Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes is a lifestyle related disease and a major risk factor for Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs).
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes among adults (aged 30 years and above) residing in Neyyattinkara taluk of South Kerala and to identify the diabetes Case Detection Rates across different age groups.
Whereas rest of India is still grappling with communicable diseases and malnourishment, the state of Kerala stands out, with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) emerging as a major public health challenge.
To estimate the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes among adults (aged 30 years and above) residing in Neyyattinkara taluk of South Kerala. To study the fasting plasma glucose levels as an indicator of diabetes control in the community. Data Collection Tools: Structured questionnaire and Blood Sugar examination using Glucometer (DiabeCHECK- Jitron).
Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethical Committee, Trivandrum Medical College. Diabetes Case Detection Rates across different age groups were examined and was highest (76%) between 60 and 69 years.
81 (18%) persons had blood sugar values above 125 mg%.  Of these 42 were already diagnosed and was on treatment.
A national study9 to determine the prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in India done in three states (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) showed that the weighted prevalence of Diabetes was 10.4% in Tamil Nadu, 8. Studies from Kerala  also emphasized the need for life style modifications and community based programmes for early detection and preventive measures.1, 12  Diabetes Case Detection Rate in the present study was 50% in persons less than 50 years of age and more than 75% above the age of 50 years.
Prediabetes is a significant risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, micro vascular, and macro vascular disease. CMR Short Reviews The Concept of CMR Historical background on global cardiometabolic risk, epidemiological aspects of obesity and type 2 diabetes, ABCs of cardiovascular disease risk factors, intra-abdominal adiposity, metabolic syndrome and contribution to cardiometabolic risk.
People with diabetes have a higher CVD risk, possibly because they also tend to have traditional risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (4).
The insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia that occur long before the onset of diabetes are commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular risk factors, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension as well as proinflammatory and prothrombotic factors (5). After the onset of insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose levels may remain in the ?normal? range for several years. There is a wealth of epidemiological evidence indicating that hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in diabetes (12). The metabolic syndrome is very common in people with diabetes, and those with both diabetes and the metabolic syndrome have the highest rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) (Figure 1) (18). Patients with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to experience cardiovascular complications. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). The content of this website is provided for educational and informational purposes only and is not to be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. You are at risk for Type2 diabetes or you may have a hard time in controlling your blood sugar if your BMI "Body Mass Index" is over 30.
It is helpful to find a program that has structure and designed for successful weight loss. Exercise can reduce the risk of complications from diabetes and other medical conditions like high cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart disease. Ways to fit in extra physical activity include joining a gym, taking your dog for a walk, housecleaning, swimming, and yoga classes. You need to test your blood sugar levels throughout the day to see how food and exercise affect your levels. If you are experiencing illness or have had a medication change, exposed to stress or lifestyle change you may need to check more often. The Diabetes Forum - find support, ask questions and share your experiences with 209,001 people.
It is not always obvious which type of diabetes someone may have and it may be necessary for your health to carry out specific tests to find out which type of diabetes you have. In some cases, people initially diagnosed with one type of diabetes may be given a re-diagnosis at a later date. There is a distinct difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, although it may not be evident without the correct tests.
If your health team are in doubt about which type of diabetes you have, you may need to have one or more tests to deduce which type of diabetes you have. The following flowchart shows how tests can be carried out to distinguish between different types of diabetes. In the UK, it is not standard practice to carry out tests to specifically diagnose which type of diabetes you have but it may be required if, for example, your blood glucose levels are not responding well to tablet medications. The most important aspect of getting the right diagnosis is in ensuring you’re on an appropriate medication regimen to adequately control your diabetes. It is relatively common for people with confirmed type 2 diabetes to move onto insulin injections. However, in some cases, people diagnosed initially with type 2 diabetes may be re-diagnosed by their doctors as having a form of type 1 diabetes.
There can sometimes be grey areas and in some cases specific diagnostic tests may be required to confirm which type of diabetes you have. Find support, ask questions and share your experiences with 209,001 members of the diabetes community.
10 week (free) low-carb education program developed with the help of 20,000 people with T2D and based on the latest research. The first comprehensive, free and open to all online step-by-step guide to improving hypo awareness. Sadly, as with most other areas of Indigenous health, there is not enough being done to reduce the incidence or lessen the harmful effects of this condition. The health needs of Indigenous Australians are unique and understanding of this is essential to ensuring that service delivery is not only appropriate but effective.
ADOS staff have extensive experience in living in remote communities and working with Aboriginal people. Diabetes UK is the charity for people with Diabetes and has a network of over 350 voluntary groups throughout the UK.
