Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder where a deficiency of insulin or the unresponsiveness of cels to insulin leads to elevated blood glucose levels.
Diabetic foot is the common term for the complications seen in the lower limb, particularly the foot, in diabetic patients often as a result of neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease.
Diabetic foot arises due to a combination of factors associated with reduced blood supply to the foot and nerve damage.
The ischemic foot (reduced blood flow) tends to be painful, cool with atrophic skin and absent foot pulses.
The diabetic foot may also be deformed due to weakening of the bones and minor fractures that arise with trauma to the foot.
With peripheral arterial disease, diminished blood flow leads to ischemia – tissue damage associated with reduced blood flow as the cells cannot receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients. Ask a Doctor Online Now!In the early stages there may be some relief by hanging the leg out of the bed but with time, even this does not help. While (nerve damage) may be the cause of the pain in the early stages, it quickly leads to reduced perception of pain and eventually almost total numbness. The key to treating and managing or even preventing diabetic foot is educating the diabetic patient who is at greatest risk.
Inspect feet daily, particularly the areas of greatest risk – the margins and soles of the feet. Good foot care involves washing the feet daily, moisturizing the skin and cutting and filing the toenails regularly. Proper fitting shoes, or specially manufactured orthotic footwear, will help to prevent ulceration. Undertake any strenuous activity involving the feet like running or walking for long distances. Visit a podiatrist regularly to have the feet inspected, calluses removed and for general foot care.
Ensure good glycemic control by taking medication daily as prescribed and adhering to a diet as suggested by a registered dietitian. Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis.
A consistently elevated blood sugar can lead to diabetic neuropathy where in the connection between the blood vessels and the nerves is lost, which leads to the damaging of nerves innervating the feet. Hence diabetic patients must be extremely cautious in recognizing foot deformities at an early stage and should get an immediate treatment done. Frequently getting blood sugar levels checked, has been found to be very effective in keeping the pain levels manageable. Diet plays a huge role in normalizing blood sugar levels and so diabetic patients ought to keep an eye on their food intake since almost everything that we ingest is converted to sugar or glucose that the body utilizes as an energy source. In order to make sure that the blood sugar levels do not go high, one can adapt ways of increasing the metabolism of glucose in the body by increasing the fiber content of the food. Physical activity works in the same manner as insulin does, by aiding in the movement of glucose into the cells from the bloodstream to be utilized as a source of energy. Swimming and bicycle riding are exercises that place the least amount of stress on the feet and at the same time help in speeding up blood flow to the feet.
One way is to use the conventional over-the-counter analgesics or pain killers (NSAIDs) like aspirin, ibuprofen etc., as the first step to reduce foot pain caused by diabetic neuropathy. When the pain gets severe, anticonvulsant drugs that have the ability of calming and soothing the nerves can be taken, only after consulting a medical practitioner.
Learning how to examine the early signs and symptoms of diabetic foot problems and seeking the right treatment on time is the most effective preventive measure to avoid leg amputations.
Certain parts of the feet become numb due to the loss of sensation caused by the damage to the nerves innervating that area. The infection cannot be treated easily either, because the antibiotics taken cannot reach the site of the infection due to poor blood circulation.
Wounds that take a long time to heal and foot injuries that occur without the knowledge of a diabetic patient are the two most important indications of diabetic neuropathy. Besides the above mentioned ways, one needs to avoid cigarette smoking since nicotine can constrict blood vessels, decreasing blood flow to the feet.
Whenever you use the hip (for example, by going for a run), a cushion of cartilage helps prevent friction as the hip bone moves in its socket. If your hips are sore, here is a rundown of what might be causing your discomfort and how to get hip pain relief. Sometimes pain from other areas of the body, such as the back or groin (from a hernia), can radiate to the hip. You might notice that your pain gets worse with activity, especially if it's caused by arthritis. If your hip pain is caused by a muscle or tendon strain, osteoarthritis, or tendinitis, you can usually relieve it with an over-the-counter pain medication such as Tylenol or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as Motrin or Aleve. Rheumatoid arthritis treatments also include prescription anti-inflammatory medications such as corticosteroids, or disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) like methotrexate and sulfasalazine.
