A systematic evidence review and meta-analysis has suggested that metformin should remain the first choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. As evidence on the newer versus older diabetes medications continues to amass, clinicians and patients need updated evidence on their comparative effectiveness and safety to make informed treatment choices. Researchers reviewed published studies to compare the effectiveness and safety of monotherapy (thiazolidinediones, metformin, sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor antagonists) and selected metformin-based combinations in adults with type 2 diabetes. By 2025, nanotechnology medicine will largely impact our lives according to Grossman, but until this develops, what can a person do in 'Bridge One Medicine'?
Metformin is first-line drug of choice for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, in particular, in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function. Metformin is the only antidiabetic drug that has been conclusively shown to prevent the cardiovascular complications of diabetes.
Cancer feeds mainly on glucose, so in a glucose-rich environment it is more likely to grow.
The benefits of the drug mean that Grossman recommends and takes Metformin as a preventative, anti-aging medication, even though he does not suffer from Type 2 diabetes. With heart disease being the number one killer, defending against this may help increase lifespan. There have been some associated side-effects on kidneys from statin use, however new studies reveal the risk to be low. Acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA), commonly known as aspirin has long been thought to reduce cancer and cardiovascular death risk. Aspirin should be considered for men 45-80, women 55-80, especially if there is a family history of heart attack or stroke. Better known as the trade-name, Cialis is primarily prescribed for erectile disfunction but Grossman states it has anti-aging properties as well. Supplementation with carnosine overwhelms the carnosinase enzyme, thus enabling one to maintain consistent blood levels of this critical nutrient. Fruit flies are incredibly useful experimental animals, particularly for genetic and aging research, because of their very short life spans and rapid reproductive rates.
Pauling believed that his death was delayed for 20 years because of his vitamin C intake, that went as high as 18,000 milligrams per day in later years. Advocacy of Vitamin D has increased over the last few years as it has been found in some studies to reduce aging, and preventing heart disease and cancer. It was only recently discovered that the Vitamin D precursor, D3  is in many more tissues than bone, and skin is one of them. DHEA is used for slowing or reversing aging, improving thinking skills in older people, and slowing the progress of Alzheimer’s disease. Natural DHEA levels in the body begin to decrease after age 30, and are reported to be low in some people with anorexia, end-stage kidney disease, type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes), AIDS, adrenal insufficiency, and in the critically ill. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a substance that’s found naturally in the body and helps convert food into energy.
Antioxidants fight damaging particles in the body known as free radicals, which damage cell membranes, tamper with DNA, and even cause cell death. Some researchers believe that CoQ10 may help with heart-related conditions, because it can improve energy production in cells, prevent blood clot formation, and act as an antioxidant.
EPA and DHA are vital nutrients and may be taken to maintain healthy function of the following: Brain and Retina- DHA is a building block of tissue in the brain and retina of the eye.
Are there any other nutritional supplements or vitamins that you take for life extension or overall health reasons? 8)    Interactive Medical Media LLC, Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology, Dr. Not recommended as first-line treatment for patients inadequately controlled on diet and exercise.
Concomitant insulin (insufficient data); administer as separate injections not adjacent to each other. More than seven classes of diabetes medications are recommended as first- or second-line therapy. Terry Grossman's Program for Optimal Wellness (POW), supplements and vitamins are a big component of the plan. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, and has been investigated for other diseases where insulin resistance may be an important factor.
It helps reduce LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and is not associated with weight gain.
The drug has been found to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines that normally activate the immune system, but if overproduced can lead to pathological inflammation, a condition that both damages tissues in aging and favors tumor growth.
If you have had a heart attack or stroke, your doctor will likely recommend you take a daily aspirin unless you have a serious allergy or history of bleeding.
A typical red meat meal may provide 250 mg of carnosine, but this is quickly degraded in the body by the carnosinase enzyme. Carnosine has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes formed from peroxidation of cell membrane fatty acids during oxidative stress. Sergey Stvolinsky, a anti-aging scientist at the Russian Academy, has studied carnosine for years. Stvolinsky and his research team found that adding a tiny amount of carnosine to the flies’ food supply produced an immediate 20% increase in the average life span of male flies. Human beings are one of the few animals that cannot produce this vitamin on their own and therefore must get it from external source. Vitamin D metabolism in the epidermis begins with 7- dehydrocholesterol, which produces both cholesterol and previtamin D3. DHEA levels may also be depleted by a number of drugs, including insulin, corticosteroids, opiates, and danazol. DHEA can cause higher than normal levels of androgens and estrogens in the body, and theoretically may increase the risk of prostate, breast, ovarian, and other hormone-sensitive cancers.
