Jaundice is one of the signs encountered a malfunction of the liver. It is a yellow discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva and other tissues due to increased levels of bilirubin in the blood.
It is easy to recognize the yellow color on the skin and conclude that there is jaundice, it is not so easy to say what caused it.
The causes are multiple, grouped among the diseases caused by disorders of bilirubin metabolism and those causing cholestasis (embarrassment to the flow of bile). The best known of these is hepatitis.
We distinguish between diseases caused by disorders of bilirubin metabolism and disease causing cholestasis (embarrassment to the flow of bile). If the jaundice does not disappear after a few days the bilirubin level is too high, the child is a few hours per day under a blue light that is intended to destroy bilirubin. This therapy is absolutely not painful (it is only light). The hyperhemolysis. Treatment depends on the cause of hemolysis and is ordered by a blood specialist (hematologist).
Viral hepatitis. The treatment is usually rest (hepatitis A and B) but may appeal to very specific drugs in hepatitis C. Depending on the severity of the violation and its consequences, different treatments are offered and are not specifically the jaundice will disappear as soon as the liver will go a little better. Physiologic jaundice of birth, which does not disappear after a few days or whose bilirubin level is too high, is an indication of phototherapy: the child is a few hours per day under a blue light which aims destroy bilirubin.
Your family doctor should remain the referring physician.However, it may advise you to consult a gastroenterologist.
In general, jaundice is not trivial, but if it occurs at birth. In this case, care is made directly to the maternity ward. Jaundice may reveal or accompany a more serious condition, it is necessary to care quickly. In addition, a very important and prolonged jaundice can cause serious complications in the brain.
Firstly, there are blood tests to determine the exact amount of bilirubin in the blood (bilirubin), about the situation of red blood cells (hemolysis downward) and also the liver. Other tests tend to examine the liver and bile ducts. For this purpose, we use as appropriate radiographs of the abdomen, liver ultrasound, CT, MRI, ultrasound examination is a convenient, fast and inexpensive. Liver biopsy is useful in some cases of cholestasis because it provides information on liver health and the importance of disease (degree of inflammation, for example). Exceptionally, in some emergency situations, surgery (laparotomy) may be necessary to explore directly what is happening and begin treatment at the same time.
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Sore, swollen feet and legs aren’t unusual after taking long hikes or after standing all day. Pregnancy: Swollen feet and legs are common during pregnancy due to the additional fluids the pregnant body retains.
Injury: Injuries, particularly to the foot or ankle, often cause inflammation and swelling. Poor blood flow: You may develop venous insufficiency, a condition where the veins and valves that regulate blood flow become damaged, causing blood to leak back down to the lower extremities. Blood Clot: Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) can cause lower extremity swelling, but this almost always affects only one leg and may be associated with tenderness and warmth. Drug side effects: If your swelling has accompanied a change in your drug regimen, check with your doctor to determine whether this could be the cause of your swelling. Barring any of these more serious symptoms, there are several effective ways to ease swollen foot and leg pain.
Don’t forget diet: it’s particularly important to keep you salt intake low, and to drink plenty of liquids. I find people do not understand why I have this swelling and they get very worried about me and always ask me if I am seeing a specialist. An impeded flow of blood and lowered immunity form the fundamental changes which make diabetics prone to various skin ailments (as compared to non-diabetics).
This comprehensive article covers the possible skin conditions that may stem from diabetes so that you are able to spot them at the earliest. Damage to the nerves as a result of diabetes may negatively affect the working of the sweat glands, leading to dry skin, mainly on the lower legs or feet. This problem is fortunately easy to control via daily moisturization of the skin, proper use of sunscreen protection and by drinking adequate amounts of water that allow the skin to stay moist for long. Individuals dealing with diabetes are highly vulnerable to attacks caused by fungal species, especially those initiated by Candida Albicans. Such infections are found most commonly in moist areas of the body; for example, the small area between toes or fingers, in the vaginal, groin or armpit area. There are a variety of bacterial infections that can be repeatedly seen in patients with diabetes. Acanthosis nigricans is most frequently associated with insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes), resulting in an escalated amount of insulin in the blood circulation. Mostly, the creases and folds in the body, as seen in the elbows, knees, armpits, under the breast etc, show such changes. Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is a rare diabetic complication (affects roughly 0.3% of diabetics) which has a strong predilection for adult women. Pathologic degenerative changes that take place in collagen and fat reserves below the skin result in this inflammatory skin disorder.
