Injury to the tissues, infection (mostly of bacterial origin) and presence of any underlying health ailment that inflicts damage to the blood carrying vessel structure form the three key underlying mechanisms that are responsible for initiation and development of irreversible tissue damage and life threatening condition of gangrene. As already explained, one of the causes of gangrene in the toes and fingers is linked with damaged blood vessels.
High level of blood glucose associated with diabetes mellitus also damages the nerves (known as peripheral neuropathy), especially the nerves in the lower extremities.
The dullness or lack of sensation puts diabetic individuals at an increased risk of injuring the skin of their fingers or feet without having any realization (it mostly goes unnoticed in the feet region). The sore or foot ulcer formed takes an extended time to heal because of both, poor circulation of blood through the injured area as well as lesser number of defence cells. Bacterial infection also forms another causative factor that makes the diabetic individual more prone to developing gangrene. Such type of infection is marked by noticeable skin discolouration and dryness along with the formation of skin blisters. The weakened immune system (seen in diabetes) further raises the risk of incurring serious infection, which later develops, into gangrene.
From 1997 to 2011, the age-adjusted percentage of people aged 35 years or older with diabetes who reported having coronary heart disease, stroke, or other heart disease showed little or no change. Death of cell and tissue may target any part of the body, however, it has been typically observed in the extremities, such as the toes, fingers and hands. In both, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the raised level of sugar is capable of causing damage to the blood vessels and reducing blood supply. Owing to the nerve damage, the transmission of sensation, particularly those of pain to the brain gets impaired. A notorious bacterial organism, Clostridium perfringes is often linked with gas gangrene; after it attacks the site of injury or sometimes, surgical wound.
Data computed by personnel in the CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. As the disease progresses, some blood vessels that nourish the retina are blocked.Severe Nonproliferative Retinopathy.
In the absence of a continuous supply of nutrient and oxygen rich blood, the cells within the body begin to fail in carrying out their normal function and finally give up.
As a result of restricted blood circulation to the extremities, such as the feet, the area becomes deprived of those cells (white blood cells) which aid in fighting off any infection. Swelling and inflammation resulting from the infection causes the local temperature of the area involved to be slightly elevated, and also leads to pain.
These areas of the retina send signals to the body to grow abnormal and weak new blood vessels for nourishment.Proliferative Retinopathy. Your eye care professional can tell if you have macular edema or any stage of diabetic retinopathy.
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