Whether your pet overdoses on, has an adverse reaction to, or accidentally ingests medication, drug toxicity is a serious matter. Insurance terms, definitions and explanations are intended for informational purposes only and do not in any way replace or modify the definitions and information contained in individual insurance contracts, policies or declaration pages, which are controlling. When a patient chooses a diabetes medication, it is important to look at the side effects of the drugs to find the safest option. The drug metformin, also known by its name brands of Glucophage and Glumetza, is one option to help regulate blood glucose levels.
Acarbose—a drug that falls under the category of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor—prevents high blood sugar by blocking the body from breaking down starches. Another option for managing one’s diabetes through medication is the drug glipizide, which goes by the brand name Glucotrol.
Please note the kidneysteps information is for educational purposes only, is not a rendering of medical advice, and is not intended as a substitute for professional care from your own health care provider. Understanding your options for type 2 diabetes medications is important, as different medications have different side effects. Glucosidase Inhibitors: Acarbose and Miglitol work by slowing carbohydrate absorption from the gut.
More information about diabetes medication can be found on the American Diabetes Association’s website.
Lori is the author of a book entitled Healthy Choices, Healthy Children, A Guide to Raising Fit, Happy Kids (pre-order it at Amazon). This entry was posted in Diabetes, Hot Topics, Medication, Special Needs and tagged diabetes medication, insulin, type 2 diabetes. I'd add that at the moment I'm giving some of the milder sarms a try, starting with cardarine (which I understand isn't actually a sarm lol) .. Jardiance (empagliflozin) is an oral medication that decreases blood glucose (sugar) in people with diabetes by blocking the kidney from reabsorbing glucose and removing excess glucose through the urine.
Jardiance is used in addition to exercise and diet to lower fasting and postprandial (after a meal) blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The content on this website is for information only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, and treatment. The main indications of oral antidiabetic medication include: type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is not regulated only with properly prescribed and rigorously observed diet. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which can be balanced with diet, but because the patient is undisciplined, this goal can not be achieved (the medication does not improve glucose balance). Combinations: Glibomet (metformin + glibenclamide), Avandamet (rosiglitazone + metformin), Competact (pioglitazone + metformin), Janumet (sitagliptin + metformin). Sulphonylurea drugs used by almost half a century, to treat type 2 diabetes, are indicate in normal weight patients who have type 2 diabetes and in obese patients if they can not tolerate metformin.
After ingestion, sulphonylurea drugs are rapidly absorbed in the intestine, pass into the bloodstream, where they bind to specific proteins (albumin, in particular) and reach the liver where they are metabolized into inactive byproducts. Sulphonylureas can not be associate with each other, but may be associated with biguanides, thiazolidinediones, and even with insulin therapy. After ingestion, metformin is absorbed at intestinal level, disseminate in the body and is excreted in urine and faeces, unchanged. Biguanides may be associated with sulphonylureas, with thiazolidinediones and with insulin in both type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The two used thiazolidinediones are pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, the latter being less used these days, because it is considered that increase the risk of cardiovascular complications.
After oral administration, meglitinides are absorbed at intestinal level, are metabolized in the liver and will result inactive byproducts, which are excreted into the bile.
Considering that this class of oral antidiabetic medication has a short half-life, meglitinides are useful in correcting postprandial hyperglycemia.
Alpha glucosidase inhibitors are used to treat type 2 diabetes, which is inadequately controlled by diet. Januvia (sitagliptin), a drug that inhibits the destruction of GLP-1 blood levels, so will extended the action of GLP-1 and will increase the insulin secretion.
A tomato allergy rash is the development of rashes on the skin due to an intolerance or hypersensitivity to tomatoes. A skin rash from tomatoes is the result of the immune system’s reaction to the proteins found in tomatoes. Human and pet medications both pose risks to pets.Human MedicationsMany pets can’t seem to resist human medications that have been flavored to be more palatable. Issues with the cardiovascular system are just one type of problem that occurs in patients who do not control their diabetes.
Although insulin was never considered to treat type 2 diabetes in the past, it is now a safe treatment option that is sometimes given in correlation with other medications, in particular oral diabetes medications. It may cause a variety of side effects, both severe and mild, but it does not have the severe side effects of some diabetes medications.
