If you've been following the trend in diabetes, it will not surprise you to know diabetes continues to rise, unabated, around the world.
Type 2 diabetes, which many consider an epidemic currently, is increasing worldwide predominantly due to poor diet, sedentary lifestyle and the fact that we are living longer. Leonor Guariguata, IDF biostatistician and coordinator for the Diabetes Atlas, told me via email something shocking.
Already, diabetes extracts a high cost in health care dollars, economies' financial stability, lost productivity, and it destroys lives and families.
Sir Michael Hirst, IDF President, told me via email that research shows one in 10 of the world's population will have diabetes by 2035. Diabetes imposes unacceptably high human, social and economic costs on countries at all income levels (p. Why are we willing to further erode our nation's economic progress with a stunning "ignore now, pay overwhelmingly later" game?
The refrain in public health is that, "People will make the healthy choice when the healthy choice is the easy choice." Guariguata agrees.
If diabetes is in your family, make sure everyone gets a fasting blood sugar test and see whether you have diabetes or Stage 1, pre-diabetes. Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes (Williams textbook of endocrinology).
The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet. If you have Type 1 and follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life. As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly. As smoking might have a serious effect on cardiovascular health, diabetics should stop smoking.
The body does not produce Insulin.Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes.
Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. Between 2001 and 2009, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes among the under 20s in the USA rose 23%, according to SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth data issued by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance). Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels. Overweight and obese people have a much higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those with a healthy body weight. Being overweight, physically inactive and eating the wrong foods all contribute to our risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Drinking just one can of (non-diet) soda per day can raise our risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 22%, researchers from Imperial College London reported in the journal Diabetologia. Men whose testosterone levels are low have been found to have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet. Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Harvard University found that women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in cholesterol and animal fats.
Studies have indicated that even at the prediabetes stage, some damage to the circulatory system and the heart may already have occurred.
A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated (hyperglycemia).
In 1675, Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. In ancient China people observed that ants would be attracted to some people’s urine, because it was sweet. Researchers from the Mayo Clinic Arizona in Scottsdale showed that gastric bypass surgery can reverse type 2 diabetes in a high proportion of patients.
Patients with type 1 are treated with regular insulin injections, as well as a special diet and exercise. Patients with Type 2 diabetes are usually treated with tablets, exercise and a special diet, but sometimes insulin injections are also required. If diabetes is not adequately controlled the patient has a significantly higher risk of developing complications. Neuropathy – diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage which can lead to several different problems.
HHNS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome) – blood glucose levels shoot up too high, and there are no ketones present in the blood or urine. It is possible to have diabetes with only very mild symptoms or without developing any symptoms at all. A condition known as prediabetes that often leads to type 2 diabetes also produces no symptoms. The most common symptoms are related to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), especially the classic symptoms of diabetes: frequent urination and thirst.
If your insulin is ineffective, or not there at all, your kidneys cannot filter the glucose back into the blood. As the insulin in your blood is not working properly, or is not there at all, and your cells are not getting their energy, your body may react by trying to find more energy – food. If your insulin is not working properly, or is not there at all, glucose will not be entering your cells and providing them with energy. If you are over 50 and experience frequent or constant sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction), it could be a symptom of diabetes.
If there is too much sugar in your body your nerves could become damaged, as could the tiny blood vessels that feed those nerves. Diabetes can often be detected by carrying out a urine test, which finds out whether excess glucose is present.
If you are worried that you may have some of the above symptoms, you are recommended to talk to your Doctor or a qualified health professional.
Statistics from the 2014 USA national diabetes fact sheet from the CDC’sNational Diabetes Report.
Researchers from the Jefferson School of Population Health (Philadelphia, PA) published a study which estimates that by 2025 there could be 53.1 million people with diabetes.
About 8.1 million people with diabetes have not been diagnosed (a rise from 7 million in 2011). In the United Kingdom there are about 3.8 million people with diabetes, according to the National Health Service.
