being controlled by it.
The Rhino represents an instinctual mercurial principle in psyche that holds the power to heal or to wound. The Rhino becomes an imaginal companion for Pat Britt and Dallett speculates that his a€?dependable presence may compensate the uncertainty of a life in which death is always at handa€? (p.33).
We follow the patienta€™s devoted inner work with the dream rhino, as he emerges into a living imaginative reality: mentor, opposite and guide, and we learn of the healing of her life-threatening physical illness.
In Britta€™s initial dream, the dream that is thought to foretell the course of therapy, a small rhinoceros charges her, but she catches him by the horn and holds on. If you can let it speak to you, and give it what it needs you will have an inner partner for the life that remains to you, however long or short that may be.a€? (p. Royalties, in part, go to the International Rhino Foundation, which helps to preserve the rhinoceros from extinction.
Visually depicted as bra burning lesbians or hormonal monsters, prowling the internet looking for an unsuspecting misogynist to devour.
I never liked the organic web shooters, because I felt the mechanic ones were important to his mythos. I think part of the reason he chose Anne for this was because he knew she'd put everything she had into it —and she did. The underlying theme of The Dark Knight Rises is 'Truth will out,' the idea that though things seem better in Gotham, there is an evil beneath the surface that is going to bubble up.
That being said, your goal would to get below 122 pounds while not losing any more lean body mass.
Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge.
Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world. There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia.
This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making.
See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands.
Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research.
Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions.
By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions.
The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents.
From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic.
Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps.
There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century.
It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration.
Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. I am thinking of people legitimately diagnosed with bipolar disorder who took similar advice from their gurus and ended up psychotic; one, a former student, is still homeless and ranting in the streets. As fantastic amounts of money continued to be funneled upward, the number of Americans living below the poverty line soars higher than ever before. There is a story about the late Edward Edinger in which someone asked him, a€?What is new in Jungian psychology?a€? He replied, a€?New? Then I am reminded of the story of Edinger and his comments about what is old and what is new in Jungian psychology. Instead she asks us to recognize violence as an intrinsic aspect of the collective psyche, one that must find expression and that does have a purpose as when a€?the Self often breaks into consciousness in ways that are violent, primitive, even monstrous.
The unconscious is a minefield of devastating, destructive potentials, but without venturing, and at times suffering this minefield, there is no way of getting to the treasures. In Pat Britta€™s case, it was the spirit released from a life threatening illness that took the image of this large, gravelly voiced Rhino. Finally we see that this work gives the former patient her independence of analysis and analyst. When you have a suit that's "squeezing your testicles" it's hard to give a good performance. It sounds a lot like the first Spiderman, and  some have complained about how closely the story is to the original Spiderman. But after Osama bin Laden was killed and the whole world was suddenly on high alert, we were denied that permission. In fact, again, the first thing we came up with was the ending, which was very personal, and we wrote a beginning that also had Bruce Wayne in a very personal place. Anne worked exceptionally hard, and she continued to train and work hard until the very last day of filming." Interestingly, the greatest fear Struthers had watching her fight choreography was the four-inch heels.
If you don't want to spring for a trainer, find a gym partner who can at least help you get started on doing total body exercises like squats. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface. Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C.
It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged.
The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities.
Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. I have also known people with schizophrenia who could never hold down jobs or attend school without some kind of long-term antipsychotic medication. People still dona€™t understand the old.a€? Author Dallett might heartily agree with this sentiment. He speaks to our desperate post-modern world, saying we must turn away from our arrogance and learn again to live with the rhinos, the crocodiles, and all the natural, instinctive forms of life a€“ now, before they are gone, leaving us alone, alienated, and doomed to extinctiona€? (p.37). And does this mean we're going to have to do it with CGI?' CGI has improved tenfold since Batman Begins, and so there was no question that they'd be able to do a CGI Bat that looked real—but we still had to give it a foundation that would make the audience believe it was real, rather than us just making it look real. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature.
Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned.
The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports.
If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas.
It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world.
What's important in such cases is to prescribe a correct and accurate dosage not only to contain extreme symptoms but to make psychological work possiblea€”work that includes dealing with the psyche's responses to the need for medication. If the Self in such sufferers is enraged, social constraints and injustices give it excellent reason to be, for as Martin Luther King pointed out long ago, a riot [like a symptom] is the language of the unheard. In her latest offering she reanimates many penetrating insights from Jung and reminds us that they are as cogent and urgent now as when Jung first presented them. In response to her dream, the woman took up the task of relating to the unconscious through art, dialogue with the rhinoceros and study of dreams.
