Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Another study being done this year by Cancer Research UK is testing exercise as a treatment for prostate cancer. Research earlier this year from Harvard Medical School states that 20-40% of cancer diagnosis and 50% of all deaths from cancer could be prevented by adopting 4 healthy lifestyle factors. Researchers at the University of Oregon have found that histamines have another important function. Following hard exercise 3000 genes go to work boosting muscles and blood vessels response to help with recovery. Researchers also found taking anti-histamines before exercise didn’t have the same effect, so if you need to take one, before exercise might be best to get all the benefits of your hard work.
Did you know that if you hold three grapefruits in one hand and three tangerines in the other,  the grapefruits are about the same size as 5 pounds of fat and the tangerines about the size of 5 pounds of muscle? This week researchers found that the more people sit the greater the risk of having calcium deposits in the arteries of their heart. Next time you find yourself doing repetitive tasks alternate with a minute of exercise or meditation, both natural ways to increase dopamine, as is sunlight, massage and sleep. Exercise helps prevent certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, depression, osteoporosis and more. Recently the British Medical Journal suggested that food labels should include activity equivalents, in other words, this is how much exercise you need to do to burn off these calories. I can also tell you that education about the benefits of weight loss doesn’t matter when it comes to helping people lose weight.
Exercise improves your mood in the short term and the long term.  Ask your doctor if exercise is right for you. I have used running for weight loss, my sanity, adventure, to socialize, for meditation, to explore, to blow off steam. When researchers injected the cells with adrenaline, or natural killer cells, they were not as effective as when stimulated by exercise and did not stop or slow cancer growth. Being physically active reduces your risk of type 2 diabetes by 43%, high blood pressure by 26% and osteoporosis by 36%. Eating poorly and not exercising increases cellular senescence and age related conditions in mice. Exercise is so important in slowing down the accumulation of senescent cells that even when mice were being fed a typical processed food diet of high saturated fat, cholesterol and sugary drinks were better off when they were able to exercise.
Heart disease, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, osteoporosis and other diseases associated with aging can be modified with regular exercise.
The four habits are moderate exercise, proper nutrition, a recommended body fat percentage and not smoking. These four basic habits are critical to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, many types of cancer and diabetes. According to the Diabetes Atlas the global cost to prevent and treat diabetes and complications will be $490 billion US dollars in 2030. Diet, exercise, and education remain the foundation of any type 2 diabetes treatment program.
Ultimately, many patients will require insulin therapy alone or in combination with other agents to maintain glucose control. The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes have updated guidelines on the management of hyperglycemia in nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes. The novel position statement on the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes was necessary because since the last similar treatment algorithm, which is more than 3 years old, a lot of new insights have been generated that required an update. According to the ADA, to reduce the incidence of macrovascular disease, HbA1c should be lowered to less than 7% in most patients. For strong recommendations in favour (or against) certain diabetes medications, the evidence is not strong enough; choices and preferences will differ with different patients, their characteristics and attitudes. Several therapeutic options were discussed, including lifestyle interventions to change physical activity levels and food intake; oral agents and noninsulin injectables, as well as insulin. The second step can be a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, it can be a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, it can be a thiazolidinedione, it can be a sulfonylurea agent, or it could be basal insulin. If a patient needs a more intensive insulin regimen, then it is recommended to add 1 or 2 - maybe even 3 - doses of mealtime insulin.
The position statement lists all commonly used medications with all their properties (positive and negative), and gives all the information to make good choices based on priorities (ie, avoiding hypoglycemia at all costs) and preferences. Overall, comparative evidence for antihyperglycemic treatment of type 2 diabetes is lacking, and there is a considerable need for high-quality, comparative-effectiveness research on costs and outcomes important to patients, including quality of life and the avoidance of life-limiting complications such as cardiovascular disease.
Because of the rapid change in lifestyle in China, there is concern that diabetes may become epidemic.
A nationally representative sample of 46,239 adults, 20 years of age or older, from 14 provinces and municipalities participated in the study. These results indicate that diabetes has become a major public health problem in China and that strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes are needed. In an editorial comment in the European Heart Journal, some opinion leaders indicate what might be the reasons for the failure of the dal-HEART programme.Both the on-treatment vascular effects and the underlying molecular mechanism causing increased HDL-c are important in determining the vascular effects of an HDL-c raising therapy.
The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study assessed how to manage diabetes in children and adolescents.