Bullosis diabeticorum, also known as diabetic blister is an infrequent skin condition wherein an individual with diabetes may experience blister formation. The good news is that such blisters subside on their own in a matter of few weeks (2-3 weeks).
It appears as a yellow coloured, small sized bump (not more than the size of a pea) and is lined by an erythematous halo. In Disseminated Granuloma Annulare, the diabetic sufferer notices formation of distinct elevated areas on the skin, with an arch or ring form.


Atherosclerosis refers to arterial thickening that may result in skin changes (mainly the skin on legs). Diabetes coupled with neuropathy results in the leg and foot injuries which are not noticed by the patient due to lack of pressure or temperature sensation. If the nails are mostly white with darker rims, this can indicate liver problems, such as hepatitis.
If the nail surface is rippled or pitted, this may be an early sign of psoriasis or inflammatory arthritis. If the skin around the nail appears red and puffy, this is known as inflammation of the nail fold.
Biting your nails may be nothing more than an old habit, but in some cases it's a sign of persistent anxiety that could benefit from treatment. Christine Laine, MD, MPH, senior deputy editor, Annals of Internal Medicine; spokesman, American College of Physicians. Joshua Fox, MD, director, Advanced Dermatology; spokesman, American Academy of Dermatology.
The bone infection in any part of the body is reflected in the form of fever, chills, moderate to intense pain in the infected area, swelling and redness on the infected area and irritability is seen.
The infection can also be caused through severe kind of wounds that send germs deep inside the body.
People with circulation disorders like blocked blood vessels, are prone to get osteomyelitis infection.
Finally when the body’s immunity gets tampered due to medical condition like chemotherapy, organ transplantation and prolonged usage of corticosteroids and alcoholism can cause infection on the bones. If the bone infection is very severe causing death of the bone, it has to be removed through surgery. The swelling is more apparent in the lower extremities (legs, ankles, and feet) due to gravity.
See your doctor right away if your swelling is accompanied by shortness of breath, if you have a fever, if your swollen area is warm or painful to the touch, or if you have a history of heart, kidney, or liver disease. Support socks can comfort tired, swollen legs and feet by providing padding and gentle compression. Also, thank you for pointing out about Stasis Dermatitis and the natural solution cream that you found helpful.
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The yeast like fungal skin infection results in an inflamed, itchy rash, usually encircled by small blisters or scales. Other common fungal problems associated with diabetes cover Athlete’s foot, ringworm and jock itch.
Some of them take up the form of boils, nail infection, carbuncles or folliculitis (infection involving the hair follicles).
This type of diabetic skin complication does not resolve entirely, but losing excess weight certainly improves the condition. This necrotizing type of skin condition is marked by irregularly formed hard lesions which are raised above the skin surface. The sites where necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is usually seen range from legs, hands, trunk or upper arms. The tender skin is prone to ulceration on slightest of trauma.
This particular skin complication is characterized by thick, tight skin on the dorsal surface of both hands and results due to raised levels of blood glucose. Such blisters typically surface on the feet, legs, arms (extending below the elbow to the wrist), hands or dorsal aspect of fingers. The sole mode of treatment for diabetic blister is to bring the blood sugar within normal limits. Unlike Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum, Eruptive xanthomatosis affects young males who have both, abnormally high triglycerides, as well as cholesterol levels.
It is essentially a red or skin coloured rash which targets those parts of the body which are farther away from the trunk. As the blood supply to the leg muscles diminishes, in case of any injury or infection, the healing process remains sluggish.
A touch of white here, a rosy tinge there, or some rippling or bumps may be a sign of disease in the body.
Cracking or splitting combined with a yellowish hue is more likely due to a fungal infection.