Scientists believe free radicals contribute to the aging process, as well as a number of health problems, including heart disease and cancer.
It helps with forming neural transmitters, such as phosphatidylserine, which is important for brain function.


It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. As of 2010, Metformin is one of only two oral antidiabetics in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines. If you have a high risk of having a first heart attack, your doctor might recommend aspirin after weighing the risks and benefits. In 2010 he published some surprising results in the journal Rejuvenation Research about carnosine’s effect on fruit flies. Alone, carnosine had little effect on female flies’ life span, but when combined with a water-soluble form of vitamin E, female flies experienced a 36% increase in longevity as well. Pauling was clear that he believes that people can have an extra 12-18 years of life if one takes 3,200 to 12,000 milligrams of vitamin C per day (equivalent to 45-75 REDs). Fortunately, it is found abundantly in fruits and vegetables such as citrus fruits, potatoes, papaya, tomato, and brussels sprouts. Pauling's studies to fortify the micro-capillary wall of blood vessels that often deteriorate due to the aging process. However, the human body cannot make DHEA from these chemicals, so simply eating wild yam or soy will not increase DHEA levels. Antioxidants, such as CoQ10, can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.
EPA DHA are highly unsaturated fat because of they contain 6 and 5 double bond s on their long structural chain. DHA is found in the retina of the eye and taking DHA may be necessary for maintaining healthy levels of DHA for normal eye function.
Some types cause warts and are usually harmless, but others may lead to cervical or anal cancer. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health.
If you enjoy the outdoors, be careful of ticks -- they can attach as you brush past grass and plants. Corroborating his assertions in a study of 11,000 Americans where he postulate that intake of 300 mg of Vitamin C per day (equivalent to 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day) adds up to 6 years to a man's life and 2 years to a woman's life. Calcitriol is jolly useful with antimicrobial activity (ever noticed how acne clears up in the sun), prevention of several skin deseases, protection from UV damage, and protection of the hair follicle. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. Pauling's studies show substantial reduction in atheroclerosis plague in his subjects on this program. Tick BitesOnce a tick latches onto skin, it often moves to the warm, moist armpits and groin -- feeding on blood and passing on any disease it carries. The term comes from the shape of the tiny parasites, which look very different from head or body lice. ScabiesScabies is an itchy infestation caused by a tiny mite that burrows into human skin to lay eggs. Infected ticks usually don't spread the disease until they've been attached for at least 36 hours. The Clap (Gonorrhea)Gonorrhea spreads easily and can lead to infertility in both men and women, if untreated.
Untreated Lyme disease may spread to other parts of the body, including the muscles, joints, heart, and nervous system. Black Widow Spiders: Venomous!Wood piles and tree stumps -- that's where venomous female black widows hide.
She is long-legged and glossy black, with a distinctive orange, red, or yellow "hourglass" shape on her underside.
Black Widow Spider BitesBlack widow spider bites may cause stabbing pain in the bite area, but they can also be painless. Later there may be a rash on the soles, palms, or other parts of the body (seen here), as well as swollen glands, fever, hair loss, or fatigue.
Severe muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, seizure, and a rise in blood pressure may follow soon after. In the late stage, symptoms come from damage to organs such as the heart, brain, liver, nerves, and eyes.
Brown Recluse Spiders Can Have a Nasty BiteHiding in attics and closets -- in Midwestern and Southern states -- that's where you'll find brown recluse spiders. This virus is usually not an STD; it spreads easily among household members or through kissing. Brown Recluse Spider BitesWhen the brown recluse bites, it is often painless -- then skin may redden, turn white, blister, and becomes painful. But it can be spread to the genitals through oral or genital contact with an infected person. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2Most cases of genital herpes are caused by a virus called HSV-2. It's highly contagious and can spread through intercourse or direct contact with a herpes sore.
If you have lice, you likely got it from sharing a hat, brush, or other item with a person who has lice. People can be infected through sex, needle sharing, and at birth, as well as by sharing razors and toothbrushes. Head Lice RemediesTo kill lice and their eggs (called nits), use lotions, creams, or shampoos from the drug store or prescribed by your doctor which are designed specifically for lice.