Diabetes is rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia as people embrace American fast foods, such as hamburgers, hot dogs, French fries and pizza. Diabetes is a nuisance, but not serious – two thirds of diabetes patients die prematurely from stroke or heart disease. I know when my blood sugar levels are high or low – very high or low blood sugar levels may cause some symptoms, such as weakness, fatigue and extreme thirst. High blood sugar levels are fine for some, while for others they are a sign of diabetes – high blood-sugar levels are never normal for anybody.
Diabetics cannot eat bread, potatoes or pasta – people with diabetes can eat starchy foods.
If you have diabetes you cannot eat chocolates or sweets – people with diabetes can eat chocolates and sweets if they combine them with exercise or eat them as part of a healthy meal. Diabetes patients are more susceptible to colds and illnesses in general – a person with diabetes with good diabetes control is no more likely to become ill with a cold or something else than other people. Before tests are conducted, a diagnosis may be suspected when patients report certain symptoms.
Testing can be part of routine screening for people at risk of the disease, who may show up as having prediabetes.
History of gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or delivering a baby over 9 lbs. Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) – a test used less frequently that measures levels before and 2 hours after consuming a sweet drink (concentrated glucose solution). Unless the clinical picture is clear, a positive blood test should also be repeated to rule out laboratory error. Urine tests are no longer used to make a diagnosis of diabetes, although they were once common.
A urine sample may be used, however, to test for ketones, particularly in people with type 1 diabetes who exhibit certain symptoms.
While type 2 diabetes is often preventable, type 1 diabetes mellitus is not.1 Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys cells in the pancreas. Insulin production becomes inadequate for the control of blood glucose levels due to the gradual destruction of beta cells in the pancreas.
When it develops later in life, type 1 diabetes can be mistaken initially for type 2 diabetes.
The gradual destruction of beta cells in the pancreas that eventually results in the onset of type 1 diabetes is the result of autoimmune destruction.
Susceptibility genes – some of which are carried by over 90% of patients with type 1 diabetes. Autoantigens – proteins thought to be released or exposed during normal pancreas beta cell turnover or injury such as that caused by infection.
Diet – infant exposure to dairy products, high nitrates in drinking water and low vitamin D intake have also been linked to the development of type 1 diabetes.
Health care professionals usually teach people with type 1 diabetes to self-manage the condition.
Type 1 diabetes always requires insulin treatment and an insulin pump or daily injections will be a lifelong requirement to keep blood sugar levels under control. After the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, health care providers will help patients learn how to self-monitor via finger stick testing, the signs ofhypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and other diabetic complications. As with other forms of diabetes, nutrition and physical activity and exercise are important elements of the lifestyle management of the disease.
Unlike type 1 diabetes which currently cannot be prevented, many of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes can be modified.
Obesity can lead to insulin resistance – often the precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity and weight gain are important factors that lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, with genetics, diet, exercise and lifestyle all playing a part.
As with other forms of diabetes, nutrition and physical activity and exercise are important elements of the lifestyle management of the condition.
High blood glucose levels are damaging to blood vessels and can increase the likelihood of them narrowing through atherosclerosis. Most people with diabetic retinopathy do not lose their vision, but blindness is nonetheless a risk.
The phenomenon can also affect the hands, but it is the feet that are most commonly affected. The key to preventing foot complications is to monitor the feet so that problems are spotted at the first opportunity. Disease of the large blood vessels caused by diabetes can lead to angina, transient ischemic attacks or stroke, heart attack and peripheral arterial disease. Screening, history and physical examination diagnose macrovascular disease, and treatment includes tight control of blood sugar levels as well as lipid- and blood pressure-lowering therapies.
Adults with diabetes are two-to-four times more likely to have heart disease or a stroke than those without diabetes.
Measures to keep control of glucose levels, in addition to drugs or insulin treatment, include exercise and diet. As discussed above, close monitoring of health so that potential complications are spotted at the first opportunity is also a preventive measure, including specific checks for the eyes and feet. Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). The pancreas is responsible for controlling the body’s sugar levels and sits near the stomach in the abdomen. Glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin so that the rate of glucose production by the liver is matched by the rate of use by the cells.