Another way to relieve hip pain is by holding ice to the area for about 15 minutes a few times a day. If you have arthritis, exercising the hip joint with low-impact exercises, stretching, and resistance training can reduce pain and improve joint mobility. Join tens of thousands of doctors, health professionals and patients who receive our newsletters.
Neuropathy is the term used to describe a problem with the nerves, usually the 'peripheral nerves' as opposed to the 'central nervous system' (the brain and spinal cord). Neuropathy is a complication of a number of different medical conditions and is a common condition. Physical trauma, repetitive injury, infection, metabolic problems and exposure to toxins and some drugs can all lead to neuropathy.
With neuropathy as a complication of diabetes, up to 50% of people affected may be completely without symptoms. For toxic causes, removing exposure to a toxin, or stopping a culprit drug, can halt further nerve damage.
Neuropathy has many causes, and any number of the three nerve types can be affected at any one time. Drugs - such as some chemotherapy medication and medicines used to treat HIV can cause damage to peripheral nerves. Chronic kidney disease - if the kidneys are not functioning normally, an imbalance of salts and chemicals can cause peripheral neuropathy. Infections - damage can be caused to peripheral nerves by some infections including shingles, HIV infection and Lyme disease. Guillain-Barre syndrome is the name given to a specific type of peripheral neuropathy triggered by infection. Connective tissue diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Certain inflammatory conditions - conditions including sarcoidosis and coeliac disease can also cause peripheral neuropathy. A 1999 survey found that 8-9% of Medicare recipients have peripheral neuropathy as their primary or secondary diagnosis. On the following pages we look at the symptoms of neuropathy, tests and diagnosis, treatments and prevention and the prognosis for neuropathy sufferers. American Diabetes Association. Neuropathy, information about living with diabetes complications. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:MLAHelen Webberley MBChB MRCGP MFSRH. For any corrections of factual information, or to contact our editorial team, please see our contact page.
Please note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Macular rash are also known as Maculopapular rash is a type of rash appearing as small lumps or raised growths on the skin. Often macular rash is associated with underlying medical conditions like scarlet fever or syphilis or measles.
Macular rash can be seen with high fever, throat pain and fagigue if the underlying cause is measles.
Epstein Barr Virus – If the person is suffering from EP virus it can cause painful blisters on the skin with fever.
Syphilis – Syphilis is a serious infectious disease that spreads through sexual transmission causing irritation and painful blisters on the genitals. Rubella – Rubella is also known as German measles which is marked by distinctive red rash on the skin causing itching and irritation.

Chikungunya – High fever, joint pain and red rashes are some of the signs of this viral infection. Low Level Of Cholesterol – Sudden drop in cholesterol levels can cause macular rashes. Side Effect Of Drugs – Some medications like Cefobid and Cefoperazone sodium and antibiotics can be the cause of macular rash.
After completing the physical exam, the doctor may collect the complete medical history of the patient. If Chikungunya is the cause of macular rash the doctor may recommend Chloroquine in suitable strengths for controlling inflammation and itchy feeling.
IV fluids are started if the person is diagnosed with dengue fever and in severe cases blood transfusion is to be done if platelets are affected. For controlling the symptoms of Epstein Barr virus painkillers and analgesics are prescribed. If the patient does not respond to any of the above method, ultraviolet radiation can be done to manage macular rash. In rare cases maculopapular rash appears due to Marburg Hemorrhagic fever in which case the patient has to be hospitalized and treated to prevent mortality. Macular rash is not any kind of serious problem to resolve if the underlying cause is found out. Most meningitis cases are caused due to viral infection; however, in some cases even bacterial or fungal infection may cause this physical issue. It should be known that though meningitis rash is a symptom of meningitis it may not be always present. Even in case of new born babies, meningitis rash may not be common; however, it may also be seen in meningococcal condition of the disease. It is essential to consult a doctor if any kind of health abnormalities is experienced including symptoms of meningitis. It is close to impossible to known the kind of meningitis affecting a person unless you consult a certified doctor and undergo required diagnosis such as spinal fluid test. Meningitis is often caused due viral infection however, in some cases the infection is also caused by bacterial infection.
