What is diabetes?Diabetes is a chronic disease that causes unhealthy levels of sugar to build up in the blood. Bed-wetting is almost always a normal stage and rarely caused by an underlying medical problem. Tips to help you figure out if your preschooler should be tested for ADHD, how it works, and how much it costs.
The main indications of oral antidiabetic medication include: type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is not regulated only with properly prescribed and rigorously observed diet. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which can be balanced with diet, but because the patient is undisciplined, this goal can not be achieved (the medication does not improve glucose balance). Combinations: Glibomet (metformin + glibenclamide), Avandamet (rosiglitazone + metformin), Competact (pioglitazone + metformin), Janumet (sitagliptin + metformin). Sulphonylurea drugs used by almost half a century, to treat type 2 diabetes, are indicate in normal weight patients who have type 2 diabetes and in obese patients if they can not tolerate metformin. After ingestion, sulphonylurea drugs are rapidly absorbed in the intestine, pass into the bloodstream, where they bind to specific proteins (albumin, in particular) and reach the liver where they are metabolized into inactive byproducts. Sulphonylureas can not be associate with each other, but may be associated with biguanides, thiazolidinediones, and even with insulin therapy. After ingestion, metformin is absorbed at intestinal level, disseminate in the body and is excreted in urine and faeces, unchanged. Biguanides may be associated with sulphonylureas, with thiazolidinediones and with insulin in both type 2 and type 1 diabetes.
The two used thiazolidinediones are pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, the latter being less used these days, because it is considered that increase the risk of cardiovascular complications.
After oral administration, meglitinides are absorbed at intestinal level, are metabolized in the liver and will result inactive byproducts, which are excreted into the bile. Considering that this class of oral antidiabetic medication has a short half-life, meglitinides are useful in correcting postprandial hyperglycemia. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors are used to treat type 2 diabetes, which is inadequately controlled by diet.
Januvia (sitagliptin), a drug that inhibits the destruction of GLP-1 blood levels, so will extended the action of GLP-1 and will increase the insulin secretion.
Diabetic neurology or Diabetic Neuropathy, is one of the most advanced conditions of Diabetes Type II, where patients suffer from damages to their nerves and other neurological problems.
The symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus are progressive in nature and with the aging of the disease, various symptoms start appearing in different parts of the body.
One of the most common symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy is the tendency to feel full even after a small meal.
Sometimes the patients suffer from the symptoms of constipation, nausea and other problems related to the ingestion and digestion of food .Vomiting and throwing up after a few hours of having the food,is another common symptom of the development of diabetic neuropathy. The beginning of the nerve damage is revealed by a burning or tingling sensation in the feet and hands.
The numbness in the extremities of the hand and feet, are important symptoms that signal the beginning of this progressive disease. The damage caused in the nerves may lead to a complete loss of sensation and power of response to stimuli in the legs and feet. As the nerve damages spread to the various blood vessels and the heart, there is a feeling of lightheadedness called orthostatic hypotension when the patient stands up. The heart rate becomes faster than normal and the detection of angina, which is the pain in the chest that is a warning signal for heart attack or other diseases of the heart. The male diabetic patients develop sexual problems such as erectile dysfunctions while women face vaginal dryness or problems with their orgasms. The damages caused to the nerves, makes it difficult to understand the situations that may lead to the blood sugar falling to extremely low levels.
Most patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy develop bladder problems such as leaking of urine and difficulties in emptying the bladder.
Patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy may find themselves sweating excessively, even when they are at rest or when the temperature is not too high.
One of the major symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy is blurring of the vision, appearance of cataract problems in the eyes, issues related to the retina, etc. The patient who has been diagnosed for diabetic neuropathy can suffer from sudden bouts of dizziness and muscle weakness.
The difficulty in remaining alert can lead to loss in concentration levels and work efficiency. The symptoms of diabetic neuropathy develop as the nerves get damaged due to a deficiency of oxygen and blood flow to the nerves and uncontrolled sugar levels. There may be specific symptoms that are typically related to certain organs and their immediate functions, but it is important to note that the symptoms of diabetic neurology are not mutually exclusive of each other.
It is important to keep a track of all the changes that occur in the different parts of the body as the disease progresses.
The researchers at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research and the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica have discovered the efficacy of treating Type 2 diabetes with bitter melon. Bitter melon contains certain chemical compounds that activate AMPK which encourages the movement of glucose transporters to the surface of cells.
A new study by Saint Louis University scientists found that bitter melon extract triggers a chain of events on a cellular level that stops breast cancer cells from multiplying and also kills them.
Please note that we are unable to respond back directly to your questions or provide medical advice. As the fastest growing consumer health information site a€” with 65 million monthly visitors a€” Healthlinea€™s mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being. Type 1 diabetes is more common among children, while type 2 diabetes is more likely to strike adults, particularly after age 40. Elimination is predominantly renal, with the exception of gliquidone that is eliminated in the bile in proportion of 95%.
Sulphonylureas are fixing on specific receptors and acts through the potassium channel from the pancreatic and the extra-pancreatic level. The main side effect of sulphonylureas is hypoglycaemia (favored by a high dose, kidney failure, liver failure, alcohol consumption, intense physical effort, age over 70 years). Biguanides increase insulin action by binding to specific receptors, decrease intestinal absorption of carbohydrates and decrease anaerobic gluconeogenesis.