In healthy individuals, the role of insulin is to keep a steady blood glucose level by ensuring sufficient release from the liver. The importance of insulin for maintaining blood glucose levels is mainly due to this effect on liver storage and release. Type 2 diabetes has a number of drug treatment options to be taken by mouth known as oral antihyperglycemic drugs or oral hypoglycemic drugs. People with type 1 diabetes cannot use oral pills for treatment, and must instead take insulin. Metformin is the most widely used oral antihyperglycemic drug and reduces the amount of glucose released by the liver into the bloodstream. Each class of antihyperglycemic drug has a different adverse event or safety profile, and side effects are the main consideration when it comes to choosing a medication. Possible side effects range from weight gain, through gastrointestinal ones such as diarrhea, to pancreatitis and more serious problems. Metformin is usually the first treatment offered, however, and it is the most widely used oral antihyperglycemic. This drug is a low-cost antihyperglycemic with mild side effects that can include diarrhea and abdominal cramping.
In the UK, rosiglitazone was withdrawn from the market over concerns about adverse events.4 In 2015, it remains available in the US, with information on its safety provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Also known as gliptins, DPP4 inhibitors have a number of effects, including stimulating pancreatic insulin (by preventing the breakdown of the hormone GLP-1). Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors include canagliflozin and dapagliflozin.
Alongside exercise, a healthy diet is an important element of the lifestyle management of diabetes, as well as being preventive against the onset of type 2 diabetes. Try drinking water or tea and coffee instead of sugary drinks and avoid adding sugar to hot drinks. Drink alcohol only in moderation – as a guide, no more than one drink a day for women and no more than two for men. In the US, the Community Preventive Services Task Force run diabetes prevention programs that help with improving diet for people at risk of, or newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Alongside diet, exercise is an important element of the lifestyle management of diabetes, as well as being preventive against the onset of type 2 diabetes. Before embarking on any new exercise activity, it is worth discussing it first with a health care professional, especially if there are any diabetes complications present.
Physical activity also raises the use of glucose by muscles and so can lower blood glucose levels.
Although some experts consider aerobic exercise to be best, lower-intensity exercise such as swimming can be just as beneficial.
In the US, the Community Preventive Services Task Force run diabetes prevention programs that help with increasing exercise and improving diet for people at risk of, or newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Some experts consider aerobic exercise to be best, in which the heart rate and rate of breathing go up considerably.3 Lower-intensity exercise such as swimming is as much of an option for keeping healthy as higher-impact exercise such as running, however. The American Heart Association has an easy-to-remember general recommendation for exercise goals – take part in 30 minutes of moderate exercise on 5 days of the week, reaching a total of 150 minutes a week. Physical activity increases the use of glucose, so patients who experience symptoms of hypoglycemia during exercise need to monitor their blood glucose and increase carbohydrate intake or lower their insulin dose accordingly. This video, by YourUpdate, discusses a randomized control trial that found that both aerobic exercise and resistance exercise improved blood sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes.
As a pediatric endocrinologist, I find the sharp increase in type 2 diabetes cases among children truly alarming.
Not too long ago, pediatricians considered type 2 diabetes in children an anomaly—accounting for only 1 or 2 percent of all pediatric diabetes cases. The best way to help these children is by implementing an early action plan, making it imperative that pediatricians know the best treatment options and practices available. Help for these doctors has recently arrived in the form of the first-ever guidelines written for children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes, issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Further complicating diagnosis, children with type 2 diabetes can be just as sick as type 1 patients at diagnosis. 2. In other situations, newly diagnosed children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes should initiate lifestyle modifications, including diet changes (using the Pediatric Weight Management Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guidelines) and exercise, and start Metformin as a first-line therapy.
Starting newly diagnosed type 2 children on a healthy path as soon as possible is a key to treatment success. If treatment goals for nutrition education and exercise are not met, pharmacologic therapy is warranted.
Metformin has the added advantage of helping with weight reduction and improving lipid profiles. 3. Monitor HbA1c every three months and intensify goals for monitoring blood glucose levels if treatment goals are not being met.