Our group consists entirely of volunteers made up of individuals and their families affected by Diabetes, health professionals and supporters of the cause.. We provide support, education and information for people living in our area who have Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.


We welcome everyone affected by Diabetes, whether newly diagnosed or longer term, along with carers, friends, relatives etc.
The information presented on this site is for general use only and is not intended to provide personal medical advice or substitute for the advice of your physician. In 2011, 26 million people or 8.3% of the population in the United States had the disease, with nearly 2 million people over the age of 20 newly diagnosed in 2010 alone. Call Diabetes Partnership of Cleveland at 216-591-0800 and ask to speak with a dietitian, attend a Diabetes Education Class, learn about what your numbers mean to reduce your risk for complications. A very limited number of published studies indicate high prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in the state of Kerala.
Ltd).  Calibration was done daily to ensure reliability and new pairs of DC cells were used every day.
All Prediabetic were educated regarding lifestyle modifications for Diabetes prevention and motivated to follow up in local Primary Health Centres.
Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial.
Report of the Committee on the classification and diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus. Evaluation of non communicable disease control pilot programme of National Rural Health Mission in Thiruvananthapuram district.
High prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders in rural Central Kerala. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in a community-based study in North India: the Chandigarh Urban Diabetes Study (CUDS). Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program: study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program. Screening Performance of Diabetes Risk Scores Among Asians and Whites in Rural Kerala, India. This website is now my personal blog and business and Diabetes Counselling is a big part of where we have come from. This increased risk is often similar to that of non-diabetic patients who have experienced myocardial infarction.
In fact, heart disease is the leading cause of death among patients with type 2 diabetes (2). Other authors have suggested, however, that factors related to diabetes itself?such as hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia?could explain this elevated CVD risk (1).
This cluster of risk factors is known as the metabolic syndrome, which commonly precedes the development of type 2 diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD (6).
During this period, pancreatic β-cells are able to increase insulin secretion in response to insulin resistance and thereby maintain normal plasma glucose.
Compared to diabetic subjects with lower HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), the risk of CVD death and all CVD events in type 2 diabetic subjects increases significantly with HbA1c levels over 7.0% (13). A recent prospective, 5 year community-based study of people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes found that the metabolic syndrome increased the risk of CVD events (19).
Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular risk factors in confirmed prediabetic individuals Does the clock for coronary heart disease start ticking before the onset of clinical diabetes?
Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. High blood glucose concentration is a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged nondiabetic men. Cardiovascular risk factors clustering with endogenous hyperinsulinaemia predict death from coronary heart disease in patients with Type II diabetes. Effects of hypoglycemic agents on vascular complications in patients with adult-onset diabetes. Postchallenge plasma glucose and glycemic spikes are more strongly associated with atherosclerosis than fasting glucose or HbA1c level.
Beyond postprandial hyperglycaemia: metabolic factors associated with cardiovascular disease. NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and prevalence of coronary heart disease among NHANES III participants age 50 years and older. Impact of metabolic syndrome criteria on cardiovascular disease risk in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. These include eye disease and blindness, kidney disease and failure, cardiac complications, and amputations. If you have been diagnosed, the first line of treatment is the following weight loss if needed, healthy diet and adding exercise.
Checking then can help you know how you are doing with your treatment plan and monitor yourself from becoming too high or too low. If blood sugar cannot be controlled, your doctor may put you on oral diabetic medications listed below. It has been found that 55% to 95% of diabetics that have bariatric surgery experience normal blood sugars after surgery. For example, someone initially diagnosed with type 2 diabetes may be told they actually have a form of type 1 diabetes.
For simplicity, the flowchart does not attempt to differentiate between LADA and juvenile forms of type 1 diabetes. Ultimately, neither is 'worse' as each person is unique and diabetes affects people in different ways. Type 2 diabetes rates are four times higher in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous people. The reasons for this are extensive and complex however access to appropriate and specialist services is one of solutions that ADOS offers. The South Worcestershire Voluntary Support group is one of these and supports people in the WR postcode areas. There is always an opportunity to talk to other members of the group, ask questions and share experiences.
If you have questions or concerns about individual health matters or the management of your diabetes, please consult your diabetes care team. 366 million people have diabetes worldwide and this number has nearly doubled in the last 30 years.


This study was done in the Neyyattinkara taluk of south Kerala by including coastal, mid land and high land regions to make it representative of the geographical profile of the state. A wealth of evidence indicates that hyperglycemia is a significant contributor?but not the sole contributor?to the increased CVD risk that comes with diabetes. When glucose metabolism worsens among prediabetic individuals, postprandial glucose levels increase and lead to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), defined as elevated 2-h glucose levels after a glucose load (75 g). Further intervention studies are needed to definitively prove the cause-effect relationship between hyperglycemia and CVD.
