A marvel of bioengineering, the human foot combines the mechanical complexity of a Swiss watch with the structural strength of a cantilever bridge. The forefoot is composed of the five toes, collectively called phalanges, and their connecting long bones, the metatarsals. The big toe, also called the hallux, has two phalanges and one joint (interphalangeal joint); it also features two tiny, round sesamoid bones that enable it to move up and down. The largest and strongest tendon of the foot is the Achilles tendon, which extends from the calf muscle of the leg to the heel.
All of these components work together in unison to provide the body with support, balance and mobility. The phalanges are connected to the metatarsals by five metatarsal phalangeal joints at the ball of the foot.

Its strength and joint function facilitate running, jumping, walking up stairs or raising the body onto the toes.
A structural flaw or malfunction in any one part can result in the development of problems elsewhere in the body.
Collectively, the forefoot bears half the body's weight and balances pressure on the ball of the foot. The midfoot, featuring five irregularly shaped tarsal bones, forms the foot's characteristic arch and serves as a shock absorber. The bones of the midfoot are connected to the forefoot and the rearfoot by muscles and the plantar fascia or arch ligament.The rearfoot, composed of three joints, links the midfoot to the ankle or talus. The top of the talus is connected to the two long bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula, forming a hinge that allows the foot to move up and down.

It joins the talus to form the subtalar joint, which enables the foot to rotate at the ankle. Its bottom is cushioned with a layer of fat.Supporting this complex of bones and joints is a network of muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
They give the foot its shape by holding the bones in position, and expand and contract to impart movement to the bones and joints.

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