The China National Survey of Chronic Kidney disease was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of CKD and associated factors in Chinese adults between 2007 and 2010.CKD has become an important public health issue in China, maybe as a consequence of increased diabetes and hypertension. DPP-4 inhibitors can be used as second line treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes who do not achieve their glycaemic targets with metformin alone. The study was set up to determine all cause mortality and deaths from cardiovascular events related to intensive glucose lowering treatment in people with type 2 diabetes.
In GPRD data, current use of sulphonylureas only (with active or inactive metabolites) was associated with an increased risk of hypoglycaemic events, as compared with current use of metformin.
Recent outcome trials of novel antidiabetic drugs shed new light on why diabetes patients develop heart disease. Out of 18 biomarkers, Lp-PLA2 and adiponectin were independently associated with a decreased risk for T2DM.
In females with gestational diabetes, the future risk of developing type 2 diabetes depends on certain pregnancy-related and maternal factors that could be used for postnatal counselling.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic and systemic metabolic disorder distinguished by high blood glucose (hyperglycemia), insulin resistance, and insulin deficiency. The individual with Type 2 Diabetes typically goes undiagnosed for years because the onset is gradual and signs of hyperglycemia is not noticed. The long-term presence of type 2 diabetes impacts the large and small blood vessels and nerves throughout the body. The insulin signaling pathway refers to the complex biological process of insulin reacting with target cells such as muscle, fat, or liver cells and the resulting intracellular effects that result, leading to various functional effects observed at the multicellular level. Insulin works by binding its specific receptor on cell surfaces throughout the body, such as on liver, muscle or adipose cells.[5] The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase protein that undergoes autophosphorylation of its tyrosine residues that located on its cytoplasmic face once activated by insulin.
In total, the activation of the PI3K subpathway mediates several insulin-induced responses including GLUT4 activation, glycogen synthesis by inhibiting CSK-3 phosphorylation, and lipogenesis by up-regulation of fatty-acid synthase gene expression.


MAPK is other main subpathway that is activated after IRS-1 and 2 phosphorylation that begins with small adaptor proteins Grb2 and SHP2 that lead to further substrate activation downstream. Insulin-mediated Glucose transport is primarily accounted for through the translocation of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane, most of which is GLUT4 within muscle and adipose cells. Most of glucose that enters human muscle in response to insulin is desposited as Glycogen (see Carbohydrate Storage: Glycogen for more information). The biochemical process of glycolysis reverses many of the steps of Glycogenesis with different enzymes[64]. The Immune System of the human body is comprised of two different systems, the aquired immune system and innate immune system.
The innate immune system is the body’s first-line of defense against invaders including infections and physical or chemical injury.
Research has shown that circulating concentrations of acute-phase reactants is increased in type 2 diabetic patients when compared to nondiabetic subjects. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS)[37] investigated the relationships insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease in a multiethnic population across varying statuses of glucose tolerance.
Research indicates that increased ROS levels are associated with altered mitochondrial morphology in both myotubes cultured in high glucose conditions and in diet-induced diabetic mice.[16] In addition, increased oxidative stress in mitochondria may contribute to increased lipid peroxidation and damage to cell membranes and DNA. Apoptosis is a genetically directed process of cell self-destruction marked by the fragmentation of nuclear DNA.[45] It is a form of cell death during which a programmed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding area. Evidence suggests that the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria results from direct action of ROS on cardiolipin, a mitochondrial phospholipid which is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane.[17][52][53] During the early phase of apoptosis, mitochondrial ROS production is stimulated and cardiolipin is oxidized (loses electrons).
Although HbA1c is directly related to blood glucose levels, it is important to realize that blood glucose and HbA1c are not the same.
A portion of the metabolic stress seen in Type 2 Diabetes may originate from myocellular fat storage. A four month study investigating the relationship between insulin sensitivity (IS) and IMCL content in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) confirmed the relationship between IS and IMCL content seen in humans.
AMPK is a protein kinase, that combines signals to monitor and balance both systemic and cellular energy.
At times of high energy demand the ? subunit rapidly responds to changes in the AMP to ATP ratio to maintain energy balance. AMPK is activated by physical activity in such a way that increased intensity results in increased activation. Reduction of AMPK activity promotes the development of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, disturbs muscle energy balance during exercise, and decreases mitochondrial biogenesis (mitochondria’s ability to make ATP).[33] In insulin-resistant rodents, increased AMPK activity has been linked with improved blood glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and blood pressure.
Intense, physical exercise improves the quality of life for men with advanced prostate cancer.