So my first job in the garage for The Dark Knight Rises was designing the Bat, and figuring out how something like that would exist in our world." In the end he based it on various real-world vertical-takeoff-and-landing craft vehicles like Harrier Jump Jets and the V-22 Osprey. You just do what you can, and whatever you can't do, the stuntmen do." Considering how hard he was punching Bale, he's one tough actor.
It was thrilling, just because of the scope and scale of the set, and the fact that it was this iconic Batman setting. Click Here to lose weight (burn fat) and build muscle at the same time but… Start here If you're extremely overweight.
Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps.
Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars. In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries.
The remarkable dreams and healing experience of this dreamer make up one part of this rich book and serve to illustrate and put flesh on the abstract bones of some of C.G.
The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs.
Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?.
What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. As a graduate of Women’s Studies, my interest was peaked when I heard of the newest ‘movement’ sweeping across the web. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc.
As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. This is complicated by the fact that my head is totally covered in prosthetic makeup, so there's no breathing anywhere except through my mouth or nostrils. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. But the growing data about the impact of a deep alignment of psyche and body reveals that we have merely scratched the surface of that mysterious intersection. A connection and engagement to the depths of the psyche that stimulates powerful healthy growth and that transforms body as well as psyche is unhappily still on the fringe of accepted consensus today, this in spite of what depth psychologists, in addition to Jung, have intimated or stated for over one hundred years.
So what it is it about the F-word that gets people going so crazy?Don’t get me wrong, I’m not here to condemn their opinions and decisions, I am going to point out the problem at the centre of this. In my opinion the only problem with feminism is that people have the wrong definition of the movement itself. The fact that in today’s society there is a divide between women about their own rights, experiences and beliefs is nothing new.
Feminism has long been separated into Liberal, Social and Radical and even during women’s suffrage, the word suffragette and suffragist had different connotations. What is important here is to realise that ‘rights’ can mean different things to different people.
Feminists don’t simply say ‘I have rights, I’m fine’, instead they pursue this further and question a) whether this is true and b) the situation for all women across the world based on their varied lives. In reality, there are different types of women all over the world with very different perspectives of what it means to be liberated.
At the same time, two women from the very same socio-economic situation may want different things and feel entitled to varied rights. This is intersectionality in a nutshell.Following on from this a common opinion on this page is that these women don’t need feminism because ‘they enjoy being mothers, relish in domestic duty and love their husbands’.
Feminism is not about rejecting domesticity and motherhood and blaming everything on the patriarchy. Betty Friedan addressed the issue of the suburban housewife who was unable to escape a life dictated for her but the problem was not with motherhood, the problem was women didn’t feel they were choosing. They should feel free to take on these roles as an individual while realising they are not condemned to these positions because of their gender. With regards to employment, feminists also largely fight the glass ceiling which represents the limit which women can reach within the workforce. This ‘ceiling’ also applies to some males within minority groups, this is a real concern as women on average are still being paid less than men for the same work across various sectors.Sexual violence, rape and promiscuity are also addressed on this page. Other comments read ‘just because a woman dresses like a slut, doesn’t mean she can get away with it by blaming the patriarchy’ followed closely with ‘I don’t need feminism because I am more afraid of feminists than I am of men’ and ‘I don’t believe all men are rapists, men get raped too’.Feminists are aware that both genders experience sexual violence, largely studies have proven that more women are raped than men but this doesn’t mean that men don’t experience sexual and domestic violence. These women believe that feminists see men as the problem when that is not the reality at all. When people speak of the patriarchy they are speaking of an age-old institution which still has incredible social relevance. It is a concept which not only puts down women but largely affects gay and lesbian people too. Feminism aims to create an even playing field for all and the sad truth is, the message is being twisted and pulled apart. The problem lies when people begin to see the extreme as society’s paradigm of the typical feminist.
The people responding to this group believe that their closest representation of feminism is the true version of the movement. There is a difference between the sexes, that is true but while the WAF say this is their liberation, women who are suffering from the oppression state otherwise and rightly so.
One cannot simply say that all feminists are sexist as this is a generalisation and it is because of stereotypes and generalisations like these that we find ourselves in this current situation. This is the 21st century and I believe we all need feminism, because Women Against Feminism exists.  Feminism.



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