The function of glucagon is causing the liver to release glucose from its cells into the blood, for the production of energy. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas leading to insulin deficiency. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults but was traditionally termed "Juvenile diabetes" because it represents a majority of the diabetes cases in children.
Type 2 Diabetes is also called non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes.
At this stage hyperglycemia can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production by the liver. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness.
It occurs in about 2%–5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.
Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital cardiac and central nervous system anomalies, and skeletal muscle malformations. Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome. A cesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia.
Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
It is strongly believed that due to some genes which passes from one generation to another, a person can inherit diabetes. Either physical injury or emotional disturbance is frequently blamed as the initial cause of the disease.
These symptoms are quickly relieved once the Diabetes is treated and also reduce the chances of developing serious health problems. Due to inefficiency of the cell to metabolize glucose, reserve fat of body is metabolized to gain energy. Factors like loss of water (polyuria), glucosuria , metabolism of body fat and protein may lead to weight loss. The body gives few signals whenever there is fluctuation in blood sugar (due to suppression of immune system) by frequent skin infections like fungal or bacterial or UTI (urinary tract infection).
High blood sugar resists the flourishing of WBC, (white blood cell) which are responsible for body immune system. Diabetes is the primary reason for adult blindness, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), gangrene and amputations. Overweight, lack of exercise, family history and stress increase the likelihood of diabetes. When blood sugar level is constantly high it leads to kidney failure, cardiovascular problems and neuropathy. Though, Diabetes mellitus is not completely curable but, it is controllable to a great extent. Vayu, on relative diminution of other two doshas, draws on the dhatus in urinary bladder and thus causes Prameha.
During the oral glucose tolerance test your blood glucose is tested two hours after drinking 75 grams of glucose. Varicella-zoster virus infection causes intensely itchy, oozing lesions that eventually crust over. Conditions that cause vomiting or acid reflux, such as the eating disorder bulimia, can damage tooth enamel.
Gingivitis, also generally called gum disease or periodontal disease, describes the events that begin with bacterial growth in your mouth and may end -- if not properly treated -- with tooth loss due to destruction of the tissue that surrounds your teeth. Tooth decay occurs when foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches) are left on the teeth.
Dental bonding is a procedure in which a tooth-colored resin is applied and hardened with a special light, ultimately "bonding" the material to the tooth to improve a person's smile. Veneers (sometimes called porcelain laminates) are wafer-thin, custom-made shells that cover the front surface of teeth, changing their color, shape, size or length. Recontouring or reshaping is a procedure in which small amounts of tooth enamel are removed or shaped to change a tooth's length, shape, or surface.
Braces can correct crooked teeth or a misaligned bite, and can improve the health and appearance of anyone's smile, adult or child. Many teeth-whitening systems are available, including whitening toothpastes, over-the-counter gels, rinses, strips, and trays, and whitening agents obtained from a dentist. Amalgam tattoos occur when a tiny piece of amalgam filling embeds in your cheek or gum during or after dental work.
Also called aphthous ulcers, canker sores can show up on your tongue, cheek, and even your gums. Strep infection often produces a distinct pattern of white patches in the throat and on the tonsils, as well as red swollen tonsils.
Small amounts of the candida fungus are present in the mouth, digestive tract, and skin of most healthy people and are normally kept in check by other bacteria and microorganisms in the body. Tonsil stones (also called tonsilloliths) form when bacteria and mucus get trapped and calcify in your tonsils’ nooks and crannies, leaving a hard piece of matter and a bad taste in your throat.
Cold sores (fever blisters) are caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), passed on through contact with infected skin or body fluid. You can't cure HSV or a cold sore, but you can alleviate the pain it causes by avoiding spicy or acidic foods, applying ice, and using over-the-counter remedies. Apthous ulcers, like the one above, are painful open sores on the mucous membrane lining the mouth.
Superficial infections of the skin and mucosal membranes by Candida causing local inflammation and discomfort are common. Hyperplasia of the upper gums is a consequence of long-term use of the drug phenytoin, prescribed to treat epilepsy. Black hairy tongue, as shown above on a 2-year-old boy, occurs when the filiform papillae that cover the tongue become enlarged and overgrown with fungi. Oral cancer most commonly involves the tissue of the lips or the tongue, and begins as a white plaque or mouth ulcer.
More than 40% of patients undergoing chemotherapy develop some degree of mucositis during the course of their treatment.
It depends upon closeness of blood relationship as mother is diabetic, the risk is 2 to 3%, father is diabetic, the risk is more than the previous case and if both the parents are diabetic, the child has much greater risk for diabetes.
This disease may occur at any age, but 80% of cases occur after 50 year, incidences increase with the age factor.
New improved blood glucose monitor (new device for self blood glucose monitoring), and hemoglobin A1c laboratory test to measure blood glucose control during previous 3 months.