Meningitis rash may also occur due to acute bacterial meningitis which occurs when bacteria accesses the blood stream and traverses to the brain as well as spinal cord. It is recorded that most number of cases of meningitis is attributed to virus as compared to bacteria.
In order to treat meningitis rash it is essential to first cure meningitis as rashes are just a symptom of the condition. There are also chances that your doctor may also suggest antibiotics or combination of antibiotics depending upon the type of bacteria that resulted in the condition.
This website is purely for information purpose and gives information that is general in nature. If you suffer from problematic feet, you might find that shoes with good arch support are just what you need to get through the day in comfort. While shoes with good arch support were once limited solely to sneakers and walking shoes, today there are many different styles available.
Reef: Reef carries a wide range of sandals with anatomical arch support for both men and women.
Sorel: Sorel is known for its ultra-comfortable winter boots, but the company also carries a modest range of footwear perfect to wear around the house. Kenneth Cole: The high-fashion designer's Gentle Souls shoe collection is full of chic, elegant footwear, ranging from pumps to wedges. New Balance: Many of New Balance's sneakers feature their Stability Web, a structured arch support with a lightweight construction.
Proper treatment and effective management can help delay or even avoid certain complications associated with diabetes mellitus but eventually its effects become evident.
It has thick elastic walls to keep blood propelled and withstand the higher pressure within it. The neuropathic foot (nerve damage) tends to be painless or even numb, warm with dry skin and bounding pulses. Since the patient’s sense of pain is impaired as a result of autonomic neuropathy, the patient continues to walk on the foot and does not seek medical treatment. This may initially appear as intermittent claudication – pain in the leg and foot when walking. Patients may have to awake frequently to walk around for just a short while to relieve the pain. Poor blood flow that leads to tissue damage (ischemia), diminished sensation in the foot, excessive dryness of the skin and changes in the connective tissue all contribute to the development of foot ulcers. These ulcers are usually painless and prone to secondary bacterial infections which further exacerbate the tissue damage. These are diabetic patients with long standing and poorly controlled diabetes, who smoke, have high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure (hypertension). This causes poor blood circulation, mostly associated with a burning sensation, a tingling in the feet and a foot pain that can sometimes become so severe that it can form foot ulcers eventually leading to lower leg amputations.
By following the steps mentioned below, one can take an initiative to prevent foot problems, even before they affect the other parts of the leg. One must also be aware of the fact that a burning sensation and a tingling in the feet can also result from low levels of thyroid hormone which clearly implies that one should also consider getting a thyroid examination done when they experience foot pain. Another way is to add supplements like inositol, a B complex vitamin to your diet, mostly found in foods like wheat grains, citrus fruits etc., which has been found to reduce diabetic neuropathy related pain levels by a study conducted at the University of Alabama. Aerobics, cardiovascular training or walking can help to improve blood circulation throughout the body, reducing foot pain.
The most effective way of reducing foot pain is to lower blood sugar levels by exercising for at least 30 minutes for 5-7days a week especially by including foot exercises in the daily regime to allow fresh blood to reach the feet.
Acupuncture is yet another effective method for fighting injuries and for healing foot pains since it releases energy along the pain pathways, deactivating the trigger points that gradually relieves the pain. This can cause a lot of foot deformities or injuries like sores or blisters to go unnoticed which after a period of time can cause foot ulcers, if left untreated. Hence it can soon spread to the bone making it necessary to amputate the foot or the lower leg. Following nerve damage, a few muscles in the feet get affected too, thereby forcing the diabetic patient to put extra pressure on one side of the leg that can eventually change their body posture.