Wash clothing, bedding, and brushes in hot water and dry in a hot dryer of dry clean to prevent the spread of lice. Flea BitesSome people are very sensitive to flea bites -- but scratching can cause a wound or infection. Bee, Wasp, Hornet, Yellow JacketWhen certain types of bees sting, they lose their stinger and die.
But a wasp, hornet, or yellow jacket can inflict multiple stings because it does not lose the stinger.


One limitation is the "window period" of up to six months after exposure to HIV when these antibody tests sometimes do not find the virus. Bee, Wasp, Hornet, Yellow Jacket StingsIf you don't have an allergic reaction, simply remove the stinger, clean the sting site, apply ice, take oral antihistamine for itching, and take ibuprofen or acetaminophen for pain relief. If you have a severe anaphylactic reaction, use an epinephrine auto-injector if you have one. People take a combination of antiviral drugs in hopes of preventing the infection from advancing to AIDS. Additional treatments can help prevent or fight off serious infections, if the immune system has weakened. During an attack, the fire ant latches onto the skin with its jaw, then stings from its abdomen. ChancroidChanchroid is a bacterial STD that is common in Africa and Asia but rare in the U.S. LGV (Lymphogranuloma Venereum)LGV is caused by a type of chlamydia that is usually rare in the U.S. Specifically, chiggers are the juvenile (or larval) form of a family of mites called Trombiculidae. Pelvic Inflammatory DiseaseNot an STD itself, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious complication of untreated STDs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea. Chigger BitesAfter a few days of being attached to the skin, chiggers fall off -- leaving itchy red welts.
Who's at Risk for STDs?Anyone who is sexually active is at risk for an STD, regardless of gender, race, social class, or sexual orientation. Scabies: Stealthy PestsWhen scabies mites get into the skin, they can cause a big skin problem. The mites spread through skin-to-skin contact with an infected person -- or by sharing towels, bed linens, and other objects. Treating ScabiesIntense itching and skin sores don't appear until several weeks after mites get into skin.
The CDC has noted that some STDs are on the rise in men who have sex with men, including syphilis and LGV. The rash typically is seen on the sides and webs of the fingers, the wrist, elbows, genitals, and buttock. Many STDs spread through any type of sexual activity, including skin-to-skin contact and oral sex. Bedbugs: Hitching a RideTheir name tells the tale, as these tiny insects tend to hide in bedding.
Preventing STDsThe best ways to avoid getting an STD are to abstain from any sexual contact and be in a monogamous, long-term relationship with an uninfected partner. They are often found in hotels, shelters, and apartment complexes -- and can hitch a ride into your home aboard luggage, pets, and boxes.
More of a nuisance than a health hazard, it is possible to develop an infection from scratching. If you have an allergic skin reaction, use creams with corticosteroids and take oral antihistamines -- and see your doctor. These infections can spread through contact with skin lesions that are not covered by a condom.
How to Tell Your PartnerIf you think you have an STD, tell your partner(s) as soon as possible. Puss Caterpillar StingsWhen a puss caterpillar stings, you may get waves of intense pain, rash, fever, vomiting, and muscle cramps. You may be able to spread the infection even if you have already begun treatment or are using condoms.
Remove the broken-off spines by using cellophane tape or a commercial facial peel -- and call your doctor.
Symptoms of a sting include pain, swelling, itching, vomiting, increased sweating, and vision problems.
Many STDs can be passed from mother to baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or after the baby is born.
Some types of deerflies spread Tularemia, an infectious bacterial disease that requires medical attention. STDs' effects on babies can include stillbirth, low birth weight, neurologic problems, blindness, liver disease, and serious infection. Treatment during pregnancy can cure some STDs and lower the risk of passing the infection to your baby.  Can STDs Come Back?Most STD treatments do not protect you from getting the same infection again. A course of drugs may cure gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia or trichomoniasis, but a new exposure can start a new infection.
To protect yourself from mosquitoes, apply insect repellent and cover up when you go outdoors. And if you're not taking the right precautions to protect yourself, you can be re-infected quickly or even pick up a second STD.
Houseflies: Dirty, Hairy!A housefly is a dirty insect -- carrying more than 1 million bacteria on its body. To control flies, keep food and garbage in closed containers and use window screens on your home. It helps to use pesticides (or an exterminator), keep a clean kitchen, and repair cracks and holes in floors and walls.



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