Trishna (Thirst and Polydipsia) : In the process of lypolysis, more water is utilized which results into activation of thirst center in the brain. SHANER MEHA - Delayed and very slow impulse of urination.patient urinates in less quantity without any urge and difficulty. HASTI MEHA (Prostatitis) - Urine with lasika.In this type, patient urinates urine in a very large quantity just like an elephant. MADHU MEHA (Diabetes mellitus) -In this type, patient urinates urine which is of whitish or yellowish in colour and rough in nature.
Boil the 5 leaves each of Tulsi, Neem, Jamun, Bel, with 4 seeds of pepper in a glass of water and drink two times a day.
The powder of seeds of Fenugreek (Methi) taken two to three times a day helps control the sugar in blood and urine.
This semi-translucent, hard, outer layer of the teeth has an important job: protecting teeth from the daily wear and tear of biting and chewing, as well as temperature extremes from hot or cold foods and drinks. Over time, the constant clenching and friction can damage teeth and other health complications can arise. Bruxism is often worst when you sleep -- that's when you can't control it.
Among the easiest and least expensive of cosmetic dental procedures, bonding can repair chipped or cracked teeth, close gaps, change the shape of teeth, or be used as a cosmetic alternative to silver amalgam fillings. The procedure is usually done to improve appearance by creating more harmony or balance in the look of the smile. The crown, when cemented into place, fully encases the entire visible portion of a tooth that lies at and above the gum line.
Otherwise your tooth could be damaged further or become infected, possibly causing you to end up losing the tooth. Many people use this opportunity to replace silver amalgam fillings with tooth-colored composites. Implants provide a strong foundation for fixed (permanent) or removable replacement teeth that are made to match your natural teeth. Braces work by applying continuous pressure over a period of time to slowly move teeth in a specific direction.
Brackets -- the parts that attach to each tooth -- can be clear, tooth-colored, or multi-colored.
Porcelain veneers and crowns can correct crooked teeth, an uneven gum line, and other chipped, worn, and discolored dentistry. Teeth whitening is ideal for people who have healthy, unrestored teeth (no fillings) and gums.
The silver in the amalgam leaches into your mouth's soft tissue, resulting in a blue-gray "stain" that looks a bit like a tiny tattoo.
However, certain illnesses, stress, or medications can disturb the delicate balance, causing the fungus candida to grow out of control, causing thrush. They are not as common, but cold sores can appear anywhere on the face, including on the cheek, chin, or nose.
They can be caused by hypersensitive reactions to haemolytic streptococcus bacteria, minor injuries, acute stress and allergies. Most candidial infections are treatable and result in minimal complications such as redness, itching and discomfort, though complication may be severe or fatal if left untreated in certain populations. Patients receiving radiation to the head, neck, or chest areas and patients who undergo bone marrow or stem cell transplant are even more likely to develop mucositis.
Secondly, long standing diabetes leads to thickening of blood vessels which affect proper circulation of blood in different body parts.
This causes disturbance in the equilibrium of dhatus and doshas in the body exposing body to further complications. Purging can also trigger swelling in the mouth, throat, and salivary glands as well as bad breath. The same goes for any condition that causes frequent vomiting, from gastrointestinal problems to eating disorders. The bacteria, acid, food debris, and saliva combine to form plaque, which clings to the teeth. Veneers offer a conservative approach to changing a tooth's color or shape compared to crowns, but the process is not reversible. Instead of individual crowns, some patients may have attachments on their implant that support a removable denture. Complete dentures are used when all the teeth are missing, while partial dentures are used when some natural teeth remain. Cosmetic dentists can make a dramatic difference in a person's smile and overall oral health, but the work must be carefully planned. Amalgam tattoos pose no harm, but it's not likely an amalgam tattoo if the blue-gray spot grows or changes color. Triggers include hypersensitivity, infection, hormones, stress, and not getting enough of some vitamins.
A weakened immune system, antibiotics, diabetes, or certain medications such as inhaled corticosteroids can give candida a chance to grow wild. This woman pictured had been taking the drug methotrexate to treat rheumatoid arthritis, although it is not clear if the drug played a part in the development of the ulcer.
Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant that reduces the severity of seizures in grand mal epilepsy.
Incidence of mucositis is higher with certain chemotherapy or total body irradiation, which is often used for bone marrow transplants.
Anorexia, bulimia, and other eating disorders can also cause serious nutritional shortfalls that can affect the health of your teeth. The American Dental Association asserts that the mercury in amalgam combines with other metals to render it safe for use in filling teeth. There are even "invisible" braces that use a series of clear, plastic molds to gradually move the teeth into alignment. Persistent, severe canker sores can be treated with numbing creams or prescription treatments.
HSV-1 damages the skin as it reproduces itself, creating cold sores that last about a week. Ulcers tend to heal by themselves, but clinician’s may prescribe corticosteroid or tetracycline drugs to speed up the healing process in severe cases. Other risk factors include heavy alcohol use, poor dental and oral hygiene, chronic irritation and human papillomavirus infection.
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