This drug is a safe option that classifies as a sulfonylurea, meaning that it works by stimulating cells within the pancreas to produce more insulin. Published articles and chapters in publications including the American Dietetic Association's "Kids Eatright" blog, and Play Outdoors blog and magazine.
Celiac disease is an auto-immune, inherited disease that causes intolerance to the protein gluten.
With advances in medicine over the past few decades, namely recombinant DNA technology, human insulin can now be manufactured or synthesized. Some patients may require one injection daily; other patients may require two to four injections daily.
Elimination is predominantly renal, with the exception of gliquidone that is eliminated in the bile in proportion of 95%.
Sulphonylureas are fixing on specific receptors and acts through the potassium channel from the pancreatic and the extra-pancreatic level.
The main side effect of sulphonylureas is hypoglycaemia (favored by a high dose, kidney failure, liver failure, alcohol consumption, intense physical effort, age over 70 years). Biguanides increase insulin action by binding to specific receptors, decrease intestinal absorption of carbohydrates and decrease anaerobic gluconeogenesis. Digestive manifestations, especially epigastric pain and diarrhea, occur in approximately 20% of cases and it is requiring a dose reduction or even quitting to this class of oral antidiabetic medication.


Thiazolidinediones lower blood glucose levels by reducing insulinresistance in adipose tissue, in the muscle and in the liver, thus increasing insulin sensitivity, in this way it favors the hypoglycemic action of insulin. Before and during treatment with thiazolidinediones, is necessary to control liver enzymes (AST, ALT in particular). This drugs are fixing on specific sites of potassium channels and increase insulin secretion stimulated by glucose level if there is a residual function of pancreatic beta cells. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors are reversibly binding to alpha-glucosidase enzymes of small intestine cells, enzymes that are designed to split disaccharides and oligosaccharides, thus preventing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, along the small intestine. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors can cause a slight weight gain, abdominal bloating, flatulence, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and rarely can cause liver test abnormalities. GLP-1 is a substance secreted by the body that stimulates insulin secretion, but has other beneficial effects such as delayed passage of food from the stomach into the small intestine and stimulating satiety. Tomatoes are actually a very common allergen for people and reactions can occur upon direct skin contact or upon ingestion of any food that contains tomatoes as ingredients.
Certain individuals have antibodies that mistakenly identify tomato constituents as threats and trigger an immune response to keep the body from harm.
Hypersensitivity reactions to tomatoes can be prevented by abstaining from eating any tomato products or any food that contain tomatoes. Medications like candy-coated pain relievers, chocolate-flavored vitamins or sweetened cough syrups can be irresistible to pets, so be sure to keep these kinds of drugs safely out of reach.Never give your pet human pain relievers—in brand name or generic forms—like acetaminophen (Tylenol® or Excedrin®), or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) medications like aspirin, ibuprofen or naproxen (Advil® or Aleve®). Insurance plans are offered and administered by Veterinary Pet Insurance Company in California and DVM Insurance Agency in all other states. In many cases of diabetes, a patient must take diabetes medication to further assist with keeping hyperglycemia under control. These issues include atherosclerosis or narrowing of the arteries, hypertension, stroke, heart attack and coronary artery disease (CAD). Although drinking orange juice is a method to counteract low blood glucose levels, it will not work when the patient has hypoglycemia due to this drug.
They work in different ways, which is why you often have two or three of them at the same time.
Prescribing the right diabetes drugs depend on many factors, so what works for your friend with type 2 diabetes may be very different from what works for you. Insulin is also involved in the processes that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins received from the diet into substances the body can use.
Synthetic human insulin is identical to natural insulin that is made in human body and is now the most common form of insulin used.Various formulations of injectable human insulin are available including regular insulin (R), isophane insulin (NPH), lente insulin (L), and ultralente insulin (U).
