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While many foot ailments can be genetic, many are caused from poor foot care and lack of attention.
Cause:Depending on factors such as duration of wearing constraining footwear, skeletal maturity, and individual factors, the toes can become adapted to the new position and lead to the deformity we know as a bunion.
Most, if not all, of the above foot pain issues can arise by not wearing proper shoes and not using preventative steps in foot care. Foot exercises can extensively help to not only cure the pain, but also prevent the pain from occurring again. CallusPain on the inside of the foot is difficult to pinpoint and can be caused by a number of things.
Once you have begun your treatment plan, using RICE, massage, and self trigger point treatment, it is time to consider prevention options.
Plantar fasciitis — Plantar fasciitis is a painful inflammation of the plantar fascia, a fibrous band of tissue on the sole of the foot that helps to support the arch.
Heel spur — A heel spur is an abnormal growth of bone at the area where the plantar fascia attaches to the heel bone. Calcaneal apophysitis — In this condition, the center of the heel bone becomes irritated as a result of a new shoe or increased athletic activity. Pump bump — This condition, medically known as posterior calcaneal exostosis, is an abnormal bony growth at the back of the heel.
Local bruises — Like other parts of the foot, the heel can be bumped and bruised accidentally.
Trapped nerve — Compression of a small nerve (a branch of the lateral plantar nerve) can cause pain, numbness or tingling in the heel area. Plantar fasciitis — Plantar fasciitis commonly causes intense heel pain along the bottom of the foot during the first few steps after getting out of bed in the morning. Heel spur — Although X-ray evidence suggests that about 10% of the general population has heels spurs, many of these people do not have any symptoms. Calcaneal apophysitis — In a child, this condition causes pain and tenderness at the lower back portion of the heel. Bursitis — Bursitis involving the heel causes pain in the middle of the undersurface of the heel that worsens with prolonged standing and pain at the back of the heel that worsens if you bend your foot up or down. Pump bump — This condition causes a painful enlargement at the back of the heel, especially when wearing shoes that press against the back of the heel.
Local bruises — Heel bruises, like bruises elsewhere in the body, may cause pain, mild swelling, soreness and a black-and-blue discoloration of the skin. Achilles tendonitis — This condition causes pain at the back of the heel where the Achilles tendon attaches to the heel. Trapped nerve — A trapped nerve can cause pain, numbness or tingling almost anywhere at the back, inside or undersurface of the heel. An evaluation of your gait — While you are barefoot, your doctor will ask you to stand still and to walk in order to evaluate how your foot moves as you walk. If your heel pain is related to a specific sport or exercise regimen, a period of rest may bring relief.
You can help to prevent heel pain by maintaining a healthy weight, by warming up before participating in sports and by wearing shoes that support the arch of the foot and cushion the heel.
Plantar fasciitis — Most doctors recommend a six- to eight-week program of conservative treatment, including temporary rest from sports that trigger the foot problem, stretching exercises, ice massage to the sole of the foot, footwear modifications, taping of the sole of the injured foot, and acetaminophen (Tylenol) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin and others) for pain.
Heel spur — Conservative treatment includes the use of shoe supports (either a heel raise or a donut-shaped heel cushion) and a limited number of local corticosteroid injections (usually up to three per year). Local bruises — Heel bruises can be treated by applying an ice pack for the first few minutes after injury. Make an appointment to see a health care professional if you have significant heel pain that does not improve within a few days. Although the outlook depends on the specific cause of the heel pain, most people respond to conservative, nonsurgical therapy. Heel pain may return if you return too soon to your previous level of exercise or sports participation. Although fairly uncommon, a tendon rupture can be a serious problem and may result in excruciating pain and permanent disability if untreated.
This tendon is vital for pushing off with the foot (this motion is known as plantarflexion). If you are a runner, or even just a regular walker, you should know what is causing your foot pain. Plantar fasciitis is most painful in the morning, after a night of sleep where your foot is not supported properly.
This medical condition actually includes some 100 different diseases, but they all have one thing in common, damage to the body's joints and connective tissues, the ligaments, bones to help or slow damage to joints and to control pain. A good general rule to remember is: seek prompt treatment for injury to bones in the foot. A bunion is a swelling or enlargement of the large toe joint on the inner side of the foot. Women seem to be more predisposed to the condition than men, likely because hereditary factors are enhanced by restrictive footwear. The treatment plan selected by a doctor of podiatric medicine varies with the age and health of the patient, as well as with the severity of the deformity.
It is very difficult to describe what a perfectly normal foot should look like in a child. Achilles Tendonitis - This is a painful inflammation of the Achilles Tendon (which connects the calf muscle to the heel), commonly found among females who wear high heels. Arthritis - Symptoms include joint stiffness, pain or tenderness that persists two weeks or more.
