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17.03.2015
To guide education policy and maintain its innovation leadership, the United States must acquire an accurate understanding of the quantity and quality of engineering graduates in India and China. Although there is widespread concern in the United States about the growing technological capacity of India and China, the nation actually has little reliable information about the future engineering workforce in these countries.
At the Pratt School of Engineering of Duke University, we have been studying the impact of globalization on the engineering profession. Various articles in the popular media, speeches by policy-makers, and reports to Congress have stated that the United States graduates roughly 70,000 undergraduate engineers annually, whereas China graduates 600,000 and India 350,000. RATHER THAN TRYING TO MATCH THEIR DEMOGRAPHIC NUMBERS AND COST ADVANTAGES, THE UNITED STATES NEEDS TO FORCE COMPETITORS TO MATCH ITS ABILITY TO INNOVATE.
The surge in engineering graduation rates can be traced to a series of top-down government policy changes that began in 1999. Our interviews with representatives of multinational and local technology companies revealed that they felt comfortable hiring graduates from only 10 to 15 universities across the country. In India, the growth in engineering education has been largely bottom-up and market-driven. Among the universities funded by the government, the Indian Institutes of Technology are best known and reputed to provide excellent education.
It is common in many industries to offer signing bonuses to encourage potential employees to accept a job offer.
Our interest in globalization also led us to look at the need for and production of engineers in the United States, China, and India who have advanced engineering or technology degrees or who have pursued postgraduate training in these areas. The business executives said that for higher-level jobs in R&D, they preferred to hire graduates with master’s or PhD degrees. The deans and other university officials we met, especially those at top-level institutions, talked about the increasing demand they were seeing for their graduates and the shortages they were experiencing in hiring PhD graduates for faculty positions. Some MoE information is available online, but detailed data, including the production of engineering master’s and PhD graduates, are published only in the ministry’s Educational Statistical Yearbooks. To obtain graduate statistics for India, we traveled to Bangalore and New Delhi and visited NASSCOM, the AICTE, and the Ministry of Science and Technology and University Grants Commission. Although NASSCOM is considered to be an authority on India’s supply of engineering and technology talent, for master’s degree graduates it maintains data only on students who obtain a specialized degree in computer application.
An added complication with India’s master’s degree data is that students can pursue two different master’s degrees within engineering, but graduates are often counted together. In the United States, close to 60% of engineering PhD degrees awarded annually are currently earned by foreign nationals, according to data from the American Society for Engineering Education. The bottom line is that China is racing ahead of the United States and India in its production of engineering and technology PhD’s and in its ability to perform basic research. Although our research has revealed some issues of concern for the United States, we also want to focus on what we consider to be the country’s advantages in today’s increasingly globalized economy. Indians have founded more engineering and technology companies during that past decade than immigrants from Britain, China, Taiwan, and Japan combined. Even though better-educated students will be better suited to take their places in the nation’s increasingly technology-driven economy, education is not the sole answer.
The calls to graduate more engineers do not focus on any field of engineering or identify any specific need. It is clear that skilled immigrants bring a lot to the United States: They contribute to the economy, create jobs, and lead innovation. This is Most suitable Online job for all kind of users like Students, Housewives, Job Seekers and Anybody who wants to Earn Good Income on Part time Work We show you the way to earn Real Internet Money. Reason behind the existence of our website is just to help in job searching, buying and selling your old stuff in a very simplest way without wasting time of your busy schedule in all over India. In an analysis of salary and employment data, we did not find any indication of a shortage of engineers in the United States.
The group gathers information from diverse sources and then compares the data to validate projections and estimates.
The CERN numbers are likely to be closer to actual graduation rates but are available for only two years.
The goals of the changes were twofold: to transform science and engineering education from “elite education” to “mass education” by increasing enrollment, and to reduce engineering salaries. The list of schools varied slightly from company to company, but all of the people we talked to agreed that the quality of engineering education dropped off drastically beyond those on the list.
We wondered, for example, about possible links between trends in education and the hiring practices and experiences of U.S. We were surprised that the majority of respondents said they did not mandate that job candidates possess a four-year engineering degree.