For specific information on how the drugs interact and the severity of the interaction, please use our Drug Interactions Checker. Lowering high blood glucose can help prevent nerve problems, blindness, and kidney damage in people with diabetes. At pancreatic level, increase insulin secretion and at the level of pancreatic beta cells, they increase the number of insulin receptors. Other adverse effects consist of digestive manifestations (nausea, epigastric pain, liver pain) and of haematological manifestations (pancytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia). This class of oral antidiabetic medication is well tolerated in general, however, sometimes may occur mild edema of the lower limbs, through the loss of elimination of salt and water, which, on the one hand, may decrease hemoglobin, with the appearance of anemia, and on the other hand, requires to be administered with caution to patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure. Thus, carbohydrates reach into the colon and are metabolized by bacteria, found at this level, in short-chain fatty acids and then are eliminated. The administration of this drug is by subcutaneous injection, like insulin, in a fixed dose, 2 times a day with pre-filled pen, initially every 5 micrograms twice a day, then 10 micrograms twice a day.
Most individuals who experience the symptoms are children who are 5 years old or less, but adults can also have the allergic reaction.
The antibodies set off the release of histamine which brings about the symptoms of an allergic reaction. The rashes – along with other symptoms – that appear in allergic persons can be helped through oral antihistamine and decongestive medications.
Pets do not metabolize these drugs like humans do, and liver and kidney failure can result, putting your pet’s life at risk.Always read your pet’s medication bottle or label carefully. It is imperative that patients discuss their options with their physician to find the correct drug or combination of drugs to deal with the condition. Uncontrolled diabetes is also associated with nerve damage, and in severe cases may cause a complete loss of feeling in the affected limb or limbs.
These should not be given along with a DPP4 inhibitor, as incretin mimetics have a similar but much stronger action than DPP4 inhibitors. To decrease the number of injections for those individuals who require more than one kind of insulin, insulins have also been combined into one product.
Proper control of blood glucose can also decrease the risk of getting a heart attack or stroke. At extra-pancreatic sulphonylurea drugs decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis from non-carbohydrate sources), increased glycolysis and enhances insulin action in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissue. Thiazolidinediones can cause hypercholesterolemia and triglycerides disorders and for this reason, blood fats should be checked periodically.
The histamine causes the dilation of blood vessels, resulting in inflammation of certain areas of the body and the development of rashes.
If an allergic reaction is sever, emergency medical measures are required and a shot of epinephrine is given to deter the reaction. One of the most common accidental pet overdoses occurs when pet owners place their own medication on the counter with their pet’s medication; inadvertent administration of your human drugs to your pet can be easily avoided by dosing carefully. Another complication is kidney damage, which can eventually turn into kidney failure or end-stage renal disease, requiring a kidney transplant or dialysis. Filing an Actos lawsuit is becoming a common theme for the patients severely affected by this drug.
According to the American Diabetes Association, diarrhea and gas may occur from taking this drug.
Insulin lispro is recommended to be given 15 minutes before or immediately after a meal whereas insulin aspart should generally be given immediately before a meal (start of meal within 5 to 10 minutes after injection).
Take extra precautions to ensure that all medications stay out of your pet’s reach.Make sure to store medication bottles in secure, raised bathroom cabinets.
These forms of insulin were created in hopes to lessen side effects, improve effectiveness, and have differing onsets, peaks, and duration of activity over the previous human insulin formulations.


Nationwide and the Nationwide N and Eagle are service marks of Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company. To see how the various insulins compare with regard to their onset of blood sugar-lowering activity, their peak time of effect, and their duration of effect on blood sugar-lowering, please see the table directly below.In addition to injectable forms of insulin, in 2006, an inhalable form of insulin (Exubera) was FDA-approved for us.
However, in October 2007, the maker of Exubera announced that it will no longer make the inhaled insulin available for patients. Buying a topical flea ointment for large dogs and splitting the dose for two smaller dogs is never advised and can result in accidental overdoses. This decision was based on lower than expected sales of the product and was not due to any safety concerns.Since the different types of insulin vary in onset of action, time to peak effect, and duration of action, your doctor will decide what type of insulin is best for you.