Saad is now studying exercise, in addition to regular treatment, along with Professor Robert Newton, Co-Director at Edith Cowan University at Exercise Medicine Research Institute, who has designed a specific strength and cardiovascular training program for patients in the new trial. The four factors are not smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight, regular moderate to vigorous activity and avoiding alcohol. Southwestern University in Dallas, Texas has shown that each additional hour of being sedentary increases arterial calcification by 12%.
Researchers at UCLA have found that even if you already have heart disease, having more muscle as opposed to fat, lowers your mortality risk.
Researchers from the British Psychological Society believe there is a relationship between low levels of dopamine in our brain and reaching for the fatty snacks. Exercise is an effective treatment for high blood pressure, rheumatoid arthritis, menopause, chronic pain, asthma… well you should be getting the point.
But, does that mean that exercise is an anti-depressant or that only happier people exercise?
I can remember the day running felt fun, actual fun, while I was doing it, not fun because I felt so good after I had done it. We are well aware of the benefits that exercise has for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and many other conditions.
These cells are recruited by proteins in active muscle cells that slow or prevent cancer cell growth. So whatever your reason is to exercise, and they are all good ones, you can add stimulating your natural born killer cells as a reason to get out and get moving. This would save $2.6 billion dollars on treating high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and cancer from now until 2040. Regular physical activity, and it doesn’t have to be extreme, along with a healthy diet can reduce the effects of aging and keep you feeling young for a long time.
Obesity, diet and physical inactivity contribute to 20% of all cancers and are preventable. Combination therapy with an additional 1–2 oral or injectable agents is reasonable, aiming to minimize side effects where possible.
The update is based on new evidence of risks and benefits of glycemic control, evidence on safety and efficacy of new drug classes, the withdrawal and restriction of other drug classes and the increasing need for a more patient-centered approach to care. However, data from type 2 diabetes cardiovascular trials have demonstrated that not all patients benefit from aggressive glucose maintenance, again pointing toward a more individualized approach to treatment. In contrast to previous statements, the present one is based on a patient-centered approach. According to the guidelines, when it comes to prescribing oral agents and noninsulin injectables, agent- and patient-specific properties, such as dosing frequency, side effect profiles, cost and other benefits, are often used to guide drug selection. Anticipated glucose-lowering effects should be balanced with the convenience of the regimen, in the context of an individual’s specific therapy goals.
We conducted a national study from June 2007 through May 2008 to estimate the prevalence of diabetes among Chinese adults. Individuals commonly experience visual blurring, neuropathic complications, infections, fatigue and significant blood lipid abnormalities.[2][12] Type 2 Diabetes is typically diagnosed when the patient is receiving medical care for another problem.
Chronic hyperglycemia can lead to macrovascular disease, which affects the arteries supplying the heart, brain, and lower extremities.[2] Type 2 diabetes is also associated with the development of microvascular pathologies in the retina, renal glomerulus, and peripheral nerves.
Through PKB’s isoforms ?, ?, and ?, it plays role in mediating glycogen synthase kinase-3, metabolic actions of insulin, and Glut4 translocation.[8][66] It is debated whether PKB plays a significant role in insulin resistance with diabetes. Mounting evidence has shown that PI3k and PKB activation participate in the stimulation of p70 S6k. Insulin increases the transporters’ cycle to and from the cell surface by promoting exocytosis and inhibiting endocytosis. Insulin causes stable Glycogen Synthase (GS) activation by causing dephosphorylation at multiple sites within the enzyme. Through these three subpathways, the insulin signaling pathway promotes GS and glycogen synthesis. The aquired immune system is your immunity your body build up from being exposed to foreign invaders, and the innate immune system is the body's natural unspecific defense against new foreign invaders that the body has not built up immunity against. Participants demonstrated normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes mellitus.[37] Measures of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were obtained from all participants during two 4-hour visits, occurring approximately one week apart. Increased levels of ROS are a likely cause in a variety of pathophysiological conditions, including type 2 diabetes.[16] Oxidative stress to the mitochondria can come from many sources.


The amount of hemoglobin that forms HbA1c depends on the amount of glucose that hemoglobin is exposed to over time.[22],[23] For example, hemoglobin exposed to high levels of glucose for long periods of time results in greater amounts of glycation. The Diabetes Control Card is a quick reference for patients diagnosed with diabetes to assess glucose control. In muscle tissue, lipids are stored as either extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) or intramyocellular lipids (IMCL).
An obese Zucker diabetic fatty rat has significantly higher IMCL concentrations than its lean counterpart. AMPK phosphorylates TBC1D1 which increases activity of GLUT4, resulting in increased glucose uptake. These patients will participate in one hour of cardio and resistance training three times per week and be supervised for 12 months to prove that exercise extends the life of patients with metastic prostate cancer. The researchers believe that exercise affects the genes that regulate cancer cell growth and DNA repair.