In order to improve blood circulation, use a rolling massage available at pharmacies to massage your feet for at least 10-15 minutes a day. Keeping the foot elevated by using a footrest while watching T.V and constantly massaging the fingers can help to increase the blood flow. Nerve damage can be very unpredictable, which makes it mandatory for a diabetic patient to inform the doctor about any slight tingling, prickling or a painful sensation in the feet, to avoid a leg amputation. This ball-and-socket joint -- the body's largest -- fits together in a way that allows for fluid movement.
Bell's Palsy is a specific example of a neuropathy of the facial nerve, affecting the muscles and skin of the face. Our article looks at the different types of neuropathy, together with the causes, symptoms and treatments. The term is arrived from the fusion of macular rash and papules both meaning tiny inflamed lumps on the skin. Initially the rashes are bright red in color with tiny papules or lesions like structure but gradually they get discolored.
This type of disease is common among people living with cancer and largely found in the regions of China and Africa. It causes high fever, rash and joint pain and in severe cases can cause reduction of blood platelets leading to death. Further, the doctor may request for several laboratory tests like blood culture and urine test to identify the presence of bacteria or virus in it. Based on the intensity of symptoms and causative factor treatment is started to reduce the rash and irritation. Meningitis is an inflammatory condition of membranes or meninges which surrounds your brain as well as spinal cord. Based on the cause of the issue the condition may also ebb away on its own within a couple of weeks.
The condition is usually misunderstood with influenza as both share similar signs and symptoms The symptoms of meningitis may start showing after several hours; in some cases it may also take approx one or two days for the symptoms to start appearing. Infants affected with this condition may not experience conventional signs such as stiff neck or head pain. If you notice meningitis rash on your body, then seeking medical advice is a good decision.

However, it should b e known that some meningitis of mild nature may heal on its own in few days even without treatment. It may also start when the bacteria directly affects the meninges due to infection in ears or sinus or even a skull fracture.
He may also suggest specific medicines to treat particular issues such as shock, swelling of brain, paroxysm and dehydration. Please contact your health care provider for specialized medical advice, diagnosis and treatment.
No matter what type of shoe you favor, you can count on finding at least a few styles with this comfortable feature. Try their slides, made with recycled felt and filled with removable arch supports for extreme comfort.
The entire collection utilizes flaxseed pillows, which are embedded into the footbed and contour to the foot's natural shape. If your foot pain does not improve or if you suffer from a condition that requires medical attention, such as plantar fasciitis or the development of sudden inflammation, don't rely solely on arch supports. In the well managed diabetic patient, the complications may be minimal or restricted to a few organs. Elevated blood glucose levels as is seen in diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes) damages tissue throughout the body over time. In peripheral arterial disease (PAD), the artery slowly becomes narrow due to one or more factors, the most common of which are atherosclerosis and blood clot formation. In severe cases, the foot appears dark (blue to black), has an offensive smelling discharge and is swollen. This condition is known as Charcot’s neuroarthropathy and is characterized by deformities of the feet and formation of ulcers associated with increased foot pressure. Over time, patients note persistent pain particularly at night (progressive night pain) as blood pressure and cardiac output drop during sleep. It leads to a significant loss of sleep and patients attempt to find other ways to diminish the pain intensity and frequency. Impaired immune defenses and poor wound healing may lead to deeper infections which can spread rapidly if treatment is not initiated as early as possible. Early attention to even minor signs and symptoms can prevent the major complications associated with diabetic foot and avoid amputation. However, people with sores should not exercise and stay off their feet till complete healing occurs.
It has been estimated that half of such amputations can be prevented by staying vigilant and checking for such minor injuries that need to be treated promptly on time. Warm water helps to give the feet a soothing feeling unlike hot water which can dry the skin. Since the oil production and sweat secretion that normally lubricates the skin also gets impaired, it can cause the skin to become extremely dry, leading to the development of sores.