These simple tips can help you protect your pet and avoid poisoning emergencies.Cover trash bins—or better yet, store them in a pantry or closet. Humulin is the only available brand of ultralente insulin.Clinical studies have compared insulin aspart (NovoLog) and insulin lispro (Humalog), and insulin glulisine (Apidra) to regular insulin (R), and they were found to have similar effectiveness to regular insulin (R). However, insulin aspart (NovoLog) and insulin lispro (Humalog) may be associated with fewer low blood sugar episodes (called hypoglycemia) than regular insulin (R). Additionally, insulin lispro (Humalog) may offer more flexibility than regular insulin (R) in regards to timing the dose with meals.
Insulin aspart (NovoLog), insulin lispro (Humalog) and insulin glulisine (Apidra) appear to be similarly effective.Insulin glargine (Lantus) was compared to NPH insulin in clinical trials, and no differences were seen in overall effectiveness. Don’t store pills in plastic zipper bags or weekly pill storage containers, as these are easy for dogs to chew through. However, fewer low blood sugar episodes (especially nighttime episodes) were seen with insulin glargine (Lantus). There are no published clinical trial results comparing insulin glargine (Lantus) to ultralente insulin (U). Before purchasing plants for your home or yard, check our toxic plant database to ensure that you have non-toxic plants in your household. Wipe down your pet’s belly, legs and paws after being outdoors, particularly in the winter when salt is on the road. Keep your purse (and its contents, like xylitol gum and drug containers) out of your pet’s reach. Double check the pills you’re about to administer to your pet and to yourself; oftentimes, owners mix the two by accident. Don’t leave pills out—even for a few seconds—as your pet could knock them off the counter and ingest them quickly. PPH is not affiliated with VPI Pet Insurance.Email this article to a friend or share it via your favorite social network. Pharmacokinetics, prandial glucose control, and safety of insulin glulisine in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Comparison of insulin aspart with buffered regular insulin and insulin lispro in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: a randomized study in type 1 diabetes.
Use of insulin aspart, a fast-acting insulin analog, as the mealtime insulin in the management of patients with type 1 diabetes.
Mealtime treatment with insulin analog improves postprandial hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Direct comparison of insulin lispro and aspart shows small differences in plasma insulin profiles after subcutaneous injection in Type 1 diabetes.
A direct comparison of insulin aspart and insulin lispro in patients with type 2 diabetes. Safety of insulin glulisine compared with insulin aspart administered by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) [abstract 15-OR]. Basal insulin glargine (HOE 901) versus NPH insulin in patients with Type 1 diabetes on multiple daily insulin regimens. A 16-week comparison of the novel insulin analog insulin glargine (HOE 901) and NPH human insulin used with insulin lispro in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Less hypoglycemia with insulin glargine in intensive insulin therapy for Type 1 Diabetes. Less nocturnal hypoglycemia and better post-dinner glucose control with bedtime insulin glargine compared with bedtime NPH insulin during insulin combination therapy in Type 2 Diabetes.
Safety and efficacy of insulin glargine (HOE 901) versus NPH insulin in combination with oral treatment in type 2 diabetic patients.
A one-year, randomized, multicenter trial comparing insulin glargine with NPH insulin in combination with oral agents in patients with type 2 diabetes. Once-daily insulin glargine compared with twice-daily NPH insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes. The treat-to-target trial: randomized addition of glargine or human NPH insulin to oral therapy of type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized multicenter trial of insulin glargine compared with NPH insulin in people with type 1 diabetes. A comparison of bedtime insulin glargine with bedtime neutral protamine hagedorn insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes: subgroup analysis of patients taking once-daily insulin in a multicenter, randomized, parallel group study. Intensive replacement of basal insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes given rapid-acting insulin analog at mealtime: a 3-month comparison between administration of NPH insulin four times daily and glargine insulin at dinner or bedtime.
Better long-term glycemic control with the basal insulin glargine as compared with NPH in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus given meal-time lispro insulin. Glargine is superior to neutral protamine Hagedorn for improving glycated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose levels during intensive insulin therapy. Twice-daily pre-mixed insulin rather than basal insulin therapy alone results in better overall glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Initiating insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: a comparison of biphasic and basal insulin analogs. Insulin detemir plus insulin aspart is associated with less risk of major as well as nocturnal hypoglycemia than insulin glargine plus insulin aspart at comparable levels of glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes [abstract 242].




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