Although prevention is always preferable to cure, the recent advances in diabetes treatment offer great promise of improved, if not ideal, glycemic control and associated health-related benefits, thus reducing or preventing the long-term complications of diabetes in this population. Guidance from the AAP provides a much-needed road map—which should be augmented with continued research and persistent attention to this growing population. Click on picture of Borneo to enlarge to see the change in Orangutan population from 1930 – 2004. That despite being a non-communicable disease, where there are changes in risk factors and environments, diabetes will spread from one community to the other, essentially acting like a communicable disease.
14) of diabetes deaths are in people under 60 years old, handicapping Africa's ability for development. In every respect -- human, financial, societal -- the burden of diabetes is, and is becoming, crippling. Put pressure on your policy makers to vote for health, and create a healthier lifestyle for yourself and your family. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet. People with a lot of visceral fat, also known as central obesity, belly fat, or abdominal obesity, are especially at risk. The scientists believe that the impact of sugary soft drinks on diabetes risk may be a direct one, rather than simply an influence on body weight. Experts are not completely sure why, but say that as we age we tend to put on weight and become less physically active.
Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, say that low testosterone levels are linked to insulin resistance. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose. Between 10% to 20% of them will need to take some kind of blood-glucose-controlling medications.
Their blood glucose levels where higher than normal, but not high enough to merit a diabetes diagnosis. After eating, the pancreas automatically releases an adequate quantity of insulin to move the glucose present in our blood into the cells, as soon as glucose enters the cells blood-glucose levels drop.
This is because the body either does not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin, or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produces. They added that within three to five years the disease recurs in approximately 21% of them. The kidneys will take water from your blood in order to dilute the glucose – which in turn fills up your bladder. As your body is not making insulin it will seek out another energy source (the cells aren’t getting glucose). Women with diabetes find it especially difficult to recover from bladder and vaginal infections. This is normally backed up by a blood test, which measures blood glucose levels and can confirm if the cause of your symptoms is diabetes. Diabetes UK, a charity, believes this number will jump to 6.2 million by 2035, and the National Health Service will be spending as much as 17% of its health care budget on diabetes by then.
More Chinese adults who live in Singapore are dying of heart disease and developing type 2 diabetes than ever before, researchers from the University of Minnesota School of Public Health and the National University of Singapore reported in the journal Circulation. There was a 80% higher likelihood of dying from coronary heart disease for those eating fast foods four times per week. It is important that people with diabetes, pre-diabetes, their loved ones, employers and schools have an accurate picture of the disease. Being overweight or obese raises the risk of becoming diabetic, they are risk factors, but do not mean that an obese person will definitely become diabetic.
The life expectancy of a person with diabetes is from five to ten years shorter than other people’s. Nearly all children with diabetes have type 1; insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas have been destroyed. A person with diabetes type 1 developed the disease because their immune system destroyed the insulin-producing beta cells.
Meals should contain plenty of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and they should be low in salt and sugar, and saturated or trans fat. Some illnesses, mental stress and steroids can cause temporary hikes in blood sugar levels in people without diabetes.
However, when a diabetic catches a cold, their diabetes becomes harder to control, so they have a higher risk of complication. Because of the loss of sensation for heat, cold or pain, and a lack of attention given to the feet, they are at risk from injury, wounds, blisters or ulcers going unnoticed. The pharmaceutical company-produced animation also explains insulin’s role in diabetes. Metformin is a sensitizer in the class known as biguanides; it works by reducing the amount of glucose released by the liver into the bloodstream and increasing cellular response to insulin. In the case of sulphonylureas, the choice depends on daily dosing and the level of side effects.
These drugs can have the side effects of weight gain or swelling and are associated with increased risks of heart disease and stroke, bladder cancer and fractures. Please download the latest version of the Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, or Windows Internet Explorer browser. One study showed that children who became obese as early as age 2 were more likely to be obese as adults. Now, government statistics indicate that as many as one in three children diagnosed with diabetes has type 2 diabetes, and the U.S.