Survival diminished progressively according to how many syndrome features patients displayed. Beyond the acknowledged impact of hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity-related risk factors may also play a role in the high incidence of cardiovascular events in diabetes. 20-year follow-up in the Whitehall Study, the Paris Prospective Study, and the Helsinki Policemen Study. This condition is chronic and related to how your body reacts to sugar, which is needed to give the cells energy. If you have diabetes you are five times more likely to suffer from the above complications. You will need to check your blood sugar levels by finger stick method periodically during the day and keep a log.
For diabetics, exercise is part of the treatment plan and can help the body use excess blood sugar.
This will also help you make sure that any medications you are taking are not dropping your blood sugar too much.
Newly diagnosed diabetics, especially those on medication or insulin, need to monitor blood sugar very closely.
Always take these medications on time as directed and check your blood sugar on a regular basis and keep a blood sugar log.
There are some risks to surgery including recovery time, financial setbacks, and possible death. For those over age 65 in the USA, nearly 27% are suffering diabetes’ ill effects which include high rates of cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, kidney damage, blindness, high blood pressure, and amputation. In this regard, data from the wide-ranging UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) clinical trial (14) confirmed the findings of the previous large-scale randomized type 2 diabetes trial, the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP) (15). These results confirmed UKPDS (14) findings that hyperglycemia per se may have a limited impact on CVD events in type 2 diabetes when the other features of the metabolic syndrome are taken into consideration (Figure 2). The body's cells are resistant to insulin, the hormone produced by the pancreas to help glucose get into the cells. If your doctor notices that your blood sugar is not well controlled with diet and exercise you may be prescribed an oral medication that will help your body respond to or make insulin better. Kids and adults who are overweight and have Type 2 diabetes have less activity and need to add exercise to help control the condition. The UGDP found that intensive blood glucose control effectively reduced microvascular complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy but did not have a marked effect on macrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, surgery needs to be followed up with a healthy diet, lifestyle changes, and adequate vitamin intake. Only some insulin-resistant or glucose-intolerant individuals will develop type 2 diabetes. Recent data suggests that postchallenge plasma glucose levels could predict CVD more accurately than fasting glucose or HbA1c levels (16). Once you get the basics of managing diabetes, once you understand how it works, what… A Final Hurrah! Insulin resistance is a cause of postprandial hyperglycemia (17) and could be responsible for this relationship.
Several population studies have established a relationship between fasting glucose levels and CVD risk in non-diabetic subjects (9). As you may remember, our last grant for our online counselling services ended in July last year. Moreover, a number of studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia?a marker of early insulin resistance?increases CVD risk, even in the absence of diabetes (10).
Whether or not hyperinsulinemia itself predicts macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes remains hotly debated (11).
Finger pricks (and the inaccuracy of these) remains one of the biggest issues facing many of us with diabetes. It has also been suggested that insulin resistance is a crucial factor underpinning increased CVD risk. I know as someone who has had type 1 diabetes for 37 years and lives with gastroparesis, my diabetes is a tricky beast and it is not… Dealing with Prednisolone and DiabetesLiving with a chronic health condition means there is part of your body that needs a little assistance to function at its best. Hyperinsulinemia is probably a compensatory physiological response to insulin resistance, the latter being a key contributor to type 2 diabetes development (10).
In diabetes you know only too well all the ways in which it can impact on your body and your life.
After a while it is easy to get into a space where… Making Resolutions That MatterAs we head into a new year most of us reflect on the year we have had and what we hope for in the next. We seem to hold hope that a new year will be like a fresh start, a chance to do things differently or to take a new direction, an opportunity to… Understanding the journey of pregnancy for women with type 1 diabetesI wrote this post a while ago when I was starting my PhD. Having just had some time out and starting back, I decided to refresh the post, because I think understanding the journey of pregnancy for women with type 1 diabetes is so very important. The topic… Why You Need to Take a Break From DiabetesWe all have our favourite memories and ideas about what makes the perfect holidays. She is a very newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, currently on Metformin and managing her diabetes with diet and exercise, and says she still has a lot to learn!!! I have lived with type 1 diabetes since 1979, and I started this website as Diabetes Counselling Online in 2001  - it was a free online counselling service, supporting people all over the world living with diabetes. From June 2016 we no longer provide online counselling and we are no longer a registered charity. You will find lots of information, blog posts and resources we have added over many years, which you can use in managing your life with diabetes. Nor should information found here take the place of the advice of your doctor or medical team.



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