Over production of histamines is an uncomfortable, and sometimes dangerous, allergic reaction.
Assisting in providing glucose, fuel for muscles, as well as help muscle change in response to exercise. We are so beautifully designed to store calories and save them for later, exercise will not result in weight loss. Confusion is not innovation. The Society also found that 44% of people find food packaging claims confusing. Men and women over 50, with major depression, were treated with drugs or exercise and the results were the same for both groups.
I had never been a runner, but as a university student it was an easy, and cheap, way to get some exercise. We also know that having extra body fat increases the likelihood of some types of cancer, but exercise offers a different protection, one not realized by weight loss.
Mayo Clinic researchers found that exercise prevents senescent cells from accumulating and even has a protective effect against an unhealthy diet.
The authors recommend combination therapy with the addition of one to two oral or injectable agents, with the goal of reducing side effects when possible.
The prevalence of diabetes was higher among urban residents than among rural residents (11.4% vs. Raf phosphorylates MEK, a dual-specificity kinase of tyrosine and threonine that activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).
It has been shown that tyrosine kinase activity and IRS-1-protein phosphorylation are two essential processes in normal glucose transport. PKB has also been shown to directly inhibit GSK-3, a well-known inhibitor of GS, thereby promoting GS. Ezymes responsible for Glycogenolysis 1 through 3 respectively: Glycogen phosphorylase, Phosphoglutomutase, Phosphoglutomutase, and Glucose-6 Phosphotase. ROS are produced in larger amounts by islet cells from patients with type 2 diabetes than by those from non-diabetic patients.[17] Although some ROS are produced in the peroxisomes, the major source of ROS production in cells is the mitochondria. This is directly related to continuous breakdown and replacement of erythrocytes in the body.
EMCL is metabolically static, but IMCL stores are built up, mobilized, and used within hours. Fred Saad, researcher at the University of Montreal, has shown that exercise has a DIRECT effect on cancer. The men participating in the UK study will have active surveillance of their cancer rather than surgery or radiation, in addition to exercise sessions.
The only way to gain and retain muscle is exercise and the best way to keep your muscles strong is resistance training. If we know that exercise does not equal weight loss how would this help people be less confused about weight loss? The researcher shows that aging at a cellular level can be accelerated, or prevented, depending on your actions.
Insulin therapy, whether alone or in combination, will ultimately be required to maintain glucose control for many patients. The MAPK pathway is well known within the insulin signaling cascade, but is not very sensitive to insulin or involved in most of the hormone’s important metabolic responses.[8] The MAPK subpathway has some evidence showing it functions to exert feedback regulation on the PI3k subpathway and is involved in the process of insulin resistance. The PI3k subpathway functions to mediate glut4 activation, glycogen synthesis, and lipogenesis. Within these pathways, PI3k, PKB, and the atypical PKCs play an particularly key roles in the process of glucose uptake into cells. MAPK has been implicated in activating GS through phosphorylation of p90 Ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (p90 rsk2) and glycogen bound protein phosphatase-1 (PP1G) downstream. The later branch is implicated GS promotion by inhibition of the well-established inhibitor of GS, GSK-3. During times of high glucose uptake, increased amounts of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) leads to an increase in glycogen synthesis. Researchers compared people who stretched for 30 minutes to those that jogged for 30 minutes and found that the joggers feel better even after watching sad movie scenes. I have been very dedicated while training for events or training other people for an event. Proving that aging isn’t just something that happens to you, but can be influenced with regular exercise and a healthy diet. The prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance was higher than that of isolated impaired fasting glucose (11.0% vs.
In contrast, the downstream constituents of PKB such as p70 S6k have been shown to have no immediate effects on glucose uptake.
PP1G has many phosphorylation sites that insulin has been shown to augment, but its exact role in GS promotion is not fully understood.
Lately I have been less dedicated, for various reasons, but I know as long as I can, I will run.
Recent research at the Mayo Clinic has proven that an unhealthy diet and no exercise speeds up the aging process. The MAPK subpathway may serve to regulate the PI3k subpathway and may be involved in insulin resistance, but more research is needed to prove this.
Indirect activators (metformin, dinitrophenol (DNP), and rotenone) work by increasing AMP:ATP ratio, compound C works by inhibiting activation of AICAR.
Saad says that even active patients often become sedentary once diagnosed and this affects cancer progression. But, they never asked why I kept turning up, always waited and seemed to not be bothered by the fact that I was much, much slower.



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