In the past, a child with diabetes usually had type 1 and was often thin, had no family history of diabetes and presented at diagnosis in ketoacidosis (DKA). They may present with elevated HbA1Cs, in DKA and with ketonurea (an excess of ketones in the urine).
Exercise suggestions include encouraging children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes to engage in moderate to vigorous exercise for at least 60 minutes daily and to limit nonacademic “screen time” to less than two hours daily. The entire family must work together to create an environment with healthy food choices and daily physical activity. The only oral agent approved for use in the pediatric population is Metformin, which is used in both adults and children to reduce blood glucose levels.
However, treatment with Metformin also may normalize ovulatory abnormalities in girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome and increase the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Patients should be advised to monitor BG levels if they are taking insulin or other medications that have a risk of hypoglycemia, are initiating or changing their diabetes treatment regimen, have not met treatment goals or have an additional illness.
For this reason it is important that pediatric type 2 patients correctly monitor blood sugar levels. Because diabetes can be a lifelong condition whose deleterious effects increase over time, it is critical that these guidelines be followed closely.
Like the child and his brother in Africa who walk four hours in no shoes once a week to get insulin from the one clinic. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can raise the risk of complications during childbirth. However, glucose cannot enter our cells without insulin being present – insulin makes it possible for our cells to take in the glucose. Type 2 usually lasts a lifetime, however, some people have managed to get rid of their symptoms without medication, through a combination of exercise, diet and body weight control.
Exercise helps manage body weight, improves cardiovascular health, improves mood, helps blood sugar control, and relieves stress.
Experts say that there is no need to buy special diabetic foods because they offer no special benefit, compared to the healthy things we can buy in most shops. Anybody with higher-than-normal blood sugar levels or sugar in their urine should be checked for diabetes by a health care professional. A parent may pass on, through their genes to their offspring, a higher susceptibility to developing the disease. Experts say that this is linked to the explosion in childhood obesity rates, poor diet, and physical inactivity. Meglitinides are associated with a higher chance of hypoglycemia and must be taken with meals three times a day. According to an article in the New York Times all of these health effects are contributing to a shorter lifespan of five years for these obese children.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that about 3,600 more children are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes each year.
Now, as many as 24 percent of children with type 1 may be overweight at the time of diagnosis, like their type 2 counterparts. Therefore, it is extremely important that precautions be taken; when the diagnosis is not clear, the patient should be kept on insulin.
It is important that doctors educate the family and equally important that family members provide positive reinforcement and make overall family health a higher priority. Therefore, preconception and pregnancy counseling should also be part of the treatment regimen for all girls and women of childbearing age with type 2 diabetes.
This information, obtained before and after meals, at the fasting state and before bed, can help doctors make changes in medications, diet and physical activity until treatment goals are met. Still, it’s important to stress that these are only guidelines, and doctors and families need to work as a team to provide individualized care for these children and adolescents. Or the young wife in India who has sold all the family possessions to buy her husband medicine and nurse him. Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood – it is the principal source of fuel for our bodies.
As Type 1 is of a more sudden onset and Type 2 is much more gradual, weight loss is more noticeable with Type 1.
Children with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin for the rest of their lives, unless a cure is found one day. Researchers from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark showed that even very slight rises in blood-glucose levels significantly raise the risk of ischemic heart disease.
It is the first time in two centuries that the current generation of children in America may have a shorter life span than their parents.
Most are nonwhite, between 10 and 19 years old and medically obese, and report having a family history of type 2 diabetes.
Insulin ensures that the patient returns to having normal glucose levels as soon as possible regardless of the type of diabetes. Or my neighbor's Type 2 diabetes that has caused her health to fail dramatically so for days she doesn't leave the apartment. So, even though the blood has plenty of glucose, the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirements. It’s important that pediatricians explain to parents that it is safe for their children to take insulin and that it might be needed only temporarily until a definitive diagnosis is confirmed.
Type 1 diabetes cure april 2014 online|
Type 2 diabetes natural cure