Classic T1DM is an autoimmune disease that occurs because of loss of insulin production by the pancreas as a result of destruction of the beta cells.
Children with T1DM are at increased risk for other autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, and adrenal insufficiency.
Poorly controlled T1DM can lead to potentially life-threatening short- and long-term conditions that range from subtle neurocognitive changes to organ-destroying macrovascular and microvascular damage (Table 1).3 The age at onset of the illness has implications for complications that can arise from hypoglycemia (tremor, confusion, seizures) and hyperglycemia (nocturia, ketoacidosis, coma, microvascular changes).
The preschool-age child is more prone to hypoglycemic episodes that may lead to problems with spatial memory deficits, compromised cognitive function, and lower gray matter volume in the left superior temporal region.
Older children and adolescents are less vulnerable to nocturnal hypoglycemia and to neurocognitive changes. The impact of chronic illnesses for children and adolescents and their family functioning has been well described since the 1970s, and studies of psychiatric comorbidity have been reported since the 1980s. Treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has progressed remarkably over the past 10 years with insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring, yet challenges remain for affected youths and their families.
For the psychiatrist treating a child or family member with T1DM, assessing the functioning of the family and the patient for psychiatric comorbidity is vital. At the time of diagnosis, parents and older children are faced with the daunting task of learning a great deal of information rapidly and the need to shift priorities to include glucose monitoring and insulin administration. The impact at the time of diagnosis on the family is often one of shock followed by acceptance. The impact of family functioning on childhood T1DM was described by Minuchin and colleagues9,10 in the 1970s.
People with type 2 diabetes are at risk for a problem called hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). You will need to stay in the hospital in order to bring your blood sugar level under control and treat the cause of the HHNS. Your blood oxygen level may be monitored by a sensor that is attached to your finger or earlobe. Your fluid intake may be monitored closely by keeping track of everything you eat and drink and any IV fluids you receive.
You may have a small tube (catheter) placed into your bladder through the urethra (the opening from the bladder to the outside of the body) to drain and measure urine from the bladder.
You may receive oxygen through a small tube placed under your nose or through a mask placed over your face. You may need kidney dialysis to help filter your blood if your kidneys are not working properly.


How long you stay in the hospital with HHNS depends on your general health and how bad the complications are. Shown below is a Blood Sugar Level Chart, simply designed for basic glucose and blood sugar testing. For more nutritional information, charts, health stats, worksheets, and other free printable items, visit any of the links shown on this page. Click this link to exit the Blood Sugar Level Chart page, and visit the Main Health Info Page.Hit this link for a collection of Great American Recipes. Ideal treatment requires close monitoring of blood glucose levels by finger pricks 5 to 10 times daily and insulin injections with all carbohydrate intake and as often as every 2 hours for corrections of blood glucose levels. Fortunately, treatment for T1DM has advanced greatly over the past 10 years, and medications such as insulin detemir have greatly reduced the risk of severe nocturnal hypoglycemia.7 With the increased risk of hypoglycemic episodes for the preschool-age child with T1DM, the struggle with care and dietary control as the child transitions into school may occur. He had a severe episode of hypoglycemia when he was 4, and his parents were instructed to “let his sugars run a little high.” As he was getting older, he was able to clearly tell his parents when his sugar was low, and more strict control was instituted. The consequences of longer-term poorly controlled diabetes, as evidenced by elevated hemoglobin A1c levels associated with microvascular changes, such as renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathies, usually do not present until early adulthood.
This article summarizes recent findings on neuropsychological effects of short- and long-term consequences of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, use of evidence-based family treatments for families struggling with T1DM, and the impact of psychiatric comorbidity on outcomes for the patient with T1DM and family members. Teasing out behavioral challenges from the disease necessitates close contact with the medical care providers.
Family functioning is stressed by the treatment regimen that may be uncomfortable and painful and out of alliance with the normal tasks of development. Because of dietary restrictions, meal structure and appropriate food choices also become more difficult.
They described families with a diabetic child as vulnerable to 4 maladaptive transactional patterns: enmeshment, overprotectiveness, rigidity, and lack of conflict resolution.
Several things may be done while you are in the hospital to monitor, test, and treat your condition. The goal of treatment is to return your blood sugar to a normal level and keep it in a normal range.
This will allow for medicine to be given directly into your blood and to give you fluids, if needed. A healthy person with no medical problems other than diabetes and no HHNS complications may stay in the hospital 3 to 5 days.
For those afflicted with celiac disease, dietary modifications necessitate a gluten-free diet in addition to the recommended restrictions for simple sugars and the need to avoid grazing.


In first grade, with less supervision in the cafeteria, Timmy learned to sneak favorite higher-sugar foods, which resulted in more aggressive behavior, difficulty in sitting still, and acting more “wild.” His parents reported difficulties with adhering to dietary recommendations and with his tendency to “get wild” when he couldn’t get away with unapproved foods or behaviors. Evidence-based treatments, such as multisystemic treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoeducation, and prudent psychopharmacology, are tools for the psychiatric provider. Because of the potential for immediate life-threatening complications of poorly controlled diabetes, family members must readjust their approach to daily living. Children with T1DM are expected to follow up with the diabetes care team at least every 3 months and sometimes more often if they or family members cannot maintain tight glycemic control. In addition, Minuchin’s group reported that stressful family interactions could lead to immediate elevations in the patient’s blood glucose levels. You will probably be in an intensive care unit at the hospital for at least the first day or two.
Needless to say, for the child or teen with both T1DM and celiac disease, the dietary modifications can significantly affect the quality of their lives (eg, no pizza with friends, no cake and ice cream at birthday parties, and no on-the-go diet favored by teens).
An organ in your upper belly, called the pancreas, makes and releases a hormone called insulin when it detects glucose. A person with other medical problems or HHNS complications may need to stay in the hospital much longer.
His parents and school worked with a pediatric psychologist to establish a positive behavioral system that resolved Timmy’s behavior problems. Your body uses insulin to help move the glucose from the bloodstream into the cells for energy. When your body does not make insulin (type 1 diabetes), or has trouble using insulin (type 2 diabetes), glucose cannot get into your cells.
As you lose fluids, your blood becomes thicker and your blood sugar level gets too high for the kidneys to be able to fix.
With the high blood sugar and dehydration there is also an imbalance of minerals, especially sodium and potassium in the blood. Too much glucose in your blood (also called hyperglycemia or high blood sugar) can cause many problems. The imbalance of fluids, glucose, and minerals in the body can lead to severe problems, such as brain swelling, abnormal heart rhythms, seizures, coma, or organ failure.



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