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Personality Personality - the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave.
Divisions of Consciousness Preconscious mind - level of the mind in which information is available but not currently conscious. Freuds Theory: Parts of Personality Id - part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious. Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development Fixation - disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage.
Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development Oral stage - first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict.
Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development Anal stage - second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development Phallic stage - third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings.
Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development Latency - fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways.
Freuds Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis - Freuds term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it. Neo-Freudians Neo-Freudians - followers of Freud who developed their own competing theories of psychoanalysis. Neo-Freudians Adler proposed feelings of inferiority as the driving force behind personality and developed birth order theory. Modern Psychoanalytic Theory Current research has found support for: Defense mechanisms Concept of an unconscious mind that can influence conscious behavior Other concepts cannot be scientifically researched. Behaviorism and Personality Behaviorists define personality as a set of learned responses or habits.
Behaviorism and Personality Reciprocal determinism - Banduras explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior. Humanistic Theories of Personality Humanistic perspective - the third force in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice. Rogers Theory of Personality Self-actualizing tendency – the striving to fulfill ones innate capacities and capabilities.
Rogers Theory of Personality Positive regard – warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others in ones life. Trait Theories of Personality Trait theories - theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior. Trait Theories of Personality Surface traits - aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person. The Big Five Theory Five-factor model (Big Five) - model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions.
The Big Five Theory Extraversion - dimension of personality referring to ones need to be with other people. Trait Theories Today Cross-cultural research has found support for the five-factor model of personality traits in a number of different cultures. Biology and Personality Behavior genetics - a field of study of the relationship between heredity and personality.
Social Cognitive Theories Applies principles of learning, thinking and social influences Applies principles of learning, thinking and social influences Reciprocal Determinism (Bandura)…idea that internal mental events, external environmental events and overt behavior all influence one another.
Allport (continued) Secondary traits(preferences, attitudes) Secondary traits(preferences, attitudes) Cardinal traits (define life)…Mother Theresa--religious service Cardinal traits (define life)…Mother Theresa--religious service Allport was so right about so many things that his ideas have simply passed on into the spirit of the times.
Sheldon Ectomorph - Endoderm This is known to develop into the digestive tact which consists of the intestine, stomach.
Issues in Personality Theories Free will or determinism Master of our fate, or victim to destiny?
Issues in Personality Theories Uniqueness or universality Are there patterns or are we all individually unique?

The stages (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital) represent patterns of gratifying our basic needs and satisfying our drive for physical pleasure Insufficient or excess gratification during any stage could cause a person to reflect the stage throughout life.
Stage Issues During the Phallic Stage, The Oedipus complex occurs due to boys feelings of guilt for love of mother and fear of castration. Freuds Psychoanalytical Discovered the unconscious Used hypnosis and then free association to unlock the unconscious Three levels of the mind: unconscious, preconscious, and conscious.
The best neurophysiological correlate of consciousness (NCC) comes from EEG, voltage fluctuations recorded from scalp or brain surface. Conscious mind - level of the mind that is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions. Libido - the instinctual energy that may come into conflict with the demands of a societys standards for behavior. Psychosexual stages - five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child. Self-efficacy – individuals perception of how effective a behavior will be in any particular circumstance (NOT the same as self-esteem).
Developed as a reaction against the negativity of psychoanalysis and the deterministic nature of behaviorism. Self-concept - the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in ones life.
Unconditional positive regard - positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached. Source traits - the more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality.
Openness - one of the five factors; willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences. Future research will explore the degree to which child-rearing practices and heredity may influence the five personality factors.
Twin and adoption studies have found support for a genetic influence on many personality traits.
Nature or Nurture Inherited or shaped by environment Past, present or future When is personality developed? Anal (18 mo-36 mo)– focus on gaining control, bowel and bladder elimination & retention as form of control.
Projective Tests – user tells a story or gives a description based on an ambiguous stimulus.
The Saarvastivaadins (Von Rospatt, 1995) describe 6,480,000 moments in 24 hours (one moment per 13.3 seconds = 75 Hz), and Chinese Buddhists as 50 thoughts per second (50 Hz).
One more option for your online shopping.Thanks to everyone who came to visit us to view our products. Men were understood to be unable to control their animal desires at times, and a good Victorian husband would father several children with his wife and then turn to a mistress for sexual comfort, leaving his virtuous wife untouched. Unconscious mind - level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness. Pleasure principle - principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences. Anal expulsive personality - a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile. Oedipus complex- situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent. Basic anxiety - anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults.
Social cognitive learning theorists – theorists who emphasize the importance of both the influences of other peoples behavior and of a persons own expectancies on learning. Self - archetype that works with the ego to manage other archetypes and balance the personality. Conditional positive regard- positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish.

Allport first developed a list of about 200 traits and believed that these traits were part of the nervous system. Example: Introversion - dimension of personality in which people tend to withdraw from excessive stimulation. Conscientiousness - the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability. Trait–situation interaction - the assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed.
LO 12.12 Biology and hereditys role in personality Menu James Arthur Springer and James Edward Lewis, otherwise known as the Jim twins. Free will is but an illusion…There is no place in the scientific position for a self as a true originator or initiator of action.
Personality results from our efforts to resolve conflict between pleasure seeking impulses and internalized social restraints.
Examples: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – share inner feelings through stories made up about ambiguous scenes. 1156:46-58, 2007 Conscious feelings of pleasure and reward correlate gamma synchrony in dopaminergic nucleus accumbens BING!! Ego - part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical. Anal retentive personality - a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn. Identification - defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety. Collective unconscious – Jungs name for the memories shared by all members of the human species. Social cognitive view – learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models.
Fully functioning person – a person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings. Cattell reduced the number of traits to between 16 and 23 with a computer method called factor analysis.
Agreeableness - the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant. Although separated shortly after birth and reunited at age 39, they exhibited many similarities in personality and personal habits.
Reality principle - principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result. Erikson developed a theory based on social rather than sexual relationships, covering the entire life span.
The love for people and the intimate relationship with food is also another trait of this personality. Conscience - part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal.
Mesomorph - Mesoderm This is the middle layer which in turn develops into the muscle, blood vessels, bone etc. In terms of body shape with this type of somatotype, Sheldon concluded that the physic of this body is all about muscle.
In terms of personality this relates to very energetic, courageous, active, aggressive, etc. They are often the intelligent nerds and their personality traits are that highly self-aware therefore they are also very sensitive with an air of an artistic nature to them.

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