Digestive manifestations, especially epigastric pain and diarrhea, occur in approximately 20% of cases and it is requiring a dose reduction or even quitting to this class of oral antidiabetic medication. Thiazolidinediones lower blood glucose levels by reducing insulinresistance in adipose tissue, in the muscle and in the liver, thus increasing insulin sensitivity, in this way it favors the hypoglycemic action of insulin.
Before and during treatment with thiazolidinediones, is necessary to control liver enzymes (AST, ALT in particular). This drugs are fixing on specific sites of potassium channels and increase insulin secretion stimulated by glucose level if there is a residual function of pancreatic beta cells. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors are reversibly binding to alpha-glucosidase enzymes of small intestine cells, enzymes that are designed to split disaccharides and oligosaccharides, thus preventing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, along the small intestine.
Alpha glucosidase inhibitors can cause a slight weight gain, abdominal bloating, flatulence, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and rarely can cause liver test abnormalities.
GLP-1 is a substance secreted by the body that stimulates insulin secretion, but has other beneficial effects such as delayed passage of food from the stomach into the small intestine and stimulating satiety. One of the most important causes for the development of Diabetic Neurology is high blood sugar levels and high levels of blood pressure and hypertension along with many other reasons. The problems in the nerves occur in various places in the body over a period of time and the symptoms are dependent on the location of these affected nerves. The problems in digesting food leads to the elevation of blood sugar levels, causing other diabetic complications. The swelling of the abdomen, bloating and gastric problems are other common signs of the disease. Abnormal sensations may start in certain parts of the body and this is known as Dysesthesia . It is common for patients of Diabetic Neuropathy to not feel pain when they step on something sharp.
The sudden fall in the sugar levels can cause unconsciousness, dizziness and a complete collapse that needs immediate medical attention.
It is difficult for them to understand that their bladder is full and they need to urinate. The changes that occur at this stage can cause various other problems connected to the eye and this can cause major discomfort to the patient. These symptoms usually start developing after the patient has lived with diabetes for over 20-25 years. These include the motor neurons, pain fibers and the autonomic nervous system. As all the nerves in the body are interconnected, the problems spread progressively to all the organs in different parts of the body. There are several symptoms of diabetic neuropathy and it is not necessary that all the symptoms occur in the same patient at the same point of time. Proper management of the blood sugar levels can help in the control and prevention of this diabetic neurological problem to a certain extent. According to lead researcher, “bitter melon extract modulates several signal transduction pathways, which induces breast cancer cell death.
Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family.
Here's what happens:When your baby eats, his digestive juices break down most food into a simple sugar called glucose, which is his body's main source of fuel. At pancreatic level, increase insulin secretion and at the level of pancreatic beta cells, they increase the number of insulin receptors.
Other adverse effects consist of digestive manifestations (nausea, epigastric pain, liver pain) and of haematological manifestations (pancytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia).
This class of oral antidiabetic medication is well tolerated in general, however, sometimes may occur mild edema of the lower limbs, through the loss of elimination of salt and water, which, on the one hand, may decrease hemoglobin, with the appearance of anemia, and on the other hand, requires to be administered with caution to patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure. Thus, carbohydrates reach into the colon and are metabolized by bacteria, found at this level, in short-chain fatty acids and then are eliminated.
The administration of this drug is by subcutaneous injection, like insulin, in a fixed dose, 2 times a day with pre-filled pen, initially every 5 micrograms twice a day, then 10 micrograms twice a day.
A cut or a blister may go unnoticed, as the nerves develop further damage. The sensation that is felt on touching something cold or hot is also lost, as the nerves fail to respond to different external stimuli. Thus, the symptoms are directly related to the age and duration of diabetes in the patients. The glucose passes into his bloodstream, where a hormone called insulin helps the body's cells use the glucose for growth and energy.Insulin is produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach. At extra-pancreatic sulphonylurea drugs decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis from non-carbohydrate sources), increased glycolysis and enhances insulin action in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissue.
Thiazolidinediones can cause hypercholesterolemia and triglycerides disorders and for this reason, blood fats should be checked periodically.
The symptoms start developing as and when the damages occur to the cranial nerves, nerves in the spinal cord and its branches and the nerves that mange the functions of the vital body organs such as bladder, stomach, heart and intestines. In a healthy body, the pancreas automatically produces the amount of insulin needed to move the glucose from the blood into the cells.In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas doesn't produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin but the body's cells aren't able to absorb it. If not managed properly over many years, though, the condition can lead to blindness, kidney disease, heart disease, nerve damage, gum and skin infections, osteoporosis, the loss of limbs, and even death.How common is diabetes in children?Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. Type 1 diabetes affects 1 in every 400 to 600 children and adolescents in the United States. Lately, though, more and more children are being diagnosed with it.What causes diabetes?Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body to attack the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. While there's some genetic link, most people with this type of diabetes have no family history of the disease.Researchers are trying to determine what kinds of environmental factors might trigger type 1 diabetes in those who are susceptible. Being overweight and physically inactive are also risk factors, but it's a myth that eating too much sugar causes diabetes.
Gc quantification with internal standard selection|
Diabetes type 2 respiratory problems