Keep your feet, well protected by wearing medicated or cushioned shoes that are made using extra padding especially made for diabetic patients. Also, one should avoid sitting with their legs crossed for a long time, since it slow down blood circulation.
Generally macular rashes will not need any treatment but if it persists for more than 2 weeks, then it is better to visit your doctor. Sometimes intake of certain strong medications can cause rash due to side effect of the drug.
An expert doctor may find out the medical issue behind macular rash and start treating it promptly without simply addressing the symptoms of the disease. However, some of the symptoms that may be noticed in case of infant afflicted with meningitis may include. Since bacterial infection are considered as most serious condition which can also be life threatening.
In case of infants bacterium is said to be a common factor resulting in bacterial meningitis.
Some of the most common symptom of viral meningitis is meningitis rash, diarrhea, pain in joint and soreness of throat. If your doctor determines that you are suffering from viral meningitis then, antibiotic is not included in your doses as it may not help in alleviating the condition. It comes in especially helpful if the foot happens to move in such a way that might cause injury; ArchTec will help stabilize the foot and potentially prevent injury. See a podiatrist, who will be able to determine what the problem - and proper treatment - should ultimately be.
However, in poorly managed and long standing cases, the complications may affect most organs and almost every system in the body. Two structures that are extremely sensitive to these high sugar levels are the blood vessels and nerves. This is further exacerbated by the calcification of the artery walls and nerve damage (autonomic neuropathy) which does not properly regulate the blood flow to the lower leg.
Sleeping on a chair may appear to offer temporary relief but actually exacerbates the problem as dependent edema leads to further reduction in arterial blood flow (perfusion).
Even in the absence of calluses, the skin is prone to ulceration due to ischemia, particularly if preceded by some trauma, even a minor injury.
Avoid wearing tight shoes, socks or clothes since they can restrict blood flow to your feet. Critical appraisal of international guidelines for the management of diabetic neuropathy: is there global agreement in the internet era?
When the rashes appear with raised areas of red patches it is called as macular papular rash. This is due to the allergic reaction of the medicines and will settle down if the intake of drug is stopped. Meningitis often results in swelling which may further lead to issues such as fever, head pain, stiff neck, etc.
Hence if you suspect that someone in your family is suffering from this condition, it is essential to consider seeking immediate medical attention.
To understand best possible treatment for the physical issues is determining the source of infection. There are other causes of meningitis such as chronic meningitis (caused by invasion of organism), fungal meningitis etc. However, since the viral meningitis has the tendency to cure on its own within a week or two, your doctor may only suggests conventional treatment methods such as rest, drinking plenty of fluid and some over the counter medicines for gaining relief from pain, fever etc. All of the company's shoes contain substantial arch support, in addition to cushioning and breathable constructions. In diabetes mellitus, the calf vessels are often affected even though the arteries of the foot may be spared to some extent. When there is autonomic neuropathy, the regulation of blood flow is impaired and the veins become distended.
The skin surrounding the ulcer is red and swollen, often presenting with a bad odor and oozing pus.
It is quite common to get these rashes due to the underlying medical problem like measles and syphilis. This rash is caused by pre-existing conditions like scabies, syphilis or any other serious infection. For example if the condition is bacterial meningitis then intravenous administration of antibiotic may be required. Once these conditions are alleviated there are high chances that meningitis rash caused by meningitis may also ebb away faster. The peripheral tissue, starved of oxygen and nutrients, is not able to repair itself as efficiently (wound healing) and cannot fight off infection as necessary. At the the same time, the sensation to the leg and foot is diminished as a result of somatic neuropathy. Macular rash can be treated after diagnosing the underlying condition and addressing them separately. There are medicines such as cortisonelike which are also prescribed to patients suffering from meningitis which also helps the person to recover as well as reduce the chances of further complications. With impaired sensation, even the slightest injury may not attract the awareness of the patient. This can quickly lead to complications given that there is poor wound healing and immune defenses in the area.

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