We asked several questions about company policies in hiring engineers to work in the United States. We found, however, that 88% of respondents to our survey did not offer signing bonuses to potential engineering employees or offered them to only a small percentage of their new hires. Given the graduation numbers we collected for China and India, we expected to hear that Indian corporations had difficulty hiring whereas Chinese companies did not. The vast majority of respondents said the trend will continue, and their companies plan to send an even wider variety of jobs offshore. We traveled to China and India to meet with business executives and university officials and to collect data from a variety of sources.
They did not mandate a PhD for research positions, and they said they often found many capable master’s-level graduates. They reported frequently having to compete with private industry and universities abroad for such graduates.
These reports detail degree production across a variety of disciplines, including engineering. The first is a traditional technical master’s degree in engineering, computer science, or information technology. India is in particularly bad shape, as it does not appear to be producing the numbers of PhD’s needed even to staff its growing universities. In 1999, AnnaLee Saxenian of the University of California, Berkeley, published a study showing that foreign-born scientists and engineers were generating new jobs and wealth for the California economy. Our objective was to determine whether their chief executive officer or chief technologist was a first-generation immigrant and, if so, the country of his or her origin.
Preliminary results show that it is the education level of the individuals who make it to the United States that differentiates them.
Graduating more engineers just because India and China graduate more than the United States does is likely to create unemployment and erode engineering salaries. Also, we obtained anecdotal evidence from business executives doing business in India and China that indicated that those were the countries with shortages. Extensive data on engineering education are also collected by the American Society for Engineering Education and the Engineering Workforce Commission. However, NASSCOM’s definition of engineer includes a wide variety of jobs in computer science and fields related to information technology, and no breakdown is available that precisely matches the U.S. What we found is that even as enrollment in engineering programs has increased by more than 140% over the past five years, China has been decreasing its total number of technical schools and their associated teachers and staff. Demand for engineers from China’s top-tier universities is high, but employers complained that supply is limited.
Current national debates focus on a demand for caste-based quotas for more than half of the available seats in public institutions. For example, during the 2002-2003 academic year, the institutes granted a total of 2,274 bachelor’s degrees, according to school officials. Forty percent hired engineers with two- or three-year degrees, and an additional 17% said they would hire similar applicants if they had additional training or experience. First, we asked about job acceptance rates, which are an indicator of the competition a company faces in recruiting staff. Surprisingly, 75% of respondents said India had an adequate to large supply of well-qualified entry-level engineers. The disadvantages of hiring Chinese engineers included inadequate communication skills, visa restrictions, lack of proximity, inadequate experience, lack of loyalty, cultural differences, intellectual property concerns, and a limited “big-picture” mindset. All of them talked of major successes, expressed satisfaction with the performance of their groups, and foresaw significant expansion.
Chinese executives said it was getting easier to hire master’s and PhD graduates, but Indian executives said it was getting harder. For China and India, the picture was much different, as government officials maintained that little information on such issues is available. Data for 2005 that we obtained from the Chinese government show that 30% of all Chinese students studying abroad returned home after their education, and various sources report that this number is steadily increasing.
Therefore, we have studied the economic and intellectual contribution of students who came to the United States to major in engineering and technology and ended up staying, as well as immigrants who gained entry based on their skills. Of these immigrants groups, Indians are leading the charge in starting new businesses, and Chinese create the most intellectual property. One of the biggest challenges for the engineering profession today is that engineers’ salaries are not competitive with those of other highly trained professionals: It makes more financial sense for a top engineering student to become an investment banker than an engineer.
Engineers, scientists, mathematicians, and their associated colleagues have vital roles to play in such efforts.


Such statements often conclude that because China and India collectively graduate 12 times more engineers than does the United States, the United States is in trouble. To obtain better information about this issue, we embarked on a project to obtain comparable engineering graduation data from the United States, China, and India.
In order to collect similar data for China and India, we initially contacted more than 200 universities in China and 100 in India. Also, the numbers included all degrees related to information technology and to specialized fields such as shipbuilding. Although Chinese graduation rates will continue to increase for a few years, while the last few high-enrollment classes make their way through the university system, we expect that the numbers of engineering graduates will eventually level off and may even decline. In 2004, India had 974 private engineering colleges, as compared with only 291 public and government institutions.
The quality of other universities varies greatly, but representatives of local companies and multinationals told us that they felt comfortable hiring the top graduates from most universities in India—unlike the situation in China. Were companies going offshore because of the superior education or skills of workers in China, India, or elsewhere, or because of a deficiency in U.S.
Respondents to our survey reported that they were able to fill 80% of engineering jobs at their companies within four months. The disadvantages of hiring Indian engineers included inadequate communication skills, lack of specific industry knowledge or domain experience, visa restrictions, lack of proximity, limited project management skills, high turnover rates, and cultural differences. The key advantage of hiring Chinese entry-level engineers was cost savings, whereas a few respondents cited strong education or training and a willingness to work long hours. In Beijing, with the help of local students, we combed government libraries and bookstores, searching for these publications.
The second is a master’s of computer application (MCA) degree, a three-year degree that offers a foundation in computer science to individuals who previously had received a bachelor’s degree in a different field. Perhaps the United States needs to learn from India and China, which offer deep subsidies for their master’s and PhD programs.
The nation—government, business, education, and society—needs to develop the road maps, create the excitement, and make it really cool and rewarding to become a scientist or engineer.
We believe that the data we have obtained, though not exhaustive, represent the best information available and can help U.S. Similarly, cost savings were cited as a major advantage of hiring Indian entry-level engineers, whereas other advantages were technical knowledge, English language skills, strong education or training, ability to learn quickly, and a strong work ethic.
Although we consider the data suspect, they represent the best information available on Chinese education and allow valid inferences of trends. We ultimately were able to assemble 10 years’ worth of data on Chinese graduate engineering degrees. The data in these reports are not published online, and paper versions of the reports rarely leave India. Indeed, the Democrats in the House of Representatives in November 2005 proposed an Innovation Agenda that called for graduating 100,000 more engineers and scientists annually. Some Indian universities shared comprehensive spreadsheets, but others claimed not to know how many engineering colleges were affiliated with their schools or lacked detail on graduation rates by major.
NIIT, an international corporation that provides education and training in information technology in a number of countries, is the largest private training institute and runs more than 700 training centers across India.
For our analysis, we included statistics on MCA degrees but separated them analytically from more traditional master’s degrees.
It is cheaper for them to move certain engineering jobs overseas and to locate their R&D operations closer to growth markets. Many people within and beyond government also do not seem to look ahead and realize that what could be outsourced next is research and design, and that the United States stands to lose its ability to “invent” the next big technologies. These centers serve corporations that need to train employees, as well as job seekers trying to break into the information technology industry. For various technical reasons, we could not use data from the reports directly, but we were able to adjust them statistically to obtain what we consider to be valid measurements. Immigrant filers contributed more theoretical, computational, and practical patents than patents in mechanical, structural, or traditional engineering. In India, we obtained data from the National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). The government and industry need to pay attention to this issue and work to identify ways to strengthen U.S.



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