It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
In rare cases, osteomyelits may not show any symptoms thus becoming difficult to distinguish and treat it. This bacterium is present in the skin or even on the nose of individuals and when the conditions are favorable it starts infecting the bones. For instance when a person gets pneumonia the germs will travel into the blood and reach a weak spot of the bone and starts infecting it.
If a person has got severe injury or has undergone orthopedic surgery, the germs can enter into the bones nearby.
For instance, diabetes (not managed properly), peripheral arterial disease, and Sickle cell disorder can cause this infection.


In rare cases, complications occur due to osteomyelitis, causing bone death, septic arthritis or impaired growth of bones affecting the growth plates and even skin cancer when it infects the squamous cell. Insulin is needed to move glucose (blood sugar) into cells, where it is stored and later used for energy. Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses insulin.
If you’re sitting most of the day, either at home or in a vehicle, take a break every hour or two to walk around to get your blood flowing. We’ve got you covered this Summer with travel-ready shoes that are comfortable and stylish, including cute flats and top-rated walking shoes to help keep you feeling good on your feet. According to the American Diabetes Association, roughly 33 percent of the entire diabetic population has or is currently living with skin complications induced by diabetes. The affected skin becomes hyper pigmented (it turns dark), hyperplastic (that is, it begins to show incremental growth), and is thick and velvet-like in texture. Other than the hands, joints such as those of the knees or elbows are also targeted, resulting in limited movement of the digits or joints. The common sites affected by eruptive xanthomatosis include the buttocks, arms or even the facial region. However, this type of rash is easy to handle with certain medicines (mostly a steroid for topical application). This common skin trouble takes the appearance of brown coloured, scaly patches with a circular shape. In rare cases, yellow nails can indicate a more serious condition such as severe thyroid disease, lung disease, diabetes or psoriasis.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Very often osteomyelitis infection occurs in soft areas of the bone like growth plates which are present in extremities of the body. During surgery sometimes the path of the bone is kept open for the entry of the germs easily. He may also do a bone biopsy by collecting small sample of bone and sending it to the laboratory for detecting the presence of germ.
After ascertaining the type of germ that has infected the bone, your doctor will start with antibiotics through Intravenous injection for 4-6 weeks. In case you have chronic infection of any other kind, talk to your doctor for keeping the infection under control. Remember to keep your feet elevated above your heart when possible as this also can help reduce swelling. Skin dryness, sluggish blood circulation or development of a yeast infection form some of the prominent causes responsible for itchy skin.
Of all the bacterial strains, Staphylococcus is the main culprit behind the development of many skin infections.
This type of skin condition mostly affects those who are overweight or diagnosed with diabetes. Mostly noticed in the front aspect of lower legs, diabetic dermopathy remains asymptomatic.
Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. People who depend on urinary catheters for passing urine, who use dialysis machines and people who are on IV tubes for long time can get infection of osteomyelitis. Strong antibiotics can keep the infection under control and often it is not necessary to do surgery. For people with diabetes, it is necessary to monitor any changes in the feet since it can get infected easily.
This article discusses the possible complications related to diabetes. Exams and Tests If you have diabetes, you should see your health care provider every 3 months. In children, bones on the legs and upper arm are mostly infected by osteomyelitis and in adults’ spine or vertebral column gets infected. He would fill the empty space with another piece of bone or tissue for restoring the blood flow. In some cases, the surgeon will remove surgical screws and plates that are placed during surgery done earlier.
Osteomyelitis can be treated by medications and for some people surgery is done for removing the infected bone. As a last measure, he will amputate the limb or affected area to prevent infection from spreading.
If these skin ulcers do not improve, or become larger or go deeper, amputation of the affected limb may be needed.
Nerve damage causes pain and numbness in the feet, as well as a number of other problems with the stomach and intestines, heart, and other organs. Regular aerobic exercise lowers blood sugar without medication and helps burn excess calories and fat so you can mange your weight. Exercise can help your overall health by improving blood flow and blood pressure. For example, a lung abscess may form following a bout of pneumonia; a brain abscess may form after a penetrating head wound (an injury in which the outer covering of the brain is pierced), etc. For a skin abscess, this involves a small operation to cut the top of the skin and allow the pus to drain.



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