The skeleton of the foot begins with the talus, or ankle bone, that forms part of the ankle joint. The mortise and tenon structure is well known to carpenters and craftsmen who use this joint in the construction of everything from furniture to large buildings.
The two bones that make up the back part of the foot (sometimes referred to as the hindfoot) are the talus and the calcaneus, or heelbone. Just down the foot from the ankle is a set of five bones called tarsal bones that work together as a group. Most of the motion of the foot is caused by the stronger muscles in the lower leg whose tendons connect in the foot. Most of the muscles of the foot are arranged in layers on the sole of the foot (the plantar surface). The main nerve to the foot, the tibial nerve, enters the sole of the foot by running behind the inside bump on the ankle, the medial malleolus. The main blood supply to the foot, the posterior tibial artery, runs right beside the nerve of the same name.
This introduction to the anatomy of the foot will not be exhaustive but rather highlight the structures that relate to conditions and surgical procedures of the foot.
The joints between the metatarsals and the first phalanx is called the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP).


The big toe, or hallux, is the most important toe for walking, and the first MTP joint is a common area for problems in the foot.
Most of these ligaments form part of the joint capsule around each of the joints of the foot. Contraction of the muscles in the leg is the main way that we move our feet to stand, walk, run, and jump. There they connect to and move the toes as well as provide padding underneath the sole of the foot. This nerve supplies sensation to the toes and sole of the foot and controls the muscles of the sole of the foot. Many things affect the condition of our feet: activity level, occupation, other health conditions, and perhaps most importantly, shoes.
These joints form the ball of the foot, and movement in these joints is very important for a normal walking pattern. The posterior tibial tendon attaches one of the smaller muscles of the calf to the underside of the foot. Several other nerves run into the foot on the outside of the foot and down the top of the foot.
When one part becomes damaged, it can affect every other part of the foot and lead to problems.


Many of the problems that arise in the foot are directly related to shoes, so it is very important to choose shoes that are good for your feet. When the foot is twisted in one direction by the muscles of the foot and leg, these bones lock together and form a very rigid structure. It is made up of the ligaments around the joint and the soft tissues between the ligaments that fill in the gaps and form the sac. These nerves primarily provide sensation to different areas on the top and outside edge of the foot.
When they are twisted in the opposite direction, they become unlocked and allow the foot to conform to whatever surface the foot is contacting. The toes have tendons attached that bend the toes down (on the bottom of the toes) and straighten the toes (on the top of the toes). Ligaments and tendons come in many different sizes, and like rope, are made up of many smaller fibers. Two tendons run behind the outer bump of the ankle (called the lateral malleolus) and help turn the foot outward.



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