Athlete's Foot - A contagious fungal infection, recognizable by red, dry, cracked and itchy skin between the toes. Bunion - Painful condition caus3ed by misalignment or enlargement of the bone at the base of the big toe (usually from improperly fitting footwear or excessive physical activity); bunions can lead to joint arthritis if left untreated. Calluses - Thickened, irritated dead skin, usually found on the heel or ball of the foot. Corn - A hard, painful area of thickened skin, usually covering a protruding bone or in between the toes.

Heel Pain (Plantar Fasciitis) - Irritation of the ligament situated along the bottom of the foot and attaching to the heel. Metatarsalgia - Pain in the ball of the foot, usually caused by excessive wearing of high-heeled shoes. Neuroma - Painful enlarged growths of nerves, usually between third and fourth toe, causing burning, tingling or numbness. Stress Fractures - Partial break of the metatarsals (the long bones of the foot), caused by repeated pounding or trauma. The American Podiatric Medical Association has produced a brochure that outlines much more information on the topic of foot care for diabetics. Foot problems are a leading cause of hospitalization of the sixteen million persons in the United States who have diabetes (almost half of whom are unaware of their condition*).  It is estimated that 15% of all diabetics will develop a serious foot condition at some time in their lives.
Common problems include infection, ulceration, and gangrene (too often leading to amputation of toe, foot or even leg). Ulceration, usually caused by excessive pressure, or trauma; pre-existing foot deformity greatly increases risk. Neuropathy causes reduced sensation, leading unnoticed symptoms and possible delays in treatment of infection, ulceration, and progressive foot deformities. Foot deformities such as hammertoes, bunions, and metatarsal disorders have special significance in the diabetic population.
If you do hurt your foot or ankle, podiatrists suggest you get off your feet immediately. Mobility, the ability to move about, is essential for older people to live useful, satisfying, lives, but foot problems often interfere with their mobility and independence. When the feet are exposed to extremely cold weather for a long time they are in danger of frost bite, a painful condition that can result in permanent tissue damage or even loss of toes. Doctors of podiatric medicine, trained and accustomed to relieve foot pain arising from a variety of sources, have been discovering that some of the ways they overcome foot problems can also have a positive effect on one of mankind's more mysterious kinds of pain - back pain.
Podiatrists have long been aware of cause-and-effect relationships between foot pain and back pain (back problems can lead to foot pain, too). The podiatrist is not licensed to treat the back directly, and there is a lot of back pain that doesn't have a thing to do with the feet. Having flat fee, an abnormal gait, ill-fitting shoes, or a weight problem can all lead to heel pain. Most heel pain involves a membrane surrounding the heel bone that anchors a long band of connective tissue, called the plantar fascia, which stops at the ball of the foot. Stretching of the fascia can also contribute to the formation and development of heel spurs. While rest and applied heat provide temporary relief from heel spurs and plantar fasciitis, it is best to consult with podiatric physicians for permanent treatment. The ligament that stretches along the bottom of the foot, the plantar fascia, is responsible for maintaining the arch of your foot.
There are many treatments for heel pain, including changing of shoe gear, taking non steroidal anti-inflammatories, sometimes custom molded orthotics are needed, some patients may even need cortisone injections as well as physical therapy. Shock wave treatment, which is a non-surgical treatment, can also be utilized to help relieve the pain. Joan, who takes aerobics classes four times a week, feels pain in one heel at the beginning of each class, but doesn't take it seriously because it gradually lessens as the hour passes. Properly called orthosis, orthotic devices are removable shoe inserts, custom-molded of various materials, designed to correct a foot misalignment deformity, or dysfunction. Doctors of podiatric medicine prescribe the use of orthosis as conservative approaches to many foot problems; their use is a highly successful, practical treatment form. Golf:  No longer driven by fashion, today's golf shoes are constructed using basic principles of athletic footwear. However, you should also see a doctor of podiatric medicine, who can prescribe drugs that will relieve the pain and inflammation, and decrease the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joint. When the toes are drawn together, abductor muscles on the outer and inner foot can’t activate, and can atrophy due to lack of use. Fungus on the foot (usually between the toes or on the bottom of the feet) that causes redness, itchiness, tiny bumps filled with fluid, or peeling skin. An imbalance in the long bones of the foot that can cause extreme foot pain in the ball of feet. This is often fixed with a self massage treatment and quality foot pain shoes or shoe inserts. Although heel pain sometimes is caused by a systemic (body-wide) illness, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout, it usually is a local condition that affects only the foot.
It is caused by long-term strain on the plantar fascia and muscles of the foot, especially in obese people, runners or joggers.
However, it also can be related to poorly fitting shoes if the upper back portion of a shoe digs into the Achilles tendon at the back of the heel.
In many cases, this nerve compression is related to a sprain, fracture or varicose (swollen) vein near the heel.
This heel pain often goes away once you start to walk around, but it may return in the late afternoon or evening. In others, heel spurs cause pain and tenderness on the undersurface of the heel that worsen over several months. The pain typically becomes worse if you exercise or play sports, and it often is followed by soreness, stiffness and mild swelling. Then your doctor may examine your painful foot for signs of tenderness, swelling, discoloration, muscle weakness and decreased range of motion. For example, heel pain that is related to obesity should improve gradually as you lose weight.
Once your heel is pain-free, you may need to modify your training program to prevent your pain from returning.
If this conservative treatment doesn't help, your doctor may recommend that you wear a night splint or a short leg cast, or he or she may inject corticosteroid medication into the painful area. In the meantime, conservative treatment includes rest and the use of heel pads and heel cushions. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

It is the site of attachment of the calf muscle (gastrocnemius muscle) to the heel of the foot (the calcaneus bone). Discomfort or pain in the arch of the foot or heel can often be attributed to plantar fasciitis, one of the most common orthopedic conditions related to the foot. At one time or another, we all have repeated this phrase after stubbing a toe or banding a foot. The deformity usually develops gradually and will cause pain from shoes rubbing against the enlarged bone.
Because of the instability of the bones and ligaments that form to various joints and arches in your foot, the joints have a tendency to move out of proper alignment. They can develop in childhood, or more often later in life, and are often brought on by heredity, improper footwear, or arthritis. Conservative treatment measures may consist of shoes with adequate size to accommodate the bunion, or pads and custom molded shoes.
Department of Health and Human Services, more than 80 million Americans have foot problems.
But there are warning signs and symptoms that parents should watch for to head off foot trouble for their children later in life. Because the bones in a child's feet are soft and pliable, they can be bent twisted even before any pain is felt, or with only momentary discomfort. Because foot health begins in childhood, regular checkups, and prompt treatment at the first signs of trouble can ensure a lifetime of pain-free walking for your child. Daily foot hygiene and regular inspections are also essential, as is avoiding activities or habits that can restrict circulation, such as crossing legs, exposing the feet to cold temperatures, wearing garters, or smoking. A deformity places the foot at increased risk for developing corns, calluses, blisters and ulcerations.
A Charcot joint, resulting from trauma to the insensitive foot, causes the foot to collapse and widen.
Next, elevate the injured foot higher than the waist to reduce swelling and pain, and use cold compresses in a 20 minute on 40 minute off cycle.
It's a treatable problem, often caused by improper foot hygiene or excessive perspiration. Another warning is when pain gives way to numbness, in either case, seek a heat source as quickly as possible, or move about to help blood circulation. Your podiatrist can usually diagnose this condition in the office and treatment can commence immediately. With the right footwear and some common sense, it's a good way to commune with nature and improve cardiovascular fitness.
A weight lifter, Bill thought he could alleviate the pain by curtailing his heavy squats. He had no trouble increasing his distances, but now he's mystified by persistent shin pain. Unless the source of the problem is corrected, treatment can't fully restore circulation. With a bunion, you may experience irritated skin around the bunion, pain when walking, joint redness and pain, and possible shift of the big toe toward the other toes. Corns are hard, thick skin that forms on your toe, while a callous is thick, hard skin that has forms elsewhere on your foot. Plantar fasciitis occurs when the thick fibrous band of tissue that connects from your heel to your toes (plantar facsia) becomes weak, irritated or swollen.
Properly diagnosing bottom foot pain is difficult because more than one issue may be causing the pain.
This causes small tears in the fibers of the fascia, especially where the fascia meets the heel bone.
Calcaneal apophysitis is a fairly common cause of heel pain in active, growing children between the ages of 8 and 14. In some cases, heel bursitis is related to structural problems of the foot that cause an abnormal gait (way of walking). Depending on the results of your physical examination, you may need foot X-rays or other diagnostic tests. Pain or stiffness can also flare up after long periods of standing or high impact activities like walking or running. The large toe moves sideways towards the 2nd toe and foot tends to widen across the metatarsal area.
About seven million of those unlucky souls suffer from bunions, generally regarded as the most painful disfiguring of foot problems. And when a foot or ankle injury does happen, it is critical that you seek immediate medical treatment.
A podiatric physician, specially trained in diseases of the foot, can save damaged toes if medically possible. Your body may react by filling this space with new bone, which results in heel spurs.  Most people think that heel spurs are the cause of their foot pain, but the actual pain is caused by the inflammation or the irritation of the plantar fascia ligament. A well-fitting, well-made and properly used athletic shoe can help reduce foot problems and increase performance. During my struggles with foot pain many treatment ideas helped reduce the pain but never eliminate it.The information on this site is a compilation of a bunch of techniques that helped me eliminate my pain and prevent it from returning. Probably the most important rule to follow in preventing foot and ankle injuries is not to take your feet for granted. If you feel any pain, or see any swelling or discoloration following the impact, you should seek immediate treatment from a podiatrist.
Many people also develop post fracture deformity of a toe, which, in turn, can result in a most painful corn. These products can correct imperfect bone alignment and help stop bottom foot pain before it starts.

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