Many people have nails which are very curved and they either press into the surrounding skin or actually pierce the surrounding skin to cause an in-growing nail.
Fungal (or Mycotic) nails not only affect the appearance of your nails, they can also be the source of fungal infection elsewhere on the foot. Foot Corns and calluses are areas of hard, thickened skin that develop when the skin is exposed to excessive pressure or friction.
Corns are small circles of thick skin that usually develop on the tops and sides of toes or on the sole of the foot.
Women often get them if they’ve been wearing badly fitting shoes or spent a lot of time standing during the day. Calluses develop when the skin rubs against something, such as a bone, a shoe or the ground. Excessive pressure on bony areas of the foot, badly fitting shoes and lots of walking or running are all possible causes of calluses.
Treating painful corns and calluses involves removing the cause of the pressure or friction and getting rid of the thickened skin. A Foot Health Practioner (FHP) is qualified to provide routine footcare and maintenance for your feet. Our feet are with us our whole lifetime and more and more people need some form of simple footcare to maintain the well being of their feet and ensure an excellent quality of life.
There can be many reasons for using a Foot Health Practioner, from routine toe nail cutting to general foot improvement and health or even for a special occasion such as getting married. To be a FHP you need to complete and study for a Diploma in Foot Health Practice, where you are taught correct procedures and safe techniques. FHP’s provide a service to the private sector and work within the remit of their skills base. FHP’s who are members of the Alliance of Private Sector Practioners are committed to Continual Professional Development (CPD). Corns are caused by intermittent pressure that causes the skin to die and creates a nucleus around which a callus grows to protect any remaining live skin. Treatment is to scalpel away callus growing around the corn, then remove the corn with the tip of the scalpel. Calluses are areas of thickened skin usually as a result of friction or pressure which results in an acceleration of skin production.
The dead skin cells remain on the skins surface and skin shedding (desquamation) is slower and hence a build up of thickened skin. Causes can be from ill fitting footwear or wearing of flip flops and sometimes even due to a person’s posture.
A foot health professional can successfully and painlessly remove the callus and regular appointments will help keep the callus under control. An infected nail can become very thick and often discoloured and it is common for the nail to have a ‘crumbly’ quality to it.
Treatment can either be either be sought through oral medication prescribed by the doctor or in a topical form and painted onto the nail plate. A FHP can help in the treatment of fungal nails by ‘thinning out or reducing’ the thickness of the nail, allowing any treatment to be much more effective and also improving the general appearance of the nail.
Primary cause is cutting the nails too short another cause is possible trauma to the toe, like stubbing or banging it. Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only.
Corns and calluses are thick, toughened layers of skin that build up when your skin tries to protect itself against friction and pressure. Corns are hard cone-shaped bumps of skin surrounded by inflamed skin, and are smaller than calluses. Calluses are somewhat rounded flat thickenings of the skin that usually develop on the soles of the feet, especially under the heels or balls. Symptoms include a generalized burning sensation or (at times) severe pain in a specific area.
By examining your feet, the doctor can rule out other causes of thickened skin, such as warts and cysts. Reduce the size of the callus or corn by soaking your foot in warm water and then using a pumice stone to lightly wear away the dead skin.
Wear shoes that fit well and are roomy, with enough space in the area that surrounds the toes.


To prevent rubbing, use protective padding such as moleskin or orthotic shoe inserts to cushion the callus or corn or to hold the foot and toes in a more comfortable position. Custom-made padded shoe inserts (orthotics) to prevent recurring corns or calluses can be helpful if you have an underlying foot deformity. If you have diabetes or poor circulation, because even a relatively minor injury to your foot could lead to an infected open sore (foot ulcer) that's difficult to heal.
Ill fitting shoes provide no room for the toes, leading to rubbing on the tops or sides of the toes.
Corns refer to masses of thickened skin, which often develops on the toes with a tough, waxy covering that’s yellowish in colour and tender around the centre.
Thus, if you notice something amiss with your toes or feel a tough lump, which aches when you press, it may be a corn, and if this occurs, you should consult the dermatologist. Diabetics and those with immune system disorders need to be so wary and they should consult a physician before they embark on treating corns. Children are very active and this activity will often result to the formation of corns on their feet. Lastly, essential oils such as lemon and tangerine work effectively when you apply them directly to the foot corns.
It could be that you have a back problem and can’t get down to them, reduced eyesight so you can’t see as clearly what you are doing or simply are not happy doing this task for yourself. Here at Footfriend we can provide ongoing treatment for these situations or we can perform nail surgery to permanently solve these painful problems. They can form anywhere on the foot that receives too much friction or pressure from bone, footwear or the ground – typically on the balls of the feet, toes and around heels. Hard corns are small hard lumps often on the tops or tips of toes and under the balls of the feet. Here at Footfriend we can assess your problem and we have a range of treatment products which together with a personalised footcare plan will eradicate it. They can also develop as a symptom of another foot problem, such as a bunion (a bony swelling at the base of the big toe) or hammer toe (where the toe is bent at the middle joint). They can develop on your foot, most often around the heel area or over the ball of the foot. They often form over the ball of your foot because this area takes most of your weight when you walk. If calluses develop on the hands, wearing protective gloves when doing repetitive tasks will give the affected area time to heal.
They can assess the condition of your feet and treat as appropriate and refer you if necessary. Having diabetes means that the well being of your feet is of even greater importance and a FHP can provide a service where your feet are well maintained and any more troublesome conditions can be spotted in their infancy and referred on. The service offered is to ensure your feet are healthy and in the best possible condition, whatever your age. You can also buy over the counter treatments, like corn plasters or medicated corn pads which contain salicylic acid, but these must be used with caution as they can cause severe burns and infection in the normal skin surrounding the corn.  Please be aware that these must not be used on patients with diabetes. Treatment can be very effective (removal with a sterile scalpel as shown in the picture) and the cause of the calluses should be identified to help keep it under control.
Using a good foot file and a professional foot cream, will also be of benefit and help with the maintenance of the callus. A verruca is a wart and are often referred to as a plantar wart (appears on the sole of the foot) and is basically a viral infection from the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV).
The cause of the infection is microscopic organisms (fungi) which attack the nail and then thrive in a moist, dark environment. Many of the topical applications can be purchased on the high street and with diligent application can be effective in the treatment of the infection. Diligent drying of the feet, especially between the toes can be very effective in the prevention of athlete’s foot and treatment is normally through over the counter powders, creams and sprays. The toe nail can be filed to prevent any rough edges further imbedding or the offending nail portion can be removed to provide immediate relief. If the problem persists or is more acute, nail surgery may be required, this is known as full or partial nail avulsion.
The information is provided by Elite Feet Footcare and while we endeavour to keep the information up to date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. These are caused by pressure and friction from shoes and bony prominences from adjacent toes. Corns tend to develop on the top and the side of your toes but can also develop between your toes.


People who have diabetes and a decreased touch sensation are at higher risk of developing ulcers and an infection at the site of the callus or corn if left untreated. This keeps the toes from pressing against each other and against the top of the shoe, relieving pressure on corns. Salicylic acid treatments are available without a prescription in different forms including applicators, drops, pads and plasters. Shoes with a deep toe box will provide more space for the toes and decrease the amount of rubbing on these painful areas. For the case of the high-heeled shoes, raising your heels will simply allow your body weight to exert pressure on the feet’s fragile bones, thus making the situation worse. Besides, remember to wear socks or even stocking, as they help to minimize the contact between your shoes and skin. Whatever the case, it’s usually advisable that you consult a competent health professional before you venture out into treating the feet corns and other related skin disorders including inflammation, drainage or pain from the affected part. If you have a child that suffers from the foot corns, you should know that they’re a common occurrence although a painful one. Many people choose to have them treated as they understandably would rather be clear of the infection. Fungal infection of the nail is called ‘onychomycosis’ and can often be a result of an untreated or inadequately treated fungal skin infection i.e.
A useful tip and method of effective treatment, is to dab surgical spirits between the toes using a cotton bud or cotton wool. A corn is an area of callus which is complicated by a deep central mass or nucleus of cornified cells.
Once the proper shoe is prescribed, the callous or corn may only have to be removed mechanically on a bi-monthly basis. In medical terms, they this thickening is called hyperkeratosis and it includes the definition of the calluses too.
Wearing highly uncomfortable shoes like the fashionable high-heeled type or putting on tight, undersized footwear could lead to corns.
Because of excessive chafing or rubbing induced by putting on the high heeled shoes, corns will definitely develop. Individuals with a good habit of applying lotion to their feet each night may not develop corns easily. If you stay close to a beach, let the children walk through sand because it’s a natural way of sloughing off the dead, skin cells. The other method is to make a paste of six aspirin tablets, lemon juice-half teaspoon, and water-half teaspoon.
Here at Footfriend we can provide this service for you using leaving your nails comfortable and trouble free. They are caused for a similar reason to callouses – usually at a site of too much pressure. We have an excellent record of treating verrucae returning the skin in infected areas to normal.
Also, choose socks that fit properly and are made of a polyester-cotton blend because they wick moisture away better than all-cotton socks do. The skin tends to thicken as a natural protection against constant friction between your shoes and the skin. While allowing kids to walk barefoot is a great remedy, ensure you monitor and guide them not to walk near unsafe environments that may hurt their feet.
You should then apply the paste directly to the corn and then wrap the kid’s foot with a warm towel or sock for about 15 minutes.
The treatment consists of an initial assessment and first treatment followed by a series of shorter treatment only appointments. The toes maybe gripping due to an underlying biomechanical foot fault or take on this position because of tight shoes. Most importantly through our advice you may be able prevent future corns